ECONOMY. October 13 th, Ir. Frans Quadvlieg, Senior Project Manager. MARIN (MAritime Research Institute Netherlands)

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1 MARINE PROPULSION AND FUEL ECONOMY October 13 th, 2009 Ir. Frans Quadvlieg, Senior Project Manager MARIN (MAritime Research Institute Netherlands)

2 CONTENTS: MARIN (short introduction) GREEN awareness GREEN image Fuel economy in new designs Fuel economy on existing ships (re-fitting) Conclusions 2

3 Organisation, services 3

4 GREEN awareness GREEN image Human behaviour towards energy: Huge availability + lack of education + affordable prices = waste + inefficiency 4

5 GREEN awareness GREEN image Human behaviour towards energy: Lack of availability = development of new ideas!! 5

6 GREEN awareness GREEN image Human behaviour towards energy:...it is not sufficient to call energy green to be truly GREEN! 6

7 GREEN awareness GREEN image Types of energies used in marine applications CONVENTIONAL: MODERN GREEN: Wind power Human power (rowing, waterbike) Carbon based (coal, HFO, Diesel, petrol) Nuclear power Biofuel Hydrogen Solar energy Wave power Wind power (Biomass, Geothermal, Hydroelectricity) The biggest source of energy is: energy saving! 7

8 GREEN awareness GREEN image Define the mission of the ship When is fuel economy relevant? Example: 45 m displacement M/Y 450 motor hours per year 85 l per hour at 10 knots (economy speed) l/year 125 l per hour at 12.5 knots (top speed) 8

9 GREEN awareness GREEN image Define the mission of the ship For a ferry... For a cruise vessel... For a frigate... Since 2007 the main expense for many cruise companies is: fuel! 9

10 Fuel economy for new designs

11 Recent initiatives: IMO: Energy Efficiency Design Index (EEDI) Circular MEPC.1/Circ.681 Interim guidelines, for the purpose of test and trials on a voluntary basis provide outcome to IMO Energy Efficiency Operational Index (EEOI) Circular MEPC.1/Circ.684 to bring the Guidelines to the attention of all parties concerned and recommend them to use the Guidelines on a voluntary basis provide outcome of use to IMO 11

12 Which is: 12

13 The EEDI formula Benefit to society: Deadweight for cargo vessels GT for ferrys / cruise Reference speed: 75%MCR Deepest draught No waves 13

14 How did that work out? 14

15 Energy Efficiency Operational Index Based on the actual energy use per ton / mile 15

16 What to do in design stage? Optimize the hull form for lower resistance Optimize i appendages for lower resistance Suitable propulsor and hull-propulsor efficiency Conventional techniques Consider non-conventional techniques Air lubrication New bow forms 16

17 Hull lines optimisation 17

18 Fuel Economy in new designs Optimisation process for classical hull lines (CFD, rudder design, propeller design, etc) SQUEEZE OUT EVERY DETAIL & DESIGN for SERVICE!!! 18

19 Fuel Economy in new designs Optimisation process for aft ship hull lines (CFD, rudder design, propeller design, etc) 19

20 Example: a single screw tanker Original design Marin s proposal 20

21 Achieved results Wake field at the location of the propeller 21

22 Gains: Achieved gains in ship design 5.4% resistance decrease 27% better uniformity of wake field (resulting in less vibrations and better propeller design) The investments for this: about 30kUS$ 22

23 ALTERNATIVE SOLUTIONS 23

24 POSSIBLE PROPULSION SYSTEMS Contra-rotating Hybrid propulsors 24

25 Alternative propulsors Air lubrication 25

26 Other possibilities 2 and 3 bladed propellers This is the subject of a Joint Industry Project. Aiming at slow speed tankers & bulk carriers Large diameter propellers, different aft ships 26

27 Fuel economy for existing designs

28 Modifications to existing designs Due to mid life upgrades Due to changing profiles Possibilities: Hull form modifications Energy egysaving devices New propulsors 28

29 Fuel Economy on existing ships REFITTING with DUCKTAILS, TRIMWEDGES, INTERCEPTORS, new BULB designs, variations of TRIM can lead to unexpected fuel savings!! 29

30 Interceptors Act as a trimwedge when properly located 30

31 Trim wedge example 31

32 The working of a wedge, flap or interceptor There is a balance between the forward and aftward directed force This is quite sensitive to aft body shape and loading conditions! 32

33 Energy saving devices Flow control based on: Acceleration of axial flow Generation of pre-swirl Usually: Ducts and fins Passive devices (active are not so much used) Scale effects play an important role 33

34 Energy saving in ship design A proper hull form Clever propulsors Energy Saving devices (often patented) 34

35 Types of ESD s patented Wake equalising ducts (Schneekluth) Pre-swirl devices Post-swirl devices Grim wheel Boss cap fins Overlapping propellers Spoilers Rudder bulb 35

36 Wake equalizing duct (Schneekluth) 36

37 Pre-swirl devices (Stators) - DSME 37

38 Post swirl devices 38

39 Grimm s wheel 39

40 Propeller Boss Cap Fins (PBCF) Mitsui 40

41 Overlapping propellers 41

42 Fins and spoilers (Grothues) 42

43 Rudder bulb 43

44 Twisted rudder To avoid cavitation 44

45 Estimated efficiency indices by MARIN Schneekluth wake equalizing duct (WED) 3 5 % Grothues wake equalizing spoiler 3 4 % Pre-Swirl Fin Systems 3 4 % Rudder Fins 3 4 % Propeller boss cap fins (PBCF) 1 3 % 45

46 Challenges: ESD s will operate in the boundary layer of the vessel, determined by viscosity Therefore scale effects are important, and model scale performance does not guarantee full scale optimums Recommendation: use model AND full scale CFD on top of model tests t 46

47 Recommendations The possible gains depend on the quality of the ship & prop design. For badly designed ships, large gains are possible. Limitations in design, may hamper a good hydrodynamic d design. In that t case, a ESD should be combined in the ship design from the beginning. Huge gains are seen in the brochure. Rotational losses are +/-6%. A rudder recovers 3% 47

48 CONCLUSIONS: Any type of energy saving is GREEN IMO is raising attention for these matters Squeeze out every detail is possible at relatively low cost using conventional methods Experiment new solutions and designs using unconventional methods Existing ships refitting is possible and can lead to significant fuel savings 48

49 Thank you for your attention! Questions? i l 49

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