Ecology. Initial Vocab and Practice. Page 1 in notes

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2 Ecology Initial Vocab and Practice Page 1 in notes 2

3 The study of the interactions of living organisms with one another and with their environment. 3

4 Organism/species an individual living thing. Ecologist would study daily movement, size, etc. 4

5 A group of the same species that live in one area. An ecologist would study population growth territoriality, intra-specific competition, etc. 5

6 A group of different species that live together in one area able to function b/c each organism w/in the ecosystem depends on other organisms An ecologist would study food chain and webs, parasitism, etc. 6

7 Includes all of the oraganisms as well as the abioic factors w/which they interact ex: terrestrial and marine ecosystems An ecologist would study the effects of light, moisture, temp. etc. on organisms and all of the interactions of those orgs. w/each other. 7

8 Biome A major regional or global community of organisms An ecologist would study how global matters affect orgs. such as, El Nino, greenhouse effect, ozone depletion, etc. 8

9 Organization Review 9

10 Abiotic all of the nonliving parts of the environment such as, air currents, temperature, moisture, light, minerals in soil, topography, water, wind, sunlight 10

11 Biotic all of the living organisms that inhabit an environment 11

12 Habitat the place where an org. lives out its life. (where it lives) Different species of orgs. may appear to have the same habitat, but each has a different niche so that they can survive in that habitat. 12

13 Niche role a species plays in a community such as feeding relationships and space (how it lives) what the org. needs to survive in the environment includes how a species uses and affects its environment. 13

14 Organization Review 14

15 Changing one factor in an ecosystem can affect many other factors. Biodiversity is the assortment, or variety, of living things in an ecosystem. 15

16 The nonnative zebra mussel was first found in a lake near Detroit in By 1989, it had colonized all Great Lakes waterways. Nonnative mussels outcompete native mussels for food and other resources, ultimately lowering biodiversity. Biodiversity is important because a. A loss of biodiversity can reduce an ecosystem s stability. b. Native mussels are tastier than nonnative mussels. c. A loss of biodiversity can cause the evolution of a new species. 16

17 Which of the following is a benefit of biodiversity to humans? a. Food b. Timber c. Medicines d. All of the above 17

18 In a forest community, a shelf fungus and a slug live on the side of a decaying tree trunk. The fungus digest and absorbs materials from the tree, while the slug eats algae growing on the outside of the trunk. These organisms do not compete with one another because they occupy a. The same habitat, but different niches b. The same niche, but different habitats c. The same habitat and niche d. Different habitats and niches 18

19 Practice Review of Material 1. What level of organization is being described: flower, grasshopper, rocks, snake? 2. Name one biotic thing in this picture, name one abiotic thing in this picture. 19

20 Practice Review of Material 1. Which one would pose as a serious threat to biodiversity? a. Competition within a species b. Habitat destruction 2. What is the habitat of this rabbit? What is its niche? Is it biotic or abiotic? 20

21 Energy Flow Energy Flow Student Notes 21

22 Autotrophs Organisms that use Energy from the sun or Energy stored in chemical compounds to manufacture their own food. Also called producers; all other orgs. in community depend on producer Examples: plants 22

23 Energy Flow Sequence Producer Consumer Producer primary secondary tertiary consumer consumer consumer Producer herbivore carnivore carnivore omnivore omnivore 23

24 Food chain shows simple relationship of what organism consumes what organism. 24

25 25

26 Food Chains and Decomposers All food chains and food webs include a decomposer. Two decomposers: 1. Bacteria 2. Fungi 26

27 Two rules to follow when making a food chain 1. Always start with a producer organism 2.Arrow always goes in the direction of Energy flow Grass Grasshopper Shrew 27

28 Trophic levels are the nourishment levels in a food chain. Primary consumers are herbivores that eat producers. Secondary consumers are carnivores that eat herbivores. Tertiary consumers are carnivores that eat secondary consumers. Producer primary consumer secondary consumer tertiary consumer 28

29 Grass insect frog snake hawk 29

30 Producer Decomposer Primary Consumer Secondary Consumer 1. A tree 2. A squirrel eating a nut 3. Bacteria changing dead plants into nutrients 4. A toad eating a grasshopper 5. A hawk eating a lizard 6. A human eating lettuce 7. A cricket eating grass 8. A tomato plant 9. Bracket fungi decaying a stump 30

31 Practice Energy Flow 1. Describe how the energy would flow among the following organisms: human grass deer 2. Which of the following lists the amount of available energy in a trophic level from the most energy to the least energy: Secondary consumer Producer Primary consumer 31

32 Practice Energy Flow Fill in the missing section: Choices: producer, tertiary consumer, primary consumer, secondary consumer algae? fish? 32

33 Energy Flow Practice Review Finch A eats: nuts and seeds Finch B eats: worms and insects Finch C eats: fruits and seeds 1. Which two species would most likely be able to live in the same habitat without competing for food? 2. Which position on the trophic level (producer, PC, SC, TC) would Finch A represent? 33

34 Energy Flow Practice Grass grasshopper frog snake This food chain contains: A. 4 consumers and no producers B. 1 predator, 1 parasite, and 2 producers C. 2 carnivores and 2 herbivores D. 2 predators, 1 herbivore, and 1 producer 34

35 Energy Flow Practice 1. Decomposers are important in the environment because they a. Convert large molecules into simpler molecules that can be recycled. b. Release heat from large molecules so that the heat can be recycled through the ecosystem. c. Convert molecules of dead organisms into permanent biotic parts of an ecosystem. 35

36 Food Web tries to explain all of the feeding relationships at each trophic level in a community. 36

37 37

38 38

39 3 ways to demonstrate flow of energy 1. Food Web 2. Food Chain 3. Energy Pyramids 39

40 Pyramid of Energy shows energy relationships between trophic levels in the form of calories. 40

41 Pyramid of Numbers Shows number relationship between numbers of organisms at different trophic levels. 41

42 Pyramid of Biomass shows the dry weight of tissue and other organic matter found in a specific ecosystem. 42

43 Limitations at the trophic levels. 10% Rule: Only 10% of the energy available at one trophic level is transferred to the next trophic level. Why? 90% is lost as indigestible waste or heat loss. 43

44 Review of Material 1. According to this food web: Which population would likely increase if the snake were removed? wild cat kite mouse 44

45 The kinds and amounts of elements on Earth are relatively constant. Nothing added or subtracted. All elements are recycled 45

46 Nutrient Cycles Carbohydrate Energy source Lipid Energy source Cell membrane component 46

47 Nutrient Cycles Proteins Structural (hair etc) Enzymes Nucleic Acids DNA, RNA Genetic material 47

48 The nitrogen cycle mostly takes place underground. 1. Main reservoir for nitrogen is in the air (78% nitrogen gas) 2. Plants can not utilize nitrogen in this form (gas) so they rely on nitrogen-fixing bacteria. 3. Nitrogen fixation Terrestrial ecosystems Bacteria on root nodules of legumes (peas, beans, alfalfa, clover) Nitrogen gas ammonium nitrite nitrate used by plants Aquatic ecosystems Blue-green bacteria Algae Lightning 48

49 Nitrogen Cycle Nitrogen through the food chain Producers soil/nitrogen fixation Consumers eat producer Nitrogen returns to the soil by: nitrogen fixation excrement decomposition Nitrogen returns to the atmosphere by: denitrifying bacteria (releases nitrogen gas back into the atmosphere) 49

50 50

51 Needed for: glucose formation How does Carbon get to the producers? Photosynthesis (Carbon dioxide) Photosynthesis: CO 2 + H 2 O C 6 H 12 O 6 + O 2 How does it get to the consumers? * eat the producer (glucose) How does carbon get back to the producer? 1. cell respiration 2. Decay 3. Burning of fossil fuels/combustion 51

52 Oxygen Cycle Needed for: conversion of glucose into energy/atp C 6 H 12 O 6 + O 2 CO 2 + H 2 O + ATP/Energy How does it get to the producers? Made in photosynthesis How does it get to the consumers? Breathe it How does it get back into the air? photosynthesis 52

53 53

54 Needed for: Cell Respiration Evaporation/Transpiration Condensation Precipitation Transpiration = evaporation from plants Producers ground/rain Consumers drink water or eat plant Back to earth precipitation 54

55 55

56 Needed for: proteins and NA 1. Phosphate is released by the weathering of rocks. 2. Phosphorus leaches into groundwater from soil and sediments. 3. Mining and agriculture add phosphorus into environment. Producers soil Consumers eat producers Back to soil weathering of rocks, mining and agriculture, excretion and death and decay. 56

57 1. High concentrations of sediment in the water can block out sunlight needed by aquatic plants for photosynthesis. This condition will most likely result in: a. Increased concentration of nitrogen b. Decreased concentration of nitrogen c. Increased concentration of oxygen d. Decreased concentration of oxygen 57

58 Nutrient Cycle Review All of the following release carbon dioxide into the atmosphere except: 1. Burning of fossil fuels 2. Decomposition 3. Cellular respiration 4. The water cycle 58

59 Nutrient Cycle Review Which organism plays a major rule in the nitrogen cycle by converting nitrogen gas into a form that plants can use? 1. Ants 2. Earthworms 3. Bacteria 4. Animals 59

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