Ecosystems. Chapter 55. Biology Eighth Edition Neil Campbell and Jane Reece. PowerPoint Lecture Presentations for

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1 Chapter 55 Ecosystems PowerPoint Lecture Presentations for Biology Eighth Edition Neil Campbell and Jane Reece Lectures by Chris Romero, updated by Erin Barley with contributions from Joan Sharp

2 Overview: Observing Ecosystems An ecosystem consists of all the organisms living in a community, as well as the abiotic components with which they interact Ecosystems range from a microcosm, such as a roach stomach, to a large area such as a lake or forest Regardless of an ecosystem s size, its dynamics involve two main processes: energy flow and chemical cycling Therefore, ecologists study the transformations of energy and matter within ecosystem 2

3 Conservation of Energy and Mass (matter) Energy enters an ecosystem as solar radiation, is conserved, and is lost from organisms as heat The law of conservation of mass states that matter cannot be created or destroyed Chemical elements are continually recycled within ecosystems 3

4 Energy, Mass, and Trophic Levels Autotrophs build molecules themselves using photosynthesis or chemosynthesis heterotrophs depend on the biosynthetic output of other organisms Energy and nutrients pass from primary producers (autotrophs) to primary consumers (herbivores) to secondary consumers (carnivores) to tertiary consumers (carnivores that feed on other carnivores) 4

5 Detritivores, or decomposers, are consumers that derive their energy from detritus, nonliving organic matter Decomposition connects all trophic levels 5

6 Fig. 55-3

7 Fig Tertiary consumers Microorganisms and other detritivores Secondary consumers Detritus Primary consumers Primary producers Key Heat Chemical cycling Energy flow Sun

8 Concept 55.2: Energy and other limiting factors control primary production in ecosystems Primary production in an ecosystem is the amount of light energy converted to chemical energy by autotrophs during a given time period 8

9 Fig Net primary production (kg carbon/m 2 yr)

10 Net primary production (g/m 2 yr) Fig ,000 Tropical forest 2,000 1,000 Temperate forest Mountain coniferous forest Desert shrubland Temperate grassland 0 0 Arctic tundra 500 1,000 1,500 Actual evapotranspiration (mm H 2 O/yr)

11 Concept 55.3: Energy transfer between trophic levels is typically only 10% efficient Secondary production of an ecosystem is the amount of chemical energy in food converted to new biomass during a given period of time 11

12 Fig Plant material eaten by caterpillar 200 J Feces 100 J 33 J 67 J Cellular respiration Growth (new biomass)

13 Trophic Efficiency and Ecological Pyramids Trophic efficiency is the percentage of production transferred from one trophic level to the next It usually ranges from 5% to 20% 13

14 Fig Tertiary consumers Secondary consumers 10 J 100 J Approximately 0.1% of chemical energy fixed by photosynthesis reaches a tertiary consumer Primary consumers 1,000 J Primary producers 10,000 J 1,000,000 J of sunlight

15 Concept 55.4: Biological and geochemical processes cycle nutrients between organic and inorganic parts of an ecosystem Life depends on recycling chemical elements Nutrient circuits in ecosystems involve biotic and abiotic components and are often called biogeochemical cycles The most important parts of biogeochemical cycles are: - Water cycle - Carbon cycle - Nitrogen cycle - Phosphorous cycle 15

16 16

17 Thank you for your attention and participation! 17

18 You should now be able to: 1. Define and compare primary production, secondary production, and trophic efficiency 2. Explain energy flow and nutrients cycle within an ecosystem 3. Distinguish between primary and secondary production 4. List four major biogeochemical cycles on the Earth 18

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