THE EQUIVALENCE AND SHIFT IN THE ENGLISH TRANSLATION OF INDONESIAN NOUN PHRASES

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1 THE EQUIVALENCE AND SHIFT IN THE ENGLISH TRANATION OF INDONESIAN NOUN PHRASES Ayu Bandu Retnomurti / Prof. Dr. Indiyah Imran Universitas Gunadarma Jl. Margonda Raya no: 100 Depok ABSTRACT The problems of this research are; How are Indonesian Noun Phrases translated into English?, What are the types of equivalence in the English translation of Indonesian Noun phrases? and What are the types of shift in the English translation of Indonesian Noun phrases?. The aims of the research are to compare the translation of Indonesian Noun Phrases into English then to describe the types of equivalence and shift in the English translation of Indonesian Noun phrases. This research uses a qualitative descriptive method. The Indonesian novel as Source Language () Ronggeng Dukuh Paruk by Ahmad Tohari and its English translation () The Dancer that was translated by Rene T. A Lysloff, as source of the data. The writer classifies the data into two main categories; the equivalence and shift. The equivalence is subcategorized into Textual equivalence: subject-np is translated into subject-np; predicate-np is translated into predicate-np; object-np is translated into object-np, Linguistic equivalence: plural-np is translated into plural-np; singular-np is translated into singular-np, and Dynamic equivalence. The writer also finds three categories of shift, Structure shift in word order: head word initial is translated into head word final, Unit shift: phrase is translated into word; phrase is translated into compound word; phrase is translated into three words, and Intra system shift: phrases have no determiner is translated into phrases may have a determiner. The result of this research shows that the shift occurs more than the equivalence, with the percentage of 58 % shift, and the equivalence with the percentage of 42 %. Key Word: Equivalence, shift, noun phrases INTRODUCTION The subject of the research is the equivalence and shift in the English translation of Indonesian noun phrases. This research tries to find out the equivalence and shifts in form and meaning in the English translation of Indonesian noun phrases. This is because the core of equivalence and shifts are in the form and meaning. In equivalence and shift, the meaning is more important than the form. Beside that, equivalence focuses to cases where languages describe the same situation by different structure. Whereas, when the form in Source Language, has a new form or different form from the Target Language, it is called shifts. Therefore, the writer would like to compare the translation of 1

2 Indonesian noun phrases into English in order to find the equivalence and shifts in form and meaning. The reason why this topic is interesting to be discussed because in reading a book, novel or other sources of data, we can find noun phrases, but many students are confused in differentiating the word order in head words of the Indonesian and the English noun phrases. This is because Indonesian and English head words are not the same; it means that in Indonesian noun phrases, the head word is head-initial position, while in English the head word is head-final position. Therefore, the core of the phrase is head word, which is used to determine the meaning in the word class. This research is important to be carried out because it is difficult for Indonesian students to translate the Indonesian noun phrase into English, since the position of head word in word order of both languages are different. Therefore, they often make mistakes because they translate word by word or literal translation. In translation, they use Indonesian word order if they translate in English. By means of that reason, this research may help students to understand the sentences by identifying word order and its marker in noun phrases. THEORETICAL REVIEW Translation Hatim and Munday (2004, p.3) said that translation is a phenomenon that has a huge effect on everyday life. The first of these two senses relates to translation as a process, the second to the product. The first sense focuses on the role of the translator in taking the original or source text (ST) and turning it into a text in another language (the target text, TT). The second sense centers on the concrete translation the product produced by the translator. Machali (2000, p. 60) noted that translation as an operation performed on languages: a process of substituting a text in one language for a text in another.larson (1998, p. 3) stated that translation is basically a change of form. In translation, the form of the source language is replaced by the form of receptor (target) language. It can be concluded that translation is a process of transferring the meaning of the source language into the target language. Kinds of Translation Larson (1998, p. 15) divided translation into two types, they are: 1. Literal translation is a form-based translation attempting to follow the form of the source language. 2. Idiomatic translation is a meaning-based translation that makes every effort to communicate the meaning of the source language text in the natural form of the receptor language. Newmark (1991, p. 39) wrote types of translation: 1. Communicative translation, attempts to produce on its readers an affect as close as possible to that obtained on the readers of the original. 2. Semantic translation attempts to render, as closely as the semantic and syntactic structures of the second language allow, the exact contextual meaning of the original. 2

3 Equivalence Vinay and Darbelnet (as cited in Munday, 2001, p. 58) stated that equivalence refers to cases where languages describe the same situation by different stylistic or structural means. Catford (as cited in Hatim and Munday, 2004, p. 40) wrote texts in different languages can be equivalent in different degrees (fully or partially equivalent), in respect of different levels of presentation (equivalent in respect of context, of semantics, of grammar, of lexis, etc), and at different ranks (word-for-word, phrase-for-phrase, sentence-for-sentence).baker (1998, p. 77) used the notion of equivalence for the sake of convenience because most translators use it rather than because it has any theoretical statements. Thus equivalence is variously regarded as a necessary condition for translations, an obstacle to a progress in translation studies, or a useful category for describing translation. She also added that proponent of equivalence as the relationship between a source text (ST) and a target text (TT). That s allowed the TT to be considered as a translation of the ST in the first place. Types of Equivalence Catford s model of equivalence (as cited in Munday, 2001, p. 60) said: 1. Formal correspondence is any category (unit, class, element of structure, etc) which can be said to occupy as nearly as possible the same place in the economy of the as the given category occupies in the. For example: translating an adjective by an adjective. 2. Textual Equivalence is any text or portion of text which is observed on a particular occasion to be the equivalent of a given text or portion of text. For example: translating adjective by an adverbial phrase. Popovic (as cited in Susan Basnett, 1998, p. 32) distinguishes four types: 1). Linguistic equivalence, where there is homogeneity on the linguistic level of both and texts, i.e. word for word translation. 2). Paradigmatic equivalence, where there is equivalence of the elements of a paradigmatic expressive axis, i.e. elements of grammar, which Popovic sees as being a higher category than lexical equivalence. 3). Stylistic (translational) equivalence, where there is functional equivalence of elements in both original and translation aiming at an expressive identity with an invariant of identical meaning. 4). Textual (syntagmatic) equivalence, where there is equivalence of the syntagmatic structuring of a text, i.e. equivalence of form and shape. Types of equivalence according to Nida which are stated in (Munday, 2001, p. 41) which are: (1) formal equivalence and (2) Dynamic equivalence. Nida defined these as follows: 1. Formal equivalence focuses attention on the message itself, in both form and content one is concerned that the message in the receptor language should match as closely as possible the different elements in the source language. 2. Dynamic equivalence is based on what Nida calls the principle of equivalent effect, where the relation between receptor and message should be substantially the same as that which existed between the original receptors and the message. Shift Gentzler (1993, p. 86) wrote Popovic s opinion about shift (1970, p. 78) that each individual method of translation is determined by the presence or absence of shifts in 3

4 the various layers of the translation. All that appears as new with respect to the original or fails to appear where it might have been expected may be interpreted as a shift. So, when the form in source language has a new form or different form from target language, it is called shift. According to Baker (1992, p. 20), non-equivalence at word level means that the target language has no direst equivalent for a word which occurs in the source text. The type and level of difficulty posed can vary tremendously depending on the nature of non-equivalence. Different kinds of non-equivalence require different strategies, some very straightforward, others more involved and difficulty to handle. Since, in addition to the nature of non-equivalence, the context and purpose of translation will often rule out some strategies and favour others. Types of Shift Catford (as cited in Hatim and Munday, 2004, p. 26) said that shifts, is departures from formal correspondence in the process of going from the to the. There are two major types of shift : level shifts and category shifts: 1) Level shift is item at one linguistic level has a translation equivalent at a different level. 2) Category shift is a departure from formal correspondence in translation. Category shift occurs if the source language () has different forms from the target language (). So category shifts are: 2.1) Structure shift is to be the most common form of shift and involve mostly a shift in grammatical structure. 2.2) Class shift occurs when the translation equivalent of item is a member of a different class from the original item. 2.3) Unit-shift means change of rank that is, departures from formal correspondence in which the translation equivalent of a unit at one rank in the, is a unit at a different rank in the. 2.4) Intra-system shift is a departure from formal correspondence in which (a term operating in) one system in the has as its translation equivalent (a term operating in) a different non-corresponding-system in the. Phrase A phrase is a group of words which has no subject (Tallerman, 1998, p. 90). It means that every group of words or combination of words, which are grammatically similar to word and do not have its own subject is called phrase. There are some phrases, which are Noun Phrase (NP) for example, very bright sunflowers is headed by a noun; Verb Phrase (VP) for example, overflowed quite quickly is headed by a verb; very bright is an Adjective Phrase (AP); quite quickly is an Adverb Phrase (AdvP); and inside the house is a preposition Phrase (PP) headed by the preposition inside. But in this research, the writer focuses on the noun phrase. A noun phrase can act as a subject in a sentence function (e.g. The child read the book), as the object of a verb (e.g. The child read the book), as the object complement of a verb (e.g. John buy a cake), or as the object of a preposition (e.g. Jill is swimming in the pool). The Comparison between the Indonesian and the English Noun Phrases The similarity between the Indonesian and English noun phrases is they have their markers. For example in Indonesian and English noun phrase, they have the markers to identify the noun phrase. Both morphological and syntactic categories are the markers 4

5 of the noun phrase. The difference between the Indonesian and English noun phrases is the position of head word in the word order. In fact, the position of head word in Indonesian noun phrase is head-initial. While, the position of head word in English noun phrase is head-final. Tata Bahasa Baku Bahasa Indonesia (1998, p. 203) stated that the Indonesian noun phrase is a group of words with a noun or pronoun as the main part or the head. Whereas, the English noun phrase is a group of words that ends with a noun. It can contain determiners (the, a, this, etc.), adjective, adverbs, and nouns. It cannot begin with a preposition. Both subjects and complements are generally noun phrases. (Pyle and Munoz, 1995, p. 42). For example: The diamond gave off a bluish light, the diamond as a subject in a sentence function. Then, One day, Sakarya placed a stone; a stone is the object of a verb or object complement. Tallerman (1998, p. 92) stated that in many languages, certain heads require their Noun Phrase dependents to occur in a particular grammatical case. Within the English noun phrase (NP), nouns often co-occur with a closed class of words known as DETERMINERS (Tallerman, 1998, p. 37). For instance, a transitive verb has two arguments, therefore two dependent NPs: the subject and the object are the markers of the English noun phrases. For example: The child read the book. Subject-NP object-np (object of a verb) RESEARCH METHOD This research uses a descriptive qualitative method. It means that all the data in this research are in the form of sentences and words, not in the form of numbers. As Wilkinson (2000, p. 7) stated that the resulting data is presented in the form of descriptions. So, the data in this research is in the form of descriptions. According to Wilkinson (2000, p.79), qualitative data is usually analyzed by subjecting it to some form of coding process. Source of the Data The source of the data in this research is a novel written by Ahmad Tohari (third edition: 2007) entitled Ronggeng Dukuh Paruk, and its English translation The Dancer that was translated by Rene T. A Lysloff (2003). The Source Language () is Indonesian and the Target Language () is English. Technique of Collecting Data In collecting data, the following procedures are taken: 1). Identify the data which consists of Indonesian noun phrases () related to their markers then underline them. 2). Identify the data which consists of English translated noun phrases from Indonesian () related to their markers then underline them. 3) The data of the Source language () and the target language () are put together side by side in a list then give the number of page and line to each data. Technique of Analyzing Data 1) Editing or selecting The data are edited, because there might be some mistakes when they are transferred from into, then put them into the corpus. 2) Classifying the Data 5

6 Those data are classified into two main categories: a. First category is the equivalence b. Second category is the shift 2.1) The equivalence category is further subcategorized into: 1. Textual equivalence; 1.1 subject-np in a sentence is translated into subject-np 1.2 predicate-np in a sentence is translated into predicate-np 1.3 object-np in a sentence is translated into object-np. 2. Linguistic equivalence; 2.1 plural in NP is translated into plural in NP 2.2 singular in NP is translated into singular in NP 3. Dynamic equivalence 2.2) The Shifts category is further subcategorized into: 1 Structure shift in Word Order; head word initial is translated into head word final 2 Unit shift; 2.1 phrase is translated into word 2.2 phrase is translated into compound word 2.3 phrase is translated into three words 3 Intra system shift; 3.1 phrases have no determiner is translated into phrases may have a determiner 3) Table of data classification NO The Main Categories and its Sub-Categories 1 Equivalence 1.1 Textual Equivalence subject NP is translated into subject - NP predicate NP is translated into predicate - NP object NP is translated into object - NP 1.2 Linguistic Equivalence plural NP is translated into plural - NP singular NP is translated into singular - NP 1.3 Dynamic Equivalence 2 Shift 2.1 Structure Shift in Word Order head word initial is translated into head word final 2.2 Unit Shift phrase is translated into word phrase is translated into compound word phrase is translated into three words Addition of a word in NP Omission of a word in NP 2.3 Intra System Shift phrases have no determiner is translated into phrases may have a determiner Presenting Data 1. The data will be presented by using a pie chart, flow chart and two tables. 2. The pie chart covers two main categories of the equivalence and shift in the English translation of Indonesian noun phrases, with the percentage (%). 6

7 3. The flow chart covers the main and the sub-categories of the equivalence and shift in the English translation of Indonesian noun phrases, with the percentage (%). 4. The first table consists of the sub-categories of the equivalence in the English translation of Indonesian noun phrases, the number of data, and the percentage (%). 5. The second table consists of the sub-categories of the shift in the English translation of Indonesian noun phrases, the number of data, and the percentage (%). Interpreting Data The data are interpreted as follows: 1. The data in flow chart and tables are discussed according to the classification of the equivalence and shift in the noun phrases. 2. Some of the data from each category are interpreted. 3. The data for analysis are taken by means of representing the other remaining data in the corpus. 4. The rest of the data are put in the appendices which are arranged according to the classification of the equivalence and shift in the noun phrases. RESEARCH RESULTS AND DISCUSSION 58% 42% Equivalence Shift FIGURE 1. The Main Categories of Equivalence and Shift in the English Translation of Indonesian Noun Phrases There are two main categories namely equivalence and shift. In this research, there are 100 data, consisting of equivalence and shift. With 42 data of equivalence or 42 % and 58 data of shift or 58 %. It shows that the shifts occur more often in the novel than the equivalence. Each category has sub-categories. The equivalent category is subcategorized into: 1) Textual equivalence which is divided into three sub-categories which are subject-np in a sentence is translated into subject-np, predicate-np in a sentence is translated into predicate-np, object-np in a sentence is translated into object- NP, 2) Linguistic equivalence which is divided into two sub-categories which are; plural-np is translated into plural-np, singular-np is translated into singular- NP, and 3) Dynamic equivalence with the percentage. And the shift category is subcategorized into 1) Structure shift in word order which is head word initial is translated into head word final, 2) Unit shift is divided into three sub-categories which are phrase is translated into word, phrase is translated into compound word, phrase is translated into three words, and 3) Intra system shift which is phrases have no determiner is translated into phrases may have a determiner with the percentage. The novel entitled Ronggeng Dukuh Paruk by Ahmad 7

8 Tohari is the source language () and its English translation The Dancer by Rene T. A. Lysloff is the target language () as source of the data. FLOWCHART THE ENGLISH TRANATION OF INDONESIAN NOUN PHRASES 100% EQUIVALENCE 42% SHIFT 58% TEXTUAL 17% LINGUISTIC 20% DYNAMIC 5% STRUCTURE 21% UNIT 32% INTRA SYSTEM 5% subject- NP subject- NP (7%) plural- NP plural- NP (9%) head word initial head word final (21%) phrase word (21%) phrase-no determiner determiner (5%) predicate- NP predicate- NP (6%) singular- NP singular- NP (11%) phrase compound word (3%) object- NP object-np (4%) phrase three words (8%) FIGURE 2. The Main Categories and Sub-categories of Equivalence and Shift in the English Translation of Indonesian Noun Phrases The Analysis of Equivalence NO. The Equivalence and Its Sub-Categories Number of Data (%) 1 Textual Equivalence 17 17% 1.1 subject NP is translated into subject - NP predicate NP is translated into predicate - NP object NP is translated into object - NP 4 2 Linguistic Equivalence 20 20% 2.1 plural NP is translated into plural - NP singular NP is translated into singular - NP 11 3 Dynamic Equivalence 5 5% TOTAL 42 42% FIGURE 3. The Equivalence in the English Translation of Indonesian Noun Phrases and its Sub-Categories Based on figure 3 above, there are 17 or 17% data of Textual Equivalence which is divided into three sub-categories which are subject-np in a sentence is translated 8

9 into subject-np, predicate-np in a sentence is translated into predicate-np, object-np in a sentence is translated into object-np, there are 20 or 20% data of Linguistic Equivalence which is divided into two sub-categories which are; plural- NP is translated into plural-np, singular-np is translated into singular-np, and 5 or 5% data of Dynamic Equivalence. Textual Equivalence subject-np in a sentence is translated into subject-np (1) Sebutir berlian memancarkan cahaya kebiru-biruan, (p. 147, l. 24) (1) The diamond gave off a bluish light: (p. 157, l. 17) Sentence (1), noun phrase sebutir berlian is translated into noun phrase the diamond. Here, the word sebutir is the marker of the Indonesian noun because prefix se- is one and the word butir (numeral) is a noun to classify small things. It can be seen that sebutir berlian and the diamond are noun phrases have the function as a subject in the sentence because the position of the noun phrases in the sentence above. Therefore, it can be concluded that this is Textual equivalence, because they have the same function as a subject in a sentence above. There is equivalence in a subject of the sentence, i.e. equivalence of form and shape. predicate-np in a sentence is translated into predicate-np (2) Aku bukan anak kecil. (p. 316, l. 39) (2) I m not a child. (p. 354, l. 25) Sentence (2), noun phrase anak kecil is translated into noun phrase a child. Actually, one of the syntactic categories in Indonesian nominal markers is the negative sign of noun like the word bukan or Indonesian called pengingkar. It can be used in the Indonesian noun marker, because the negative marker of a noun bukan is always followed by Indonesian noun for example bukan anak kecil based on the text above. It can be seen that they have the same function as the predicate of the noun phrase in the sentence. Based on the analysis of the text above, it can be concluded that this is Textual equivalence, because there is equivalence of the structuring of the text in a predicate. object of a verb - NP in a sentence is translated into object of a verb - NP (3) Suatu hari Sakarya meletakkan sebuah batu (p. 283, l. 17) (3) One day, Sakarya placed a stone (p. 318, l. 1) Sentence (3), noun phrase sebuah batu is translated into noun phrase a stone. Here, prefix se- as one of the marker of the Indonesian singular noun and the word buah is a noun as classifier a fruit or another things outside the human being. Based on the text above, they have the function as the object complement of a verb in 9

10 the sentence because the position of the noun phrases in the sentence above. It can be seen that this is Textual equivalence, because there is equivalence of the structuring of a text which is there is the same function as the object complement of a verb in the sentence, i.e. equivalence of form and shape. Linguistic Equivalence plural-np is translated into plural-np (4) Aku menyediakan dua pilihan. (p. 200, l. 24) (4) I would like to propose two alternatives: (p. 218, l. 3) Sentence (4), noun phrase dua pilihan is translated into noun phrase two alternatives. Here, dua pilihan and two alternatives are noun phrases. It can be seen that the noun phrase dua pilihan is plural because dua is the Indonesian numerical in nominal markers. Also two alternatives is plural noun because two is determiner of number and alternatives has suffix -s plural are the markers of the English nouns. Therefore, this is Linguistic equivalence, because there is homogeneity on the linguistic level of both and texts. It can be concluded that they have same linguistic level which is plurality in countable words, so that plural noun phrase is translated into plural noun phrase. singular-np is translated into singular-np (5) Seekor codot melintas di atas pohon pisang. (p. 111, l. 10) Sentence (5), noun phrase Seekor codot is translated into noun phrase A bat. Here, seekor codot and a bat are noun phrases. Based on the analysis of the text above, the Indonesian noun phrase seekor codot like seekor in prefix se- is one as singular and codot is a noun, and then English noun phrase a bat like a in determiner of articles is singular, so they are the markers of singular nouns. It can be seen that this is Linguistic equivalence, because there is homogeneity on the linguistic level of both and texts. They are the same linguistic level which is singular in countable words. So, singular noun phrase is translated into singular noun phrase. (5) A bat passing over the top of a banana tree (p. 117, l. 7) Dynamic Equivalence (6) Ingat, sebuah ringgit emas! (p. 77, l. 33) (6) Just think, a gold piece! (p. 79, l. 15) Sentence (6), noun phrase sebuah ringgit emas is translated into noun phrase a gold piece. It can be seen that they are dynamic equivalence, because the word ringgit can be omitted into gold by the translator, if in is translated into ringgit it would be more confused, it would be better if ringgit is not translated, but it can be 10

11 changed into the word gold based on the text above. Therefore, there is dynamic equivalence, although the form of is changed but the meaning in is the same. The Analysis of Shift NO The Shift and Its Sub-Categories Number of Data (%) 1 Structure Shift in Word Order 21 21% head word initial is translated into head word final 21 2 Unit Shift 32 32% phrase is translated into word phrase is translated into compound word phrase is translated into three words Addition of a word in NP Omission of a word in NP 3 Intra System Shift 5 5% phrases have no determiner is translated into phrases may have a 5 determiner TOTAL 58 58% FIGURE 4. The Shift in the English Translation of Indonesian Noun Phrases and its Sub-Categories The research found that there are 21 or 21% data of Structure Shift in word order which is head word initial is translated into head word final, 32 or 32% data of Unit Shift is divided into three sub-categories which are phrase is translated into word, phrase is translated into compound word, phrase is translated into three words, and 5 or 5% data of Intra System Shift which is phrases have no determiner is translated into phrases may have a determiner. Structure Shift in Word Order head word initial is translated into head word final (7) Ah, rumah ilalang lagi. (p. 314, l. 20) Sentence (7), noun phrase rumah ilalang is not translated into shack grass, but it is translated into noun phrase grass shack. This is because the word order between Indonesian and English are different. As the position of the Indonesian head word is head-initial, and head word is the word rumah. While, the position of the English head word is head-final, and head word is the word shack. It can be seen that there is structure shift in word order involves mostly a shift in grammatical structure. So, head word initial is translated into head word final. (7) Another grass shack. (p. 352, l. 4) Unit Shift Noun phrase is translated into word (8) Banyak perempuan memenuhi rumah Kartareja. (p. 18, l. 18) (8) Women filled the Kartareja house (p. 14, l. 15) 11

12 Sentence (8), noun phrase banyak perempuan consists of two words is translated into women consists of one word. It can be seen that the word banyak is the marker of the Indonesian plural noun. Here, there is a shift namely unit shift means change of rank which is a unit at one rank in the, is a unit at a different rank in the, for example from a phrase to a word. It can be concluded that shift occurs from a noun phrase in into a word in. Noun phrase is translated into compound word (9) Tetes-tetes air yang tersisa (p. 21, l. 28) (9) Rainwater, collected (p. 18, l. 12) Sentence (9), noun phrase tetes-tetes air is translated into compound word rainwater. It can be seen that tetes-tetes air is plural noun phrase because of tetes-tetes is plurality and the word tetes-tetes is plural noun to classify water. While rainwater is a compound word or noun compound and sometimes presented as a single word rainwater is a noun because its rightmost component is a noun such as rain is a noun and water is a noun based on the analysis of the text above. Therefore, there is a unit shift because a unit at one rank in the is a unit at a different rank in the for example from a phrase in to a compound word in. So, noun phrase is translated into compound word. Noun phrase is translated into three words Addition of a word in the Noun phrase (10) Sehelai tikar tersedia bagi tempat Srintil menari. (p. 19, l. 8) (10) A large mat was unrolled for Srintil to dance on. (p. 15, l. 7) Sentence (10), sehelai tikar which consists of two words is translated into a large mat which consists of three words. sehelai tikar is a noun phrase, because prefix se- one as the marker of Indonesian nouns is translated into a large mat like article a as sehelai and tikar is mat. Here, there is the word large as the adjective. Therefore; the word large is addition of a word in the noun phrase. It can be a large mat which consists of three words. So, there is a unit shift because a unit at one rank in the is a unit at a different rank in the based on the analysis of the text above. It can be concluded that noun phrase is translated into three words as the addition of a word in the noun phrase. Omission of a word in the Noun phrase (11) Saya Prajurit Dua Rasus (p. 273, l. 20) (11) I m Private Rasus (p. 306, l. 15) Sentence (11), Prajurit Dua Rasus which consists of three words is translated into private Rasus which consists of two words. Prajurit Dua Rasus is 12

13 translated into Private Rasus in, but it is not translated into Private Second Rasus. Here, there is the word Dua as the Indonesian numerical or number. But it is not translated into second. Therefore; the word Dua is omission of a word in the noun phrase. It can be Private Rasus which consists of two words. So, there is a unit shift because a unit at one rank in the is a unit at a different rank in the based on the analysis of the text above. It can be concluded that noun phrase is translated into two words as the omission of a word in the noun phrase. Intra System Shift Noun phrases have no determiner is translated into Noun phrases may have a determiner (12) Sinar bulan tidak mampu menembus tirai (p. 22, l. 6) (12) The moonlight, to weak to pierce the blanket (p. 18, l. 18) Sentence (12), noun phrase sinar bulan is translated into noun phrase the moonlight. Usually nouns in bahasa Indonesia do not use any articles, whereas in English, nouns are usually preceded by the articles a, an or the. sinar bulan is translated into the moonlight. Of course it can be seen that the system in English, it must use article the because there is only one moon. Therefore, this is Intra system shift occurs if one system in the has as its translation equivalent a different noncorresponding-system in the. It can be concluded that there is different system in and which is the Indonesian systems do not use the determiners while in English systems use the determiners. So, noun phrases have no determiner is translated into noun phrases may have a determiner. CONCLUSION AND SUGGESTION The problems in this research are: How are Indonesian Noun Phrases translated into English?, What are the types of equivalence in the English translation of Indonesian Noun phrases?, and What are the types of shift in the English translation of Indonesian Noun phrases?. This research answers the questions by analyzing and describing equivalence and shift in form and meaning which are found in the novels. The writer concludes that the equivalence is not similar. Form and meaning are frequently not fully equivalent, but one should notice that forms may change but meaning must not change. In dynamic equivalence, although the form is different, but one thing is important, which is the meaning is the same. Whereas, shift should be considered as the consequence of the translators effort to establish translation naturalness between two different languages, and. The occurrence of shift reflects the translator s awareness of the linguistic and non-linguistic discrepancies between and. In this sense, shift can be defined as problem solving strategies adapted consciously to minimize the inevitable loss of meaning when rendering a text from one language into another language. In this research, the relation between translation and the noun phrases is every text in the translation consists of the sentence and in sentence there are clause and phrase, both Indonesian and English translation. From some sentences, we can know the noun phrase. Therefore, the writer makes the equivalence and shift in the English translation of Indonesian noun phrases in order to help students to understand 13

14 the sentences in the translation by identifying word order and its marker in noun phrases. The writer also concludes that there are two main categories which are equivalence and shift, each category are subcategorized. The equivalent category is subcategorized into: 1) Textual equivalence is divided into three sub-categories which are subject-np in a sentence is translated into subject-np, predicate-np in a sentence is translated into predicate-np, object-np in a sentence is translated into object-np, 2) Linguistic Equivalence is divided into two sub-categories which are; plural-np is translated into plural-np, singular-np is translated into singular-np, and 3) Dynamic Equivalence. And the shift category is subcategorized into 1) Structure shift in word order which is head word initial is translated into head word final, 2) Unit Shift is divided into three sub-categories which are phrase is translated into word, phrase is translated into compound word, phrase is translated into three words, and 3) Intra System Shift which is phrases have no determiner is translated into phrases may have a determiner. The result shows that the shifts occur more often than the equivalence. There are 42 data of equivalence or 42 % and 58 data of shift or 58 %. The writer suggests for the next researcher to discuss the equivalence and shift in the English translation of the other Indonesian phrases or vice versa. BIBLIOGRAPHY Baker, Mona In other words: a Coursebook on Translation. London: Routledge Bassnett, Susan Translation Studies: revisited edition. London: Routledge Catford, J.C A Linguistics Theory of Translation. London: Oxford University Press. Frank, Marcella Modern English (Part I: Part of Speech). New Jersey: Englewood Cliffs, Prentice-Hall, Inc Gleason, Jr, H, A An Introduction to Descriptive Linguistics. New York: Henry Holt and Company Harimurti, Kridaklasana Tata Bahasa Baku Bahasa Indonesia. Jakarta: Balai Pustaka Haspelmath, Martin Understanding Morphology. London: Hodder Headline Group Hatim, Basil and Munday, Jeremy Translation: An advance resource book. London and New York: Routledge Katamba, Francis Morphology. London: The Macmillan Press Unt Kentjono, Djoko, dkk Tata Bahasa Acuan: Bahasa Indonesia Untuk Penutur Asing. Jakarta: Wedatama Widya Sastra 14

15 Larson, Mildred L Meaning-based Translation: A Guide to Cross Language Equivalence (second edition). Lanham: University Press of America. Munday, Jeremy Introducing Translation Studies: Theories and Application. London and New York: Routledge Newmark, Peter Approaches To Translation. Oxford: Pergamon Press Ltd O Grady, William and Dobrovolsky, Michael Contemporary Linguistics: An Introduction Third Edition. New York: ST. Martin s Press, Inc Owen, Rachel The Translator s Handbook. London: Aslib Pyle, A Michael and Munoz Ellen Mary Cliff s Test of English as a Foreign Language Preparation Guide, Nebraska: John Wiley & Sons Richard, Jill. at all A Noun Word Class. From Tallerman, Magie Understanding Syntax. New York: Oxford University Press Venuti, Laurence The Translation Studies Reader. London & New York: Routledge Wilkinson, David The Researcher s Toolkit. London: Cambridge University 15

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