Chapter 13 study guide

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1 Below are listed some Key Topics or terms to aid in focusing your study time. More topics then these may appear on the exam but these are a good place to start. Check each box as you review the concept Be able to explain and describe what primary productivity is and its impacts on a food web. Be able to explain how solar penetration creates the photic zones and how this impacts plant and animal life. Be able to explain how water color relates to biological productivity. Understand what upwelling is and why it is important. Know the three main types of macroscopic algae and give examples. Be able to explain how productivity varies seasonally and why this is. Be able to explain why and how eutrophication occurs and what its significance is. Be able to explain how matter and energy cycle through an ecosystem. Be able to explain a biomass pyramid and what it represents. Explain what role fishing has in overall ocean health what are some consequences and how do management practices affect productivity. Look over the vocab on p. 402 of your text book. Look over the review questions on p. 403 of your text book.

2 Chapter 13 Biological Productivity and Energy Transfer Learning Objectives 1. Define biomass in the context of the marine environment. 2. Define primary productivity and distinguish between photosynthesis and chemosynthesis with respect to primary productivity. Name locations in the ocean in which you would expect to find photosynthetic and chemosynthetic organisms. 3. Differentiate between gross primary productivity and net primary productivity. How do the metabolic processes of photosynthesis and cellular respiration relate to gross and net primary productivity? 4. Outline the methods used to estimate primary productivity in marine environments including: A. plankton nets B. Gran method (= light and dark bottles) C. SeaWiFS (Sea viewing Wide Field of View Sensor) 5. Name the nutrients that limit primary productivity in marine environments. 6. Describe the sources of nutrient input into ocean systems including: A. coastal run off B. river input C. upwelling 7. Define the compensation depth for photosynthesis and describe how it is measured. 8. Explain the relationship between the compensation depth, the euphotic zone, and the depth to which solar radiation penetrates the ocean. How do these relationships change in coastal waters as opposed to waters of the epipelagic open ocean?

3 9. Provide an explanation as to why marine life is more abundant in coastal waters as compared to the open ocean. List all factors (biological, chemical, geologic, and physical) that affect species diversity, biomass, and the distribution of life in the ocean. 10. Detail the electromagnetic spectrum for visible light and explain the relationship between wavelength and energy. Discuss the implications of this relationship for light penetration in marine environments. 11. Describe the measurement of water clarity in aquatic systems. What is the relationship between clarity and turbidity? How are these concepts related to primary productivity? 12. Discuss the relationship between the color of ocean water and the productivity level of that area. 13. Define eutrophic. How is eutrophication related to nutrient input? To primary productivity? 14. List the photosynthetic organisms commonly found in marine environments, their taxonomic classification, and their preferred habitat including: A. sea grasses (Kingdom Plantae, Division Angiospermae [or Anthophyta]) textbook uses Spermatophyta B. cord grass, Spartina alterniflora (Kingdom Plantae, Division Angiospermae [or Anthophyta]) C. mangroves, Rhizophora and Avicennia (Kingdom Plantae, Division Angiospermae [or Anthophyta]) D. brown algae (Kingdom Protista, Division of Phaeophyta) E. green algae (Kingdom Protista, Division Chlorophyta) F. red algae (Kingdom Protista, Division Rhodophyta) G. golden algae (Kingdom Protista, Division Chrysophyta) H. diatoms (Kingdom Protista, Division Bacillariophyta) I. coccolithophorids (Kingdom Protista, Division Haptophyta) J. dinoflagellates (Kingdom Protista, Division Dinoflagellata or Pyrrophyta) 15. Describe the formation of a harmful algal bloom (HAB). List the causative organisms and the environmental factors that contribute to the development of HABs. 16. Compare and contrast the productivity of polar, temperate, and tropical oceans. Describe the physical, chemical, and geologic factors that contribute to productivity differences as a function of latitude. Apply what you have learned in previous chapters. 17. Define entropy as it applies to marine systems. 18. Distinguish between a community and an ecosystem. Give an example of each that you would find

4 in a marine environment. Chapter 13 study guide 19. Differentiate between autotrophic and heterotrophic modes of nutrition. Give an example of a marine organism that would employ each nutritional strategy. 20. Define each of the following terms that describe the position of an organism in the food chain (trophic level) and an example of a marine organism that fits the category including: A. producer B. consumer C. decomposer 21. Distinguish among the following types of consumers in terms of the food they eat and their position on the food chain, and give an example of a marine organism that would fit into each category including: A. herbivore B. carnivore C. omnivore D. bacteriovore 22. Define detritus and describe how detritus fits into the energy flow in a marine ecosystem. 23. Describe the biogeochemical cycling of the following nutrients in the ocean: A. carbon B. nitrogen C. phosphorus D. silica 24. Describe the various feeding strategies employed by marine organisms including: A. suspension (filter) feeding B. deposit feeding C. carnivorous feeding 25. Know the relationship between trophic level (caloric content) and the trophic transfer efficiency (gross ecological efficiency). What are the biological implications of a 90% energy loss between adjacent trophic levels? 26. Distinguish between a food chain, a food web, and a biomass pyramid. 27. Describe the role of microorganisms in the marine environment. 28. Differentiate among the following types of symbiotic relationships and give an example of each

5 including: A. commensalism B. mutualism C. parasitism Chapter 13 study guide 29. Define fisheries. 30. Define maximum sustainable yield (MSY). Discuss how MSY is determined and the implications of yield exceeding MSY, overfishing. 32. Define by catch and describe how the amount of by catch relates to the type of fishing gear used and the area fished. 33. Discuss the impact of an addendum to the Marine Mammals Act in 1992 on dolphin populations and tuna fishing. How has dolphin safe tuna labeling impacted accidental dolphin mortality rates in the tuna industry? 34. Distinguish between purse seines and drift nets (gill nets). Discuss the amount of by catch resulting from the use of these nets. 35. Detail the regulation and management of commercial fish species including: A. regulation of fishing vessels B. gear regulation C. limits (weight, size, and sex) D. limiting season to ensure successful reproduction E. regulating licenses F. enforcement 31. Outline how consumer choices affect commercial fisheries. Make recommendations regarding how consumer choice can impact fisheries management and harvest of target species. Sample questions 1. Chemosynthesis is a method of primary productivity. How does it differ from photosynthesis? 2. How does gross primary productivity differ from net primary production? What are the two components of gross primary production, and how are they different? 3. Why does everything in the ocean at depths below the shallowest surface water take on a bluegreen appearance?

6 4. What factors create the color difference between coastal waters and the less productive openocean water? What color is each? 5. Generally, the productivity in tropical oceans is rather low. What are three environments that are exceptions to this, and what factors contribute to their higher productivity? 6. What conditions create ocean eutrophication (dead zones)? What can be done to limit their spread? 7. Describe the flow of energy through the biotic community and include forms into which solar radiation is converted. How does this flow differ from the manner in which mass is moved through the ecosystem? 8. When a species is overfished, what changes are there in the standing stock and the maximum sustainable yield? What are some problems with fisheries management?

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