Model Experiment of Sonic Boom Signature Propagation through Turbulence in a Ballistic Range

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1 Model Experiment of Sonic Boom Signature Propagation through Turbulence in a Ballistic Range Boeing Higher Education Program Research Project Presentation March 28 th 2014 Talaris Conference Center, Maple Room Takahiro Ukai Institute of Fluid Science, Tohoku University, Japan

2 Next-generation airplane 1 Super Sonic Transport (SST) JAXA HP European commission HP NASA HP Concept by Japan Concept by EU Concept by US Requirements for SST Sonic boom redaction Low-fuel consumption Concorde SST, (cited 19 January 2010)

3 Sonic boom evaluation 2 Normal shape Rise time Low boom signature Overpressure Sonic boom estimation Numerical simulation Wind tunnel testing JAXA HP

4 Effect of the real atmosphere Sonic boom propagating Real atmosphere Various conditions Turbulence Humidity Temperature 3 Carlson, NASA SP-147, p.10, (1967) The changed pressure waveforms by turbulence Lee et. al, AL-TR , (1991)

5 Effect of turbulence 4 Normal sonic boom signature Low sonic boom signature Typical waveform Turbulence effects Known Unknown Rise-time Turbulence interaction Overpressure decreases Rise-time increases Overpressure

6 Phenomenon observed in flight test 5 Estimated Kenneth et al. AIAA paper (2004) Measured at ground Investigation of turbulence effects is necessary Plotkin et al. AIAA paper , (2005)

7 Laboratory-scale experiments 6 Spark generator Ballistic range Controllable turbulence Controllable turbulence Arbitrarily shaped Waveform Waveform with N-shape flow Wind tunnel Uncontrollable turbulence Ballistic ranges have ability to conduct Arbitrarily shock-turbulence shaped Waveform interaction

8 7 Objective Establish an experimental technique for shockturbulence interaction Evaluate a distortion of waveform with N-shape Evaluate a distortion of low boom pressure waveform

9 Experimental setup 8 Ballistic range in Institute of Fluid Science, Tohoku Univ. Flight Mach number up to 2.0 Projectile diameter of 51 mm Test section: L= 12 m, D= 1.66 m High-pressure driver gas chamber Recovery tank Optical windows of three pair Optical windows Measurement techniques Launch tube Shadowgraph method: Density field HPV-1 Shimadzu Corp., high-speed camera 125kfps and 1μs, exposure time Pressure transducer: Pressure waveform PCB Piezotronics, INC. Model-113B28 Rise-time of under 1μs, resolution of 7Pa

10 U mean [m/s] Specification of jet impingement 9 Flight direction Z 20kPa Jet nozzle X Pressure transducer Slit nozzle: 2mm 10mm (height width) Jet gas: Dry air Z [mm]

11 Test section 10 Light source Pin hole Paraboloidal mirror Flat mirror Optical window Blast tube Sabot stopper Baffle plates P1 P2 P3 P4 Flight path Launch tube Flash lamp Plate Pressure transducer Jet nozzle Catch tank Flat mirror Paraboloidal mirror Lens High-speed camera

12 Projectiles 11 Projectile Sabot Spherical projectile Axisymmetrical projectile Flight Mach number of 1.4 Number of shots: Spherical projectile= 6 shots Axisymmetrical projectile= 9 shots

13 Results

14 Spherical projectile 12 Flight direction Distorted shock wave Jet nozzle Δt = 0μs Δt = 80μs M = 1.32 Δt = 0μs Δt = 40μs M = 1.36

15 ΔP [kpa] Distortion of N-shaped waveform 13 Δt [ms] M = 1.36 The effect of jet flow direction appeared dominantly

16 ΔP [kpa] Axisymmetrical projectile 14 Flight direction w/o jet impingement P4 P3 P2 P1 M = 1.46 Δt [ms] The overpressure was increased by changing flight attitude

17 Summary and future plan 15 Evaluated a distortion of waveform with N-shape The shock wave was distorted by the jet impingement The large overpressure appeared due to the jet direction Evaluation of a distortion of low boom pressure waveform The effect of the flight attitude strongly appeared Future plan Do not use a sabot to make the projectile fly horizontally Change jet flow direction and turbulence intensity

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