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1 BY Shashwath Veerappa Devaru CS615 Aspects of System Administration

2 Using Multiple Hard Drives for Performance and Reliability RAID is the term used to describe a storage systems' resilience to disk failure through the use of multiple disks and by the use of data distribution and correction techniques.

3 Original Motivation Replacing large and expensive mainframe hard drives (IBM 3310) by several cheaper Winchester disk drives Will work but introduce a data reliability problem: Assume MTTF of a disk drive is 30,000 hours MTTF for a set of n drives is 30,000/n n = 10 means MTTF of 3,000 hours Today s Motivation Cheap SCSI hard drives are now big enough for most applications We use RAID today for Increasing disk throughput by allowing parallel access Eliminating the need to make disk backups Disks are too big to be backed up in an efficient fashion

4 Capacity More disks allows us to store more data Performance Access multiple disks in parallel Each disk can be working on independent read or write Overlap seek and rotational positioning time for all Reliability Recover from disk (or single sector) failures Will need to store multiple copies of data to recover

5 RAID can be Software, Hardware or a combination of both. Generally speaking, Software RAID tends to offer duplication or mirroring, while Hardware RAID offers Parity-based protection.

6 Hardware RAID Storage box you attach to computer Same interface as single disk, but internally much more Multiple disks More complex controller NVRAM (holding parity blocks) Software RAID OS (device driver layer) treats multiple disks like a single disk Software does all extra work Interface for both Linear array of bytes, just like a single disk (but larger)

7 Cost Simplicity Duplexing Performance Boot volume limitations Level support Advanced feature support Operating System Compatibility Issues Software Compatibility Issues Reliability Concerns

8 There are two main types of hardware RAID, differing primarily in how they interface the array to the system: Bus-Based or Controller Card Hardware RAID Intelligent, External RAID Controller

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11 Characteristics and Advantages RAID 0 implements a striped disk array, the data is broken down into blocks and each block is written to a separate disk drive I/O performance is greatly improved by spreading the I/O load across many channels and drives Best performance is achieved when data is striped across multiple controllers with only one drive per controller No parity calculation overhead is involved Very simple design Easy to implement

12 Disadvantages Not a "True" RAID because it is NOT fault-tolerant The failure of just one drive will result in all data in an array being lost Should never be used in mission critical environments Recommended Applications Video Production and Editing Image Editing Pre-Press Applications Any application requiring high bandwidth

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14 Advantages One Write or two Reads possible per mirrored pair Twice the Read transaction rate of single disks, same Write transaction rate as single disks 100% redundancy of data means no rebuild is necessary in case of a disk failure, just a copy to the replacement disk Transfer rate per block is equal to that of a single disk Under certain circumstances, RAID 1 can sustain multiple simultaneous drive failures Simplest RAID storage subsystem design Disadvantages Highest disk overhead of all RAID types (100%) inefficient Typically the RAID function is done by system software, loading the CPU/Server and possibly degrading throughput at high activity levels. Hardware implementation is strongly recommended May not support hot swap of failed disk when implemented in "software" Recommended Applications Accounting Payroll Financial Any application requiring very high availability

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16 Characteristics/Advantages "On the fly" data error correction Extremely high data transfer rates possible The higher the data transfer rate required, the better the ratio of data disks to ECC disks Relatively simple controller design compared to RAID levels 3, 4 & 5 Disadvantages Very high ratio of ECC disks to data disks with smaller word sizes inefficient Entry level cost very high - requires very high transfer rate requirement to justify Transaction rate is equal to that of a single disk at best (with spindle synchronization) No commercial implementations exist/not commercially viable

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18 Characteristics and advantages Very high Read data transfer rate Very high Write data transfer rate Disk failure has an insignificant impact on throughput Low ratio of ECC (Parity) disks to data disks means high efficiency Disadvantages Transaction rate equal to that of a single disk drive at best (if spindles are synchronized) Controller design is fairly complex Very difficult and resource intensive to do as a "software" RAID Recommended Applications Video Production and live streaming Image Editing Video Editing Prepress Applications Any application requiring high throughput

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20 Characteristics and advantages Very high Read data transaction rate Low ratio of ECC (Parity) disks to data disks means high efficiency High aggregate Read transfer rate Disadvantages Quite complex controller design Worst Write transaction rate and Write aggregate transfer rate Difficult and inefficient data rebuild in the event of disk failure Block Read transfer rate equal to that of a single disk

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22 Characteristics and advantages Highest Read data transaction rate Medium Write data transaction rate Low ratio of ECC (Parity) disks to data disks means high efficiency Good aggregate transfer rate Most versatile RAID level Disadvantages Disk failure has a medium impact on throughput Most complex controller design Difficult to rebuild in the event of a disk failure (as compared to RAID level 1) Individual block data transfer rate same as single disk Recommended Applications File and Application servers Database servers Web, , and News servers Intranet servers

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24 Characteristics and advantages RAID 6 is essentially an extension of RAID level 5 which allows for additional fault tolerance by using a second independent distributed parity scheme (dual parity) Data is striped on a block level across a set of drives, just like in RAID 5, and a second set of parity is calculated and written across all the drives; RAID 6 provides for an extremely high data fault tolerance and can sustain multiple simultaneous drive failures RAID 6 protects against multiple bad block failures while non-degraded RAID 6 protects against a single bad block failure while operating in a degraded mode Perfect solution for mission critical applications Disadvantages More complex controller design Controller overhead to compute parity addresses is extremely high Write performance can be brought on par with RAID Level 5 by using a custom ASIC for computing Reed-Solomon parity Requires N+2 drives to implement because of dual parity scheme Recommended Applications Database servers Web and servers Intranet servers Excellent fault-tolerance with the lowest overhead

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31 Advantages Costs very little is suitable for system boot volume appears to host environment as IOC- or IOP-based RAID Disadvantages Depends on host CPU cycles to function Is unsuited for high CPU utilization environments (databases) uses complex driver that is tuned for a specific disk controller Is server OS dependent cannot run background tasks outside the OS Is potentially restricted from obtaining open source Linux drivers because of intellectual property conflicts Is affected by host OS crashes or memory corruption Is disk controller dependent

32 A Global Hot Spare is an idle disk drive which replaces a failed drive in any protected RAID Group The Hot Spare assumes the identity of the failed drive; data is either rebuilt or copied In a RAID 3-or-5, the Hot Spare will be rebuilt from the parity information in the RAID Group If RAID 1 or 1/0, the Hot Spare will equalize data with the surviving member A Hot Spare disk drive needs to be at least as large as the largest drives it is configured to replace When the failed drive is physically replaced, the data from the Hot Spare is equalized to the new drive After equalizing, the replaced drive and the Hot Spare assume their proper disk identities The Hot Spare is then placed in a "ready state for the next disk failure Local Hot Spares -Standby drive assigned to serve one specified drive -Generally used for RAID volumes containing mission critical data Global Hot Spares Standby drive assigned to serve an entire group of logical drives

33 Four main reasons for RAID protection these days are : Protect critical data Minimize disruptions Ensuring business continuity Affordability

34 rd_levels

Click on the diagram to see RAID 0 in action

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