March 9, 2015 Unit A: Life Science Chapter 1: How Plants Live and Grow Sequencing Many things have a certain order. When you place things in the

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1 March 9, 2015 Unit A: Life Science Chapter 1: How Plants Live and Grow Sequencing Many things have a certain order. When you place things in the correct order you are sequencing the items. When we talk about plant growth and life cycles, we put the steps in the correct sequence. You can use words such as first, then, next, and last to show the order. Lesson 1: What do roots, stems, and leaves do? Vocabulary 1. mineral- a natural, nonliving material that can be found in soil 2. carbon dioxide- a gas in the air that plants use to make food Plant roots grow down into the soil. The roots hold the plant tightly in the ground. The roots take water and minerals from the soil. The stems hold up the leaves, flowers, and fruit on a plant. Some stems grow straight up, like a tree. Other stems, like vines, grow along the ground. The stems have tiny tubes that carry water and minerals from the roots to the rest of the plant.

2 March 10, 2015 p A10 Lesson 1: continued Plant leaves can have different shapes and sizes. Green plants use energy from the sun to make a type of sugar for food. The sugar is stored in the roots, stems, and leaves. Photosynthesis is the name for a plant making food. Steps for photosynthesis > Step 1: The roots take in water from the soil. The water travels up the stem into the leaves. > Step 2: The leaves take in a gas called carbon dioxide. > Step 3: The leaves use energy from the sun to change the water and carbon dioxide into sugar and oxygen. > Step 4: The plant uses some sugar and saves the rest. The oxygen leaves the plant and goes into the air.

3 March 11, 2015 p A14 Lesson 2: What do flowers and cones do? Vocabulary 1. petal- outside part of a flower that is often colored 2. pollen- fine, yellowish powder in a flower 3. pollinate- to carry pollen to the stemlike part of a flower Petals are the outside part of flowers. Pollen is made at the end of the stemlike part of the flower. When pollen moves from the stemlike part to the center of the flower, seeds can begin to form. This is called pollination. Seeds are formed inside the center of the flower. As seeds grow, the center of the flower forms a fruit to protect the seeds. As the fruit grows, the petals dry up and fall off. The seeds in fruit can be planted to form new plants.

4 March 12, 2015 Lesson 2 continued Birds, insects, and the wind help pollinate flowers. When birds and insects land on flowers, pollen sticks to them and they carry the pollen to another flower. The wind blows pollen from one flower to another. Cones, like flowers, form seeds through pollination. In dry weather, the cones open and let the seeds fall out. Evergreen trees like Pine and Fir keep their leaves all year and make cones. Their leaves look like needles.

5 March 16, 2015 p A20 Lesson 3: How do plants grow from seeds? Vocabulary 1. seed coat- outside covering of a seed 2. seed leaf- the part inside each seed that contains stored food 3. life cycle- stages in the life of a living thing 4. germinate- the seed begins to grow and develop 5. seedling- young plant that grows from a seed 6. conifer- a tree or shrub that has cones Seeds come in many shapes, sizes, colors, and patterns. Seeds are all alike because they grow into new plants and have the same parts. The thin, hard outer covering to protect the seed is the seed coat. The food is stored in the seed leaf. The developing plant inside the seed uses this food. Some seeds fall right by the plant. Some seeds are scattered and have more room to grow. The wind scatters seeds. Water also scatters seeds. Animals scatter seeds.

6 March 17, 2015 Lesson 3: continued All living things have a life cycle. A life cycle shows a living thing's life from beginning to end. A flowering plants life cycle is: > Stage 1: seed- the seed grows in the pollinated flower. Then it falls to the ground and forms the beginning of the life cycle. > Stage 2: germination- A seed germinates when it starts to grow. The seed coat splits open and the plant comes out. > Stage 3: seedling- the plant is a young plant starting to grow. > Stage 4: adult- the plant is fully grown and can pollinate to make new plants.

7 March 18, 2015 Lesson 3: continued A conifer is a plant that has cones. These are known as evergreens. Conifers keep their leaves all year and produce seeds in the cones. The life cycle of a conifer is: > Stage 1: seeds- the brown, woody scales of the cone open and let the seeds fall out. > Stage 2: germination- some seeds begin to germinate, but others are scattered or eaten. > Stage 3: seedling- The young plant begins to grow > Stage 4: growth- The tree becomes fully grown. > Stage 5: Cone development and pollination- In the spring, cones form. There are male cones with pollen. The pollen travels to the female cones to make seeds. The seeds grow in the cone and begin the cycle again.

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