2 Many new firefighter get confused between Standpipe vs. Sprinklers because the FDC ( Fire Department Connection) on the outside of the building look the same. Although they may have a similar purpose (getting water to a fire inside a building) their functions are completely different.
3 STANDPIPE: Is a pre-piped water supply system that allows Fire Dept hose to be connected from points inside the building. Found in structures of large area (footprint), multiple floors or structures with both. Allows us to get closer to the fire, with our hose lines, quicker and prevents us from stretching large amounts of hose throughout the building before we can even close enough to begin firefighting operations. What s happening to the fire when we have these Large stretches?
4 SRINKLERS: Is also a pre-piped water supply system but instead of feeding hose lines, they feed sprinkler heads throughout the building, as designed by an engineer. Doesn t need to be Entire building, could just Be an area of building Typically found in high fire hazard structures or one with large occupancy. They are designed to keep fire confined to a specific area and not necessarily designed to extinguish the fire. We are seeing more and more in residential applications, single or 2 family homes, to protection a truss building system or a heating system room. Village of Westbury also requires residential sprinklers when a home s attic is sheet rocked, be aware these smaller residential sprinklers systems will differ from the commercial application, typically we will not be able to supplement the water source to them, most will be fed solely by local water.
5 Connecting our F.D. Hose to a FDC Sprinkler or Standpipe The Engine will first need to gain a water source (hydrant) which will typically be in close proximity to the FDC. -Does this mean that this hydrant will operational? We need to be ready for anything! when the engine is at an operational hydrant ( water source) we want to connect to the FDC using larges diameter hose possible, Typically our 5 hose. Can we reverse lay, instead of Hydrant to FDC, can we go FDC to Hydrant? The newer FDC, we are seeing are 5 Storz and not the standard 2.5 Siamese. If this is the case, we can take our 5 Hose and make a direct connection to FDC. 5 Storz ( sexless) 2.5 Siamese
6 Connecting our F.D. Hose to a FDC Sprinkler or Standpipe If we are confronted with a Sprinkler and a Standpipe FDC, next to each other, we always want to feed the STANDPIPE first, since this is what we ll be using. Note: The multiple Standpipe or Sprinkler FDC, found around a structure will all feed the entire, common, system. Note: Sprinklers and Standpipes are independent of each other, unless marked Combo System, only these will be feeding both sprinkler & Standpipe systems at the same time. Example: Combo system Source Mall
7 Connecting 5 Fire Hose to a FDC Sprinkler or Standpipe Best 2 nd Best
8 FDC SIAMESE clapper Valve Note: In a FDC Siamese, there is a clapper valve that directs the water flow. If only connecting 5 make sure the clapper is operational otherwise you ll need to cap the side not being used. ( gate it if nec. ) Note: if found with no caps debris inside could hinder operations
9 Connecting 2.5 Hose to a FDC Sprinkler or Standpipe When we decide to connect 2.5 hose to our FDC, get that first 2.5 connected as soon a possible, get operational before doing the second one.
10 Overcoming obstacles at a FDC Siamese Break cap if unable To remove
12 Sprinkler Systems Now that we have a FD water supply into the sprinkler System, is our job now done? NO It is very important for us to gain control of the buildings sprinkler system. An active sprinkler, although it may be keeping the main body of fire in check, it is typically hindering our hose line advancement. - the water being forced downward also forces down the products of combustion the smoke and heat are not lifting, even if the roof team cut us a nice big hole. This will typically slow down us from advancing to the fire, visibility is harder, the TI camera doesn t hit on the hot room, because it s being cooled
13 Sprinkler Systems Note: A Sprinkler systems can be a wet or dry system. Wet the system is always charge with water or an extinguishing agent. Dry ( typically found in outside or in unheated areas ) example: garages These systems are charge with air at a greater pressure then the water supply s pressure. When a head is tripped, the air escaping lowers the air pressure, making the water pressure greater and allowing the water to flow in pipe.
14 Sprinkler Systems When the head is actively flowing water, This triggers a chain of events: Sensors in the pipe system will sense water movement and this activates an alarm, triggering a FD Response The moving water will activate the outside Sprinkler Alarm aka: sprinkler gong or water flow gong The outside drain will be flowing water out The more water = the more water flow inside... ( could indicate more heads tripped then 1? )
15 Active Head Flowing Water Active Fire Sprinkler Systems Sprinkler Gong Active Drain discharging water Fire alarm transmitted What is happening if the gong is ringing, stops, then ringing? Water movement Is sensed
16 Sprinkler Systems What is important to us, as we arrive on scene is: the gongs going off and water being discharged. * Listen for gong & look for that trail of water in parking lot *These items allow us to isolate the active riser, that we need to gain control of. In buildings with multiple occupancy changes or the dividing of a once larger occupancy into many smaller ones, this may not be as obvious as you may think. The gong closest to the fire building may not be the active one and the fire areas sprinklers could be getting fed from a different part of the building altogether. These signs * and a good preplan will help you isolate the active riser for that fire area. Note: it s not uncommon to have multiple risers for 1 building, in different locations.
17 Sprinkler Systems Once we ve located the Active Riser, supplemented the water source with our engine, then we need to gain control of it. Sprinkler controls valves can be found on the outside or inside of a building. Typically in newer building: They are found grouped in a Sprinkler Room. Closed Open Outside Stem & Yolk ( OS&Y)
18 Sprinkler Systems Sprinkler alarm Typically in newer building: Inside Sprinkler Room Sprinkler Siamese Sprinkler drain So when open door, what side will riser be on? Older building Attached to building: Wall Post Indicator Valve NOTE Since Open Access chain and locked In open position
19 Sprinkler Systems When the FDC is not attached to the building: in front yard, out by the street, in a parking lot Due to our climate, This entire set up will be in a outside under ground pit These risers could be in an underground pit near the FDC or a Post Indicator Valve typically between FDC and Building Pit
20 Sprinkler Systems Gaining control of the sprinkler valves will typically require forcible entry, if the valves are confined in a room or in an outside underground pit. For the Post indicators, or any sprinkler control valve with common access, you may not need to force entry to them, but the valve will be locked in the open position. Once the hose line crew has made it to the fire area, they will request the sprinkler be shut down.
21 Sprinkler Systems Fire Pumps Note: Sprinklers in large footprint buildings or especially taller buildings, the street water pressure may not be sufficient to supply enough pressure to the sprinkler systems These building the sprinkler system's water will be supplemented by a Fire Pump, boosting the pressure. Diesel pump Electric pump
22 Sprinkler Systems Fire Pumps These Fire Pumps need to be shut down: 1. When our Engine is connected to the sprinkler system and we are now augmenting the water supply OR 2. When we have orders to shut down the sprinkler system, if our engine is connected to the system or not. Provisions should always be in place to augment the system, plus restarting a pump is typically a simple few steps.
23 Sprinkler Systems Fire Pumps Controller & Pump Red Button Stop Green Button Start With Diesel may be turn key also
24 Shutting Down Sprinkler Systems All Locks should remove and the valve ready to be operated, awaiting the orders to shut down the sprinklers For the OS&Y valves you want to turn the wheel so the stem goes from exposed to inside the pipe: Exposed Stem Open Hidden Stem Closed
25 Sprinkler Systems For the Post Indicators these work just like a Hydrant Open or Closed Cut the lock freeing the crank handle Pull off handle Operate to nut as you would a Hydrant The indicator will let you know if OPEN or CLOSED
26 Sprinkler Systems Once the Sprinkler is shut down, is your job done? NO, remain at the control valve. If the fire is unable to be controlled by line(s), if there is trouble with the lines if there is a catastrophic event requiring regrouping The sprinklers can always be reactivated.
27 Standpipe System Now that we have a FD water supply into the Standpipe System, what s next? Does this mean we have water to the structure? No Once the MPO starts to flow water we ll get a better indication if our connection is effective. If they flows water and the rig is not continually flowing water, we re probably good. But If there is water flow, the rig is working hard and the hose team is not connected yet, we have to look for: broken pipe, open valve
28 Note: Standpipe System Just like a Sprinklers Systems, A Standpipe system can also be Wet Or Dry. A Wet System will be supplied by town water, and A Dry System, again typically in areas susceptible to freezing ( parking garages ), will be dry, until: (1) a valve is opened putting town water into it or (2) we put the water in with our engines. In Both systems, we ll be connecting our hose to the system, Wet supplementing the water supply Dry we may be the only water supply and system is just a piping system.
29 Standpipe System If we are unable to make a connection to a specific FDC, Alternatives to get water to the standpipe system could be: find another FDC else where around the building the closest inside Standpipe Connection: Remember will need a double female adaptor since you ll be trying to connect 2 male connections other inside connections could later be used to supplement the original connection, once man power allows, by feeding another lower, close standpipe connection. Don t only think of an inside Standpipe Connections as a discharges, The system is a grid/loop They can be fed from these points too! Adaptor Pipe Thread Our Thread
30 Standpipe System of outside Siamese don t work: FIRE FLOOR 2nd Line X X 1 st Line Connection Reversed to a 1st feed 1 st Due Connection Missing X X X X 3rdL Line X Connection Damaged Connection Reversed to a 2 nd feed 2 nd Due
31 Attaching Attack Lines to Standpipe system
32 Attaching Attack Lines to Standpipe system Hose Team s Equipment Nozzle : 2 High Rise Packs ( make sure there is a Nozzle s in bag or bring one ) Officer : Officers tool - 1 High Rise Pack, Hand light & Radio Back Up: 2 High Rise Pack Control : Standpipe Bag 1 High Rise Pack, Hand Light & Radio Rule of thumb: 1 st Line Connecting - Floor below Fire Floor 2 nd Line Connecting - 2 Floors below Fire
33 Attaching Attack Lines to Standpipe system
34 Attaching Attack Lines to Standpipe system Hose Team Equipment Control : will be making the connection to the stand pipe Nozzle and Back up: Set up hose for easy advancement to fire Officer should be accessing floor plan, of the set up floor, to gain layout and determine best means to attack. ( typically in high rise floor layout same floor to floor ) How may doors down is 504, will be same a on right or left? Maybe easier to advance the floor below hallway then go up, then to go up to fire floor and advance to fire apartment?
35 Attaching Attack Lines to Standpipe system
36 Attaching Attack Lines to Standpipe system
37 Attaching Attack Lines to Standpipe system When advancing hose line, use gravity to your advantage. Whenever possible, try to get the hose in an easily advancing position before orders are given to control to charge the line. Length of hose being used by 1 st line should be relayed to 2 nd line, They should always have more: (1) starting from further away, (2) if 1 st line does come up short 2 nd line can advance past 1 st line and make the fire.
38 Sprinkler & Standpipe Hands on portion End of Lecture Part 2 of Drill : Gear up going to Source Mall to Review: Connecting to Sprinkler System using (2) 2.5 hose Gaining access sprinkler room and OS&Y s Controlling Fire Pump Shutting down Sprinkler System Getting System back operational
39 Sprinkler & Standpipe Hands on portion Part 3 of Drill : Gear up going to Roosevelt Field Mall to Review: Connecting to Standpipe System using 5 hose Connecting to stand pipe if Siamese not operational Review Standpipe bags Connecting our hose to system Getting High Rise packs into operation Setting pressure using in line pressure gauge Hose line positioning & advancement Repacking High Rise packs
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