The Importance of Play: Toddler to School-Age

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1 The Importance of Play: Toddler to School-Age

2 Copyright Copyright Texas Education Agency, These Materials are copyrighted and trademarked as the property of the Texas Education Agency (TEA) and may not be reproduced without the express written permission of TEA, except under the following conditions: 1) Texas public school districts, charter schools, and Education Service Centers may reproduce and use copies of the Materials and Related Materials for the districts and schools educational use without obtaining permission from TEA. 2) Residents of the state of Texas may reproduce and use copies of the Materials and Related Materials for individual personal use only, without obtaining written permission of TEA. 3) Any portion reproduced must be reproduced in its entirety and remain unedited, unaltered and unchanged in any way. 4) No monetary charge can be made for the reproduced materials or any document containing them; however, a reasonable charge to cover only the cost of reproduction and distribution may be charged. Private entities or persons located in Texas that are not Texas public school districts, Texas Education Service Centers, or Texas charter schools or any entity, whether public or private, educational or non-educational, located outside the state of Texas MUST obtain written approval from TEA and will be required to enter into a license agreement that may involve the payment of a licensing fee or a royalty. For information contact: Office of Copyrights, Trademarks, License Agreements, and Royalties, Texas Education Agency, 1701 N. Congress Ave., Austin, TX ; phone ; 2

3 Types of Play Solitary Play Parallel Play 3

4 Types of Play Associative Play Cooperative Play 4

5 Teaching Strategies for Toddlers from Twelve to Eighteen Months Caregiver Strategy Physical Development Objective Helps toddlers develop large muscle coordination and balance Encourage large and small muscle development Encourage eye-hand coordination 5

6 Teaching Strategies for Toddlers from Twelve to Eighteen Months Caregiver Strategy Encourage use of climbing equipment, such as inclines or sturdy boxes Provide a safe area and a target for toddlers to throw small, soft objects Put toys and objects where they can reach, grasp, and move them Physical Development Objective Helps toddlers develop large muscle coordination and balance Encourage large and small muscle development Encourage eye-hand coordination 6

7 Teaching Strategies for Toddlers from Twelve to Eighteen Months Emotional Development Caregiver Strategy Consistently smile and laugh to show happiness. Use a firm voice and no smile to show anger Provide opportunities and props for acting out fear, insecurity, joy, and anger Objective Helps toddlers develop confidence in recognizing emotions in others Encourage toddlers to express emotions and resolve conflicts 7

8 Teaching Strategies for Toddlers from Twelve to Eighteen Months Caregiver Strategy Provide ample materials and toys so sharing may be encouraged but not required Social Development Objective Helps toddlers develop a positive self-concept 8

9 Teaching Strategies for Toddlers from Twelve to Eighteen Months Caregiver Strategy Cognitive Development Objective Helps toddlers develop concept of object permanence. Encourage toddlers to investigate cause and effect relationships Helps toddlers develop vocabulary and encourage talking 9

10 Teaching Strategies for Toddlers from Twelve to Eighteen Months Caregiver Strategy Hide toys while toddlers watch. Ask them to find the toys. Praise successful efforts. Provide time and materials that encourage toddlers to search and identify the cause of certain actions, such as rolling a ball under a chair Play sound games. Point out a picture of an animal and make the sound it makes Cognitive Development Objective Helps toddlers develop concept of object permanence. Encourage toddlers to investigate cause and effect relationships Helps toddlers develop vocabulary and encourage talking 10

11 Toddlers from Eighteen to Twenty- Four Months Toddlers in this age group gain more control over large muscles and continue to develop fine motor skills. 11

12 Teaching Strategies for Toddlers from Eighteen to Twenty-Four Months Caregiver Strategy Physical Development Objective Encourage large muscle control and coordination Encourage large muscle control and coordination. Helps toddlers develop balance Help toddlers develop small muscle control and coordination Encourage small muscle skills and creativity 12

13 Teaching Strategies for Toddlers from Eighteen to Twenty-Four Months Caregiver Strategy Provide an area for kicking a ball into a cardboard box or a corner Provide a space for fast and slow riding of cycles, turning curves, and riding in circles Provides materials, such as zipper boards and jars with lids, to stimulate manipulation Provide markers and crayons Physical Development Objective Encourage large muscle control and coordination Encourage large muscle control and coordination. Helps toddlers develop balance Help toddlers develop small muscle control and coordination Encourage small muscle skills and creativity 13

14 Teaching Strategies for Toddlers from Eighteen to Twenty-Four Months Emotional Development Caregiver Strategy Communicate verbally and nonverbally to toddlers during playtime Listen to toddlers fears and fantasies Allow toddlers to show intense swings in emotions and behavior Objective Encourage self-expression of emotions and develop self-esteem Help toddlers develop self-esteem Help toddlers develop self-esteem and encourage emotional expression and self-control of behavior 14

15 Teaching Strategies for Toddlers from Eighteen to Twenty-Four Months Caregiver Strategy Understand that toddlers think that others feel and think as they do Social Development Objective Encourage a positive self-image and help establish identity Help the toddler identify and express verbally the feelings others show in their behavior Encourages awareness of others and their feelings Encourage and work beside toddlers who want to help clean up Encourage desirable social traits 15

16 Teaching Strategies for Toddlers from Eighteen to Twenty-Four Months Caregiver Strategy Allow toddler time to work out solutions to puzzles Identify ideas or themes in toddlers symbolic play that seem important to them Cognitive and Language Development Objective Help toddlers develop use of mental trial and error skills Help identify areas important to fulfilling the toddlers needs Recognize meanings of toddlers use of words Patiently answer toddlers questions in simple, clear, short sentences Provide insight into the toddlers meaning of different words and concepts Help toddlers develop proper language skills through imitation of positive model 16

17 Child s Telescope Cognitive Connections Classification Recognition Language and vocabulary Joint attention Perspective taking 17

18 Teaching Strategies for Toddlers from Twenty-Four to Thirty Months Physical Development Emotional Development Social Development Cognitive and Language Development months 18

19 Teaching Strategies for Toddlers from Twenty-Four to Thirty Months Physical Development Emotional Development Social Development Cognitive and Language Development months Play games with toddlers Provide activities where toddlers can succeed Provide materials that require sharing Allow toddlers to create their own classifications of actions, objects, or behaviors 19

20 Child s Puppets Cognitive Connections Imagination Abstract thinking Language Sequencing 20

21 Teaching Strategies for Toddlers from Thirty to Thirty-Six Months Physical Development Emotional Development Social Development Cognitive and Language Development months Play games and sing songs which include jumping, clapping, running in place, and walking Reinforce toddlers excitement with learning Use daily routines to help control wait time Have toddlers use art to represent objects, feelings, or ideas 21

22 Play, Literacy, and Development for Toddlers Math Science Physical movement Outdoor play Art Music 22

23 Role of Play in Growth and Development of the Preschool Child Play is the work of children Playing for children is learning Offer a variety of different learning activities 23

24 Language and General Knowledge for Preschoolers Provide your child opportunities to play 24

25 Language and General Knowledge for Preschoolers Support and guide your child as he or she learns a new activity 25

26 Appropriate Development Activities for School-Age Children Appropriate development activities for school-age children should include several strategies. These children are: learning to see things from the viewpoint of others using deductive and inductive reasoning noting transformations focusing on more than one part 26

27 Be Creative in Guiding Play of School- Age Children Expect wishes, rhymes, and jokes. Expect monster stories and games with exact rules. Be prepared for and expect children to sometimes be bored. Create celebrations for fun and learning. 27

28 Be Creative in Guiding Play of School- Age Children Encourage role-playing to let children express their feelings and give them a chance to pretend. Encourage their love of drama through skits. Support their enthusiasm for joining club. 28

29 The Crucial Role of Play in Early Childhood The Importance of Play (click on link) 29

30 Promoting Healthy Brain Development Brain Development Through Play (click on link) 30

31 Special Needs Children and Play Promote positive interactions by providing materials and learning experiences which encourage cooperation. Plan learning experiences that give children a chance to interact positively. 31

32 Special Needs Children and Play The Power of Play (click on link) 32

33 The Education of Children The education of children shapes their own personal development and life chances, as well as the economic and social progress of our Nation. Reading to young children Mathematics and reading achievement 33

34 References and Resources Microsoft Clip Art: Used with permission from Microsoft. Textbook: Decker, C. (2011). Child development: Early stages through age 12. (5th ed.). Tinley Park: Goodheart-Willcox Company. Websites: AblePlay AblePlayTM is a toy rating system and website that provides comprehensive information on toys for children with special needs. AblePlay was created so parents, special educators, therapists and others can make the best decisions when purchasing products for children in their lives with disabilities. AMERICAN ACADEMY OF PEDIATRICS Selecting Appropriate Toys for Young Children: The Pediatrician s Role Articles on appropriate toys for young children Fat Brain Toys Toys, games, and tools for children and adults with special developmental needs. Lekotek The country s central source on toys and play for children with special needs. Top Ten tips for choosing toys for children. National Association for the Education of Young Children Articles and information on children 34

35 References and Resources YouTube : Promoting Healthy Brain Development: You Can Make A Difference Learn how you can make a difference in young children's brain development through everyday activities. Visit for more information. Special Needs Kids and the Power of Play Video demonstrating the healing power of fun and toys for children with disabilities and their families. The Crucial Role of Play in Early Childhood This video was created to demonstrate the importance of play for young children. The slide show is set to "Upside down" by Jack Johnson. 35

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