Atomic structure of (a) silicon; (b) germanium; and (c) gallium and arsenic.

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1 Fig. 1.3 Atomic structure of (a) silicon; (b) germanium; and (c) gallium and arsenic. 14 electrons 32 electrons 31electrons 33electrons Jalal S Al Roumy Electrical Engineering Department., The Islamic University of Gaza

2 Fig. 1.4 Covalent bonding of the silicon atom. Upper Saddle River, New Jersey

3 Fig. 1.5 Covalent bonding of the GaAs crystal.

4 Fig. 1.6 Energy levels: (a) discrete levels in isolated atomic structures; (b) conduction and valence bands of an insulator, a semiconductor, and a conductor.

5 Fig. 1.6 (continued) Energy levels: (a) discrete levels in isolated atomic structures; (b) conduction and valence bands of an insulator, a semiconductor, and a conductor.

6 Fig. 1.7 Antimony impurity in n-type material.

7 Fig. 1.8 Effect of donor impurities on the energy band structure.

8 Fig. 1.9 Boron impurity in p-type material.

9 Fig Electron versus hole flow.

10 Fig (a) n-type material; (b) p-type material.

11 Fig A p n junction with no external bias. (a) An internal distribution of charge; (b) a diode symbol, with the defined polarity and the current direction; (c) demonstration that the net carrier flow is zero at the external terminal of the device when V D = 0 V.

12 Fig Reverse-biased p n junction. (a) Internal distribution of charge under reverse-bias conditions; (b) reversebias polarity and direction of reverse saturation current.

13 Fig Forward-biased p n junction. (a) Internal distribution of charge under forward-bias conditions; (b) forwardbias polarity and direction of resulting current.

14 Fig (continued) Forward-biased p n junction. (a) Internal distribution of charge under forward-bias conditions; (b) forward-bias polarity and direction of resulting current. (b)

15 Fig Silicon semiconductor diode characteristics.

16 Fig Zener region.

17 Fig Comparison of Ge, Si, and GaAs diodes.

18 Fig Variation in Si diode characteristics with temperature change.

19 Fig Ideal semiconductor diode: (a) forward-biased; (b) reverse-biased.

20 Fig Ideal versus actual semiconductor characteristics.

21 Fig Determining the dc resistance of a diode at a particular operating point.

22 Fig Example 1.2.

23 Fig Defining the dynamic or ac resistance.

24 Fig Determining the ac resistance at a Q-point.

25 Fig Example 1.3.

26 Fig Determining the average ac resistance between indicated limits.

27 Fig Defining the piecewise-linear equivalent circuit using straight-line segments to approximate the characteristic curve.

28 Fig Components of the piecewise-linear equivalent circuit.

29 Fig Simplified equivalent circuit for the silicon semiconductor diode.

30 Fig Ideal diode and its characteristics.

31 Fig Semiconductor diode notation.

32 Fig Various types of junction diodes. [(a) Courtesy of Motorola Inc.; (b) and (c) Courtesy International Rectifier Corporation.]

33 Fig Checking a diode in the forward-bias state.

34 Fig Checking a diode with an ohmmeter.

35 Fig Reviewing the Zener region.

36 Fig Conduction direction: (a) Zener diode; (b) semiconductor diode; (c) resistive element.

37 Fig Zener diode characteristics with the equivalent model for each region.

38 Fig Zener terminal identification and symbols.

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