Physical laws govern energy flow and chemical cycling in ecosystems [2].

Save this PDF as:
 WORD  PNG  TXT  JPG

Size: px
Start display at page:

Download "Physical laws govern energy flow and chemical cycling in ecosystems [2]."

Transcription

1 GUIDED READING - Ch ECOSYSTEMS NAME: Please print out these pages and HANDWRITE the answers directly on the printouts. Typed work or answers on separate sheets of paper will not be accepted. Importantly, guided readings are NOT GROUP PROJECTS!!! You, and you alone, are to answer the questions as you read. You are not to share them with another students or work together on filling it out. Please report any dishonest behavior to your instructor to be dealt with accordingly. Get in the habit of writing legibly, neatly, and in a NORMAL, MEDIUM-SIZED FONT. AP essay readers and I will skip grading anything that cannot be easily and quickly read so start perfecting your handwriting. Please SCAN documents properly and upload them to Archie. Avoid taking photographs of or uploading dark, washed out, side ways, or upside down homework. Please use the scanner in the school s media lab if one is not at your disposal and keep completed guides organized in your binder to use as study and review tools. READ FOR UNDERSTANDING and not merely to complete an assignment. Though all the answers are in your textbook, you should try to put answers in your own words, maintaining accuracy and the proper use of terminology, rather than blindly copying the textbook whenever possible. 1. What is an ecosystem? 2. a. Where does energy enter most ecosystems? [2] b. How and by whom is this energy converted into chemical energy and passed through the ecosystem? [2] c. How is it lost? [2] Remember energy cannot be recycled! 3. Besides the energy flow that you described in question 2, chemicals such as carbon and nitrogen cycle through ecosystems. So energy an ecosystem and matter. [2] Physical laws govern energy flow and chemical cycling in ecosystems [2]. 4. What does the First Law of Thermodynamics state?

2 5. How does the Second Law of Thermodynamics explain why energy needs to continually be resupplied to ecosystems? 6. a. Both energy and matter can be neither nor. [2] b. This concept is outline by the Law of. 7. What do we mean when we say that just like individual organisms, ecosystems are open system? 8. How are organisms assigned to trophic levels? 9. a. Quick review (not from this chapter). What is a trophic level? b. We can measure the efficiency of energy conversion in an ecosystem, as well as whether a given nutrient is being gained or lost from an ecosystem. What trophic level supports all others? [2] c. What do these organisms do? 10. List three groups of organisms that are photosynthetic autotrophs. [2] 11. What are the primary producers of the deep-sea vents? [2] 12. What is the difference between a primary, secondary, and tertiary consumer?

3 13. a. What are detrivores (a.k.a. decomposers)? b. What are the two important groups of detrivores and how do they obtain their energy? c. What is their role in they cycling of chemicals? d. Detrivores are critical to life on Earth. What would be the result of the loss of decomposers in ecosystems? 14. State the trophic level of each of the following: a. Cows = b. Grass = c. Human = d. Mushroom = Energy and other limiting factors control primary production in ecosystems [2]. 15. List three reasons why in the end only a small fraction of the visible light that hits Earth is converted to chemical energy by photosynthetic organisms. a. b. c. 16. a. What is an ecosystem s primary production? b. Distinguish between gross and net primary production. c. Write an equation that shows the relationship between gross and net primary production.

4 17. You may recall from Chapter 54 that biomass is the total mass of all individuals in a trophic level. Another way of defining net primary production is as the amount of NEW biomass added in a given period of time. Why is net primary production, or the amount of new biomass/unit of time and area, the key measurement to ecologists? [2] 18. Which ecosystem would tend to have a greater biomass/unit area, a prairie or a tropical rain forest? Explain. [2] 19. Let s say that a student is trying to estimate total primary production of plants in a prairie ecosystem for one year. Once each quarter, the student cuts a plot of grass with a lawnmower and then collects and weighs the cuttings to estimate plant production What components of plant primary production is the student missing with this approach? [1] 20. What are two factors that limit primary productivity in aquatic ecosystems? [2] 21. a. What is a limiting nutrient? [2] b. What is the limiting nutrient off the shore of Long Island, New York? [2] c. What is the limiting nutrient in the Sagrasso Sea? [2] 22. Phytoplankton growth and overgrowth or blooms can be caused by the addition of nitrates and phosphates to their aquatic habitat. What are common sources of each of these? [2] 23. Why are areas of upwelling so high in primary productivity compared to the rest of the oceans? 24. a. What is eutrophication and what effect does it have on life in the regions where it takes place?

5 b. What are factors that contribute to eutrophication? 25. Unlike nutrients and light, what are the two main factors that control primary production in terrestrial ecosystems? 26. What is the most productive terrestrial ecosystem in the world and why? 27. How can an ecologist experimentally determine the factors that limit primary production in an ecosystem? 28. Which nutrients soil do at times limit primary production in terrestrial ecosystems and how do farmers combat this? Energy transfer between trophic levels is typically only 10% efficient [2]. 29. What is referred to as an ecosystem s secondary production? 30. What does production efficiency refer to? 31. a. What is trophic efficiency? b. Why should this number always be lower than production efficiency?

6 32. a. If an insect that eats plant seeds containing 100J of energy uses 30J of that energy for respiration and excretes 50J in its feces, what is the insect s net secondary production? b. What is its production efficiency? 33. Generally speaking, what percentage of energy available at one trophic level is available to the next? THIS IS A MUST KNOW! 34. Consider a food chain with 1,000 joules (an energy unit) available at the producer level. If this food chain is grass! grasshopper! lizard! crow, how much energy is found at the level of the crow? (See answer at the end of this Reading Guide.) Show your work here. [2] 35. a. What is the effect of this loss of energy at each trophic level on the number of top-level carnivores able to survive in an ecosystem? b. What is the effect of this energy loss on the length of food chains possible in an ecosystem? 36. a. What is a pyramid of net production? b. Draw a pyramid of net production for the food chain discussed in #33, labeling the producer or type of consumer present in each trophic level, the amount of energy available at each level in Joules, and the total input of solar energy that must be available to the primary producers in this food chain. (See Figure 55.10).

7 37. Why does the human carrying capacity of the Earth depend on our diet? 38. a. What is a biomass pyramid? b. Notice that most biomass pyramids have greatest biomass on the bottom of the pyramid. Label the trophic levels on the figure below. Explain why the second pyramid of biomass is inverted. Biological and geochemical processes cycle nutrients between organic and inorganic parts of an ecosystem [2]. Be sure to really know your nutrient cycles shown in Figure a. Let s focus on the Water Cycle first. What the biological importance of this water cycle? b. Explain the roles of evaporation, transpiration, and rainfall (precipitation) in this cycle. [2] i. Evaporation

8 ii. Transpiration iii. Precipitation/Rain c. Label the Water Cycle illustration below. 40. a. Next, let s focus on the Carbon Cycle. What is the biological importance of this cycle? b. In what forms is Carbon made available to life / In what ways does carbon enter living systems and leave them?

9 c. As a review, write the equation for photosynthesis here: d. As a review, write the equation for cellular respiration here: e. What is the role of microorganisms in the cycle? f. What are the major reservoirs of carbon? g. Label the Carbon Cycle illustration below. 41. a. Now, let s focus on the Terrestrial Nitrogen Cycle. What is the biological importance of nitrogen? b. What are the forms available to life?

10 c. What are the major reservoirs of nitrogen? d. What is the role of microorganisms in Nitrogen Fixation? e. What is the role of microorganisms in Nitrification? f. What is the role of microorganisms in Denitrification? g. Label the Nitrogen Cycle illustration below. 42. a. Finally, let s look at the Phosphate Cycle. What is the biological importance of phosphate? b. What is the form available to life?

11 c. What are the major reservoirs of phosphorus? d. Label the Phosphorus Cycle illustration below. 43. Review the Case Study: Nutrient Cycling in the Hubbard Brook Experimental Forest. What effect has deforestation been shown to have on chemical cycling?

12 44. Why does deforestation of a watershed increase the concentration of nitrates in streams draining the watershed? [1] 45. Why do you think nutrient availability in a tropical rain forest is particularly vulnerable to logging? [1] Human activities now dominate most chemical cycles on Earth [2]. 46. a. How has agriculture affected nitrogen cycling? [2] b. What is meant by the critical load? c. What are some negative consequences of nutrient enrichment and surpassing a region s critical load? [2] d. What are dead zones and how are they created? 47. a. What is acid rain?

13 b. In what ways have human activities contributed to acid precipitation? [2] c. What are some negative consequences of acid precipitation? [2] 48. a. Explain the process of biological magnification. [1] b. What are the effects of PCB (a chlorinated hydrocarbon industrial chemical) biomagnification? c. DDT is a pesticide banned in the U.S. but sold to and still used especially in the third world. Explain how DDT had an effect on populations of top-level feeders including pelicans, ospreys, and eagles. d. Which trophic levels are most affected and why? e. In the face of biological magnification of toxins, is it healthier for you to feed at a lower or higher trophic level? Explain. [1]

14 49. a. What is the greenhouse effect? b. What would life on Earth be like without this effect? [2] 50. a. What activities/occurrences are contributing to the great increase in atmospheric carbon dioxide? b. What are a few of the potential effects of this increase in greenhouse gases that cause an augmented greenhouse effect referred to as Global Warming?

15 51. a. What benefit is offered to us by the Ozone Layer (O 3 )? b. Explain the process by which atmospheric ozone is depleted? c. What are projected effects of this depletion? [2] 52. Please answer the Self-Quiz at the end of your chapter. Do your best to try it from memory first in order to test how well you grasped the material ***Solution to Question #34: Grass (1,000 J)! grasshopper (100 J)! lizard (10 J)! crow (1 J) References 1. Adapted from L. Miriello. 2. Adapted from Fred and Theresa Holtzclaw 3. Campbell et al Biology, A.P. Edition. Pearson: San Francisco.

Chapter 55: Ecosystems

Chapter 55: Ecosystems Name Period Overview: 1. What is an ecosystem? 2. Where does energy enter most ecosystems? How is it converted to chemical energy and then passed through the ecosystem? How is it lost? Remember this: energy

More information

Chapter 55: Ecosystems and Restoration Ecology

Chapter 55: Ecosystems and Restoration Ecology Chapter 55: Ecosystems and Restoration Ecology Overview: 1. What is an ecosystem? Name Period An ecosystem is the sum of all the organisms living in a given area and the abiotic factors with which they

More information

The polarity of water molecules results in hydrogen bonding [3]

The polarity of water molecules results in hydrogen bonding [3] GUIDED READING - Ch. 3 PROPERTIES OF WATER NAME: Please print out these pages and HANDWRITE the answers directly on the printouts. Typed work or answers on separate sheets of paper will not be accepted.

More information

An organism s metabolism transforms matter and energy, subject to the laws of thermodynamics [2].

An organism s metabolism transforms matter and energy, subject to the laws of thermodynamics [2]. GUIDED READING - Ch. 8 - AN INTRODUCTION TO METABOLISM NAME: Please print out these pages and HANDWRITE the answers directly on the printouts. Typed work or answers on separate sheets of paper will not

More information

Ecosystem ecology emphasizes energy flow and chemical recycling

Ecosystem ecology emphasizes energy flow and chemical recycling AP Biology Chapter 54 notes Ecosystems Ecosystem ecology emphasizes energy flow and chemical recycling An ecosystem consists of all the organisms in a community and all the abiotic factors with which they

More information

Microevolution is a change in population s gene pool [1]

Microevolution is a change in population s gene pool [1] GUIDED READING - Ch. 14 - Section 4 NAME: Please print out these pages and HANDWRITE the answers directly on the printouts. Typed work or answers on separate sheets of paper will not be accepted. Importantly,

More information

Ecosystem Ecology. Trophic levels energy flow through ecosystems. Productivity and energy. Autotrophs: primary producers Heterotrophs: consumers

Ecosystem Ecology. Trophic levels energy flow through ecosystems. Productivity and energy. Autotrophs: primary producers Heterotrophs: consumers Ecosystem Ecology 1. Overview of material and energy flows in ecosystems 2. Primary production 3. Secondary production and trophic efficiency 4. Ecological Pyramids Trophic levels energy flow through ecosystems

More information

Ch. 55 Ecosystems And Restoration Ecology. AP Biology

Ch. 55 Ecosystems And Restoration Ecology. AP Biology Ch. 55 Ecosystems And Restoration Ecology Studying organisms in their environment organism population community ecosystem biosphere Essential questions What limits the production in ecosystems? How do

More information

Life on Earth. Page 1. Energy (sunlight) Energy (heat) Nutrients. Nutrients. Chapter 28: How Do Ecosystems Work?

Life on Earth. Page 1. Energy (sunlight) Energy (heat) Nutrients. Nutrients. Chapter 28: How Do Ecosystems Work? Chapter 28: How Do Ecosystems Work? Introduction to Ecology Ecology - Increasing Levels of Complexity: Population: All members of a particular species living within a defined area Organism Community: All

More information

HOLT ENVIRONMENTAL SCIENCE HOW ECOSYSTEMS WORK

HOLT ENVIRONMENTAL SCIENCE HOW ECOSYSTEMS WORK HOLT ENVIRONMENTAL SCIENCE CHAPTER 05 HOW ECOSYSTEMS WORK I. Energy Flow in Ecosystems List two examples of ecological succession. Explain how a pioneer species contributes to ecological succession. Explain

More information

How Ecosystems Work: Energy Flow and Nutrient Cycles. Multiple Choice Test

How Ecosystems Work: Energy Flow and Nutrient Cycles. Multiple Choice Test How Ecosystems Work: Energy Flow and Nutrient Cycles Multiple Choice Test 1. The flow of solar energy through an ecosystem is marked by a) plants converting light energy to chemical energy via photosynthesis

More information

Ecosystem Ecology. Community interacts with abiotic factors. Objectives

Ecosystem Ecology. Community interacts with abiotic factors. Objectives Ecosystem Ecology Community interacts with abiotic factors Objectives Compare the processes of energy flow and chemical cycling as they relate to ecosystem dynamics. Define and list examples of producers,

More information

Ecology Review Questions

Ecology Review Questions 1. The food chain above shows (A) one autotroph and two heterotrophs (B) one producer, one autotroph, and one decomposer (C) one producer and two omnivores (D) one heterotroph and two autotrophs 2. Assume

More information

Chapter 13- Food chains and webs

Chapter 13- Food chains and webs Section 4: Food Chains and Food Webs Chapter 13- Food chains and webs KEY CONCEPT Food chains and food webs model the flow of energy in an ecosystem. VOCABULARY food chain herbivore carnivore omnivore

More information

Unit 2 Lesson 3 Energy and Matter in Ecosystems. Copyright Houghton Mifflin Harcourt Publishing Company

Unit 2 Lesson 3 Energy and Matter in Ecosystems. Copyright Houghton Mifflin Harcourt Publishing Company Soak Up the Sun How do organisms get energy and matter? Energy is the ability to do work. Matter is anything that has mass and takes up space. All organisms need energy and matter to live, grow, and reproduce.

More information

Ecosystems. Chapter 55. Biology Eighth Edition Neil Campbell and Jane Reece. PowerPoint Lecture Presentations for

Ecosystems. Chapter 55. Biology Eighth Edition Neil Campbell and Jane Reece. PowerPoint Lecture Presentations for Chapter 55 Ecosystems PowerPoint Lecture Presentations for Biology Eighth Edition Neil Campbell and Jane Reece Lectures by Chris Romero, updated by Erin Barley with contributions from Joan Sharp Overview:

More information

Ecology. Initial Vocab and Practice. Page 1 in notes

Ecology. Initial Vocab and Practice. Page 1 in notes 2015 1 Ecology Initial Vocab and Practice Page 1 in notes 2 The study of the interactions of living organisms with one another and with their environment. 3 Organism/species an individual living thing.

More information

Ecosystems. The two main ecosystem processes: Energy flow and Chemical cycling

Ecosystems. The two main ecosystem processes: Energy flow and Chemical cycling Ecosystems THE REALM OF ECOLOGY Biosphere An island ecosystem A desert spring ecosystem Biosphere Ecosystem Ecology: Interactions between the species in a given habitat and their physical environment.

More information

Ecology Module B, Anchor 4

Ecology Module B, Anchor 4 Ecology Module B, Anchor 4 Key Concepts: - The biological influences on organisms are called biotic factors. The physical components of an ecosystem are called abiotic factors. - Primary producers are

More information

a. a population. c. an ecosystem. b. a community. d. a species.

a. a population. c. an ecosystem. b. a community. d. a species. Name: practice test Score: 0 / 35 (0%) [12 subjective questions not graded] The Biosphere Practice Test Multiple Choice Identify the letter of the choice that best completes the statement or answers the

More information

Ecosystems. Chapter 55. Ecosystem Ecology Ecosystems, Energy, and Matter An ecosystem consists of

Ecosystems. Chapter 55. Ecosystem Ecology Ecosystems, Energy, and Matter An ecosystem consists of Chapter 55 Ecosystems Ecosystem Ecology Ecosystems, Energy, and Matter An ecosystem consists of All the organisms living in a community, and All the abiotic factors with which they interact PowerPoint

More information

Energy Flow in the Biosphere

Energy Flow in the Biosphere Energy Flow in the Biosphere 36.1-36.2 Objectives Compare and contrast the pathways of matter and energy in an ecosystem. Identify and describe the various feeding relationships in an ecosystem. Describe

More information

Chapter 3 Ecosystems and Energy

Chapter 3 Ecosystems and Energy Chapter 3 Ecosystems and Energy A. Ecology I. Ecology 1. eco house & logy study of 2. The study of interactions among and between organisms in their abiotic environment B. Biotic - living environment 1.Includes

More information

Energy Flow Through an Ecosystem. Food Chains, Food Webs, and Ecological Pyramids

Energy Flow Through an Ecosystem. Food Chains, Food Webs, and Ecological Pyramids Energy Flow Through an Ecosystem Food Chains, Food Webs, and Ecological Pyramids What is Ecology? ECOLOGY is a branch of biology that studies ecosystems. Ecological Terminology Environment Ecology Biotic

More information

AP Biology Summer Assignment

AP Biology Summer Assignment Name: AP Biology Summer Assignment YOU MUST KNOW The role of abiotic factors in the formation of biomes. How biotic and abiotic factors affect the distribution of biomes. How changes in these factors may

More information

ENERGY WHAT IS AN ECOSYSTEM? PATTERNS OF ENERGY FLOW IN ECOSYSTEMS LAWS OF THERMODYNAMICS

ENERGY WHAT IS AN ECOSYSTEM? PATTERNS OF ENERGY FLOW IN ECOSYSTEMS LAWS OF THERMODYNAMICS ENERGY PATTERNS OF ENERGY FLOW IN ECOSYSTEMS WHAT IS AN ECOSYSTEM? Biological community plus all abiotic factors affecting the community Ecosystem first proposed by Arthur Tansley Boundaries not fixed

More information

Materials: Containers for holding and collecting water (Could be buckets or trays) Paper or Styrofoam cups Graduated Cylinders or Measuring Cups

Materials: Containers for holding and collecting water (Could be buckets or trays) Paper or Styrofoam cups Graduated Cylinders or Measuring Cups ENERGY FLOW THROUGH ECOSYSTEMS PASS How does energy flow through ecosystems? Energy flows through ecosystems in one direction from photosynthetic organisms to herbivores to carnivores to decomposers. Through

More information

NUTRIENT CYCLES (How are nutrients recycled through ecosystems?)

NUTRIENT CYCLES (How are nutrients recycled through ecosystems?) NUTRIENT CYCLES (How are nutrients recycled through ecosystems?) Why? We have learned the importance of recycling our trash. It allows us to use something again for another purpose and prevents the loss

More information

UNIT 4: SUSTAINABILITY OF ECOSYSTEMS Worksheet #4: Energy Flow In An Ecosystem

UNIT 4: SUSTAINABILITY OF ECOSYSTEMS Worksheet #4: Energy Flow In An Ecosystem SCIENCE 1206 UNIT 4: SUSTAINABILITY OF ECOSYSTEMS Worksheet #4: Energy Flow In An Ecosystem The sun is the source of energy for Earth. It is a one-way flow. Energy enters food chains through the process

More information

4 Ecology. Chapter summary a reminder of the issues to be revised

4 Ecology. Chapter summary a reminder of the issues to be revised 4 Ecology Chapter summary a reminder of the issues to be revised 1 Ecology is the study of organisms in relation to their environment. An ecosystem, such as a lake or woodland, is a stable and settled

More information

Chapter 13 study guide

Chapter 13 study guide Below are listed some Key Topics or terms to aid in focusing your study time. More topics then these may appear on the exam but these are a good place to start. Check each box as you review the concept

More information

CCR Biology - Chapter 13 Practice Test - Summer 2012

CCR Biology - Chapter 13 Practice Test - Summer 2012 Name: Class: Date: CCR Biology - Chapter 13 Practice Test - Summer 2012 Multiple Choice Identify the choice that best completes the statement or answers the question. 1. A group of organisms of the same

More information

Chapter 36: Population Growth. Population Concepts. Population: Carrying Capacity: Critical Number: Growth Rate: Growth rate = Birth rate - Death rate

Chapter 36: Population Growth. Population Concepts. Population: Carrying Capacity: Critical Number: Growth Rate: Growth rate = Birth rate - Death rate Chapter 36: Population Growth Population: Population Concepts interbreeding group of same species Carrying Capacity: maximum population size an ecosystem can sustainably support Critical Number: minimum

More information

Name Class Date WHAT I KNOW. life by observing many different kinds of life forms. sunlight for their energy. Other animals eat food to get energy.

Name Class Date WHAT I KNOW. life by observing many different kinds of life forms. sunlight for their energy. Other animals eat food to get energy. The Biosphere Matter of Energy, Interdependence in Nature Q: How do Earth s living and nonliving parts interact and affect the survival of organisms? 3.1 How do we study life? WHAT I KNOW SAMPLE ANSWER:

More information

Which of the following can be determined based on this model? The atmosphere is the only reservoir on Earth that can store carbon in any form. A.

Which of the following can be determined based on this model? The atmosphere is the only reservoir on Earth that can store carbon in any form. A. Earth s Cycles 1. Models are often used to explain scientific knowledge or experimental results. A model of the carbon cycle is shown below. Which of the following can be determined based on this model?

More information

Section 13.1 Ecologists Study Relationships. KEY CONCEPT Ecology is the study of the relationships among organisms and their environment.

Section 13.1 Ecologists Study Relationships. KEY CONCEPT Ecology is the study of the relationships among organisms and their environment. Section 13.1 Ecologists Study Relationships KEY CONCEPT Ecology is the study of the relationships among organisms and their environment. Ecologists study environments at different levels of organization.

More information

BIOLOGY CLASS 9 ECOSYSTEMS

BIOLOGY CLASS 9 ECOSYSTEMS BIOLOGY CLASS 9 ECOSYSTEMS Q1. Define the following terms: a) Biosphere The whole of the region of the earth s surface, the sea, and the air where living organisms are found is termed as Biosphere. It

More information

Oikos: House and Ology: to Study Scientific discipline in which the relationships among living organisms and the interaction the organisms have with

Oikos: House and Ology: to Study Scientific discipline in which the relationships among living organisms and the interaction the organisms have with Oikos: House and Ology: to Study Scientific discipline in which the relationships among living organisms and the interaction the organisms have with their environments are studied. An Ecologist is someone

More information

Ecology PS 12 PS 13:

Ecology PS 12 PS 13: Ecology PS 12: Matter cycles and energy flows through living and nonliving components in ecosystems. The transfer of matter and energy is important for maintaining the health and sustainability of ecosystems.

More information

9/6/2013. Ecosystem Ecology. Orgnaisms (biotic factors) interact with abiotic factors

9/6/2013. Ecosystem Ecology. Orgnaisms (biotic factors) interact with abiotic factors Ecosystem Ecology Orgnaisms (biotic factors) interact with abiotic factors 1 Matter and Energy Matter has mass and occupies space: it is the stuff you and everything else is made of. Energy is what you

More information

Chapter 52 Introduction to Ecology and the Biosphere. 2. List the 6 hierarchal levels of ecological research and the scope of study for each of these

Chapter 52 Introduction to Ecology and the Biosphere. 2. List the 6 hierarchal levels of ecological research and the scope of study for each of these AP Biology Name: Chapter 52 Introduction to Ecology and the Biosphere 1. What is ecology? 2. List the 6 hierarchal levels of ecological research and the scope of study for each of these a. b. c. d. e.

More information

7. Use the dead tree in Fig 3-10 to describe the processes of detritus feeders and decomposers.

7. Use the dead tree in Fig 3-10 to describe the processes of detritus feeders and decomposers. APES Miller 17th ed. Chapter 3 Questions 5. Describe the 2 chemical equations used by autotrophs and heterotrophs to gain energy for chemical functions. Compare/contrast respiration to fossil fuel combustion

More information

Chapter 5 The Roles of Organisms in an Ecosystem 5.1: The Roles of Organisms in an Ecosystems

Chapter 5 The Roles of Organisms in an Ecosystem 5.1: The Roles of Organisms in an Ecosystems Chapter 5 The Roles of Organisms in an Ecosystem 5.1: The Roles of Organisms in an Ecosystems photosynthesis a process by which plants use water, carbon dioxide, and sunlight to produce sugars (food) Types

More information

Ecology and Environmental Science Topics

Ecology and Environmental Science Topics Powerpoint lessons can be downloaded from left menu Biology Lecture Topics, then Ecological and Environmental Topics, direct link here http://www.ptbeach.com/site/default.aspx?pagetype=3&moduleinstanceid=444&viewid=7b97f7ed

More information

Eastern Regional High School. F 2. Like nutrients and water, energy also recycles through an ecosystem.

Eastern Regional High School. F 2. Like nutrients and water, energy also recycles through an ecosystem. Eastern Regional High School Honors Biology Name: Period: Date: Unit 14 Introduction to Ecology Worksheet The Science of Ecology Part 1 - True or False Write true if the statement is true or false if the

More information

AP Biology Summer Assignment

AP Biology Summer Assignment Name Biology Mrs. Slomnicki Part 1 AP Biology Summer Assignment Read Chapters 45 48 in your textbook. Fill in the following guided worksheets as you read. I have included the most important key phrases

More information

13.1. Principles of Ecology CHAPTER 13. Ecology is the study of the relationships among organisms and their environment.

13.1. Principles of Ecology CHAPTER 13. Ecology is the study of the relationships among organisms and their environment. SECTION 13.1 KEY CONCEPT ECOLOGISTS STUDY RELATIONSHIPS Study Guide Ecology is the study of the relationships among organisms and their environment. VOCABULARY ecology community MAIN IDEA: Ecologists study

More information

Energy Flow in the Pond Teacher s Guide February 2011

Energy Flow in the Pond Teacher s Guide February 2011 Energy Flow in the Pond Teacher s Guide February 2011 Grades: 6, 7 & 8 Time: 3 hours With the pond as a model, students explore how energy that originates from the sun keeps changing shape and form as

More information

Ecosystems and Restoration Ecology

Ecosystems and Restoration Ecology Chapter 55 Ecosystems and Restoration Ecology Lecture Outline Overview: Cool Ecosystem An ecosystem is the sum of all the organisms that live in a community as well as all the abiotic factors with which

More information

Dynamic Ecosystems. Energy Flow through an Ecosystem

Dynamic Ecosystems. Energy Flow through an Ecosystem Dynamic Ecosystems Energy Flow through an Ecosystem Energy Transfer and Loss in Ecosystems Biozone PAGE 291 Energy Inputs and Outputs Key Energy Processes Photosynthesis: use of chlorophyll. Energy storing

More information

Energy & Matter in Ecosystems. Chapter 13

Energy & Matter in Ecosystems. Chapter 13 Energy & Matter in Ecosystems Chapter 13 The Big Idea Matter cycles between organisms and the abiotic environment. Energy flows one way, from sunlight to producers to consumers and decomposers. Lesson

More information

aerobic cellular respiration a process by which organisms convert sugar into usable energy (SRB, IG)

aerobic cellular respiration a process by which organisms convert sugar into usable energy (SRB, IG) FOSS Populations and Ecosystems, Second Edition Glossary abiotic nonliving (SRB, aerobic cellular respiration a process by which organisms convert sugar into usable energy (SRB, aquatic of the water (SRB,

More information

3.2 Energy flows through ecosystems

3.2 Energy flows through ecosystems 3.2 Energy flows through ecosystems Printed Page 60 [Notes/Highlighting] To understand how ecosystems function and how to best protect and manage them, ecosystem ecologists study not only the biotic and

More information

Ecology - Exchange of energy and matter

Ecology - Exchange of energy and matter - Exchange of energy and matter You should be able to: (a) briefly describe the non-cyclical nature of energy flow (b) establish the relationship of the following in food webs: producer, consumer, herbivore,

More information

Bio EOC Topics for Ecology, Evolution and Natural Selection:

Bio EOC Topics for Ecology, Evolution and Natural Selection: Bio EOC Topics for Ecology, Evolution and Natural Selection: UEvolutionU Difference between macroevolution and microevolution Sexual reproduction and natural selection are mechanisms of microevolution

More information

Some Background Concerning Life Science Content Standards for Fourth-Grade Teachers:

Some Background Concerning Life Science Content Standards for Fourth-Grade Teachers: Some Background Concerning Life Science Content Standards for Fourth-Grade Teachers: Energy and Matter in Ecosystems by Ellen Deehan, M.S. Contents 1. Introduction 2. Biological Overview: Hierarchy of

More information

Chapter 3 How Ecosystems Work. You could cover the whole world with asphalt, but sooner or later green grass would break through.

Chapter 3 How Ecosystems Work. You could cover the whole world with asphalt, but sooner or later green grass would break through. Chapter 3 How Ecosystems Work You could cover the whole world with asphalt, but sooner or later green grass would break through. Ilya Ehrenburg Energy Flow in Ecosystems For most living organisms the sun

More information

List and define the six levels of organization in ecology, from the most specific to the most complex. individual (organism)- a single living

List and define the six levels of organization in ecology, from the most specific to the most complex. individual (organism)- a single living List and define the six levels of organization in ecology, from the most specific to the most complex. individual (organism)- a single living organism population- a group of individuals that belong to

More information

Grade 7. Objective. Students will be able to:

Grade 7. Objective. Students will be able to: Grade 7 Objective Students will be able to: Describe the carbon cycle in more detail: o Learn about the importance of carbon and the role it plays in photosynthesis and cellular respiration, Identify elements

More information

Primary Production and Energy Flow Chapter 18

Primary Production and Energy Flow Chapter 18 Primary Production and Energy Flow Chapter 18 Sunlight to photosynthesizer to herbivore to carnivore to decomposer!!! 1 Copyright The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. Permission required for reproduction or

More information

Chapter 52: An Introduction to Ecology and the Biosphere

Chapter 52: An Introduction to Ecology and the Biosphere AP Biology Reading Guide Chapter 1 An Introduction to Ecology and the Biosphere Name Period Chapter 52: An Introduction to Ecology and the Biosphere Overview 1. What is ecology? 2. Study Figure 52.2. It

More information

THE WATER CYCLE. Ecology

THE WATER CYCLE. Ecology THE WATER CYCLE Water is the most abundant substance in living things. The human body, for example, is composed of about 70% water, and jellyfish are 95% water. Water participates in many important biochemical

More information

ENERGY FLOW THROUGH LIVING SYSTEMS

ENERGY FLOW THROUGH LIVING SYSTEMS reflect Enter the word domino as a search term on the Internet; you can fi nd some amazing domino runs. You can make your own by setting up a series of dominoes in a line. When you push the fi rst domino

More information

APES Unit 3 Ecosystems

APES Unit 3 Ecosystems APES Unit 3 Ecosystems Ecology From the Greek words oikos = house and logos = study of The study of how organisms interact with one another and with their environment. YOU SHOULD KNOW! The difference between

More information

Ecosystem Ecology. Energy Flows and Nutrient Cycles

Ecosystem Ecology. Energy Flows and Nutrient Cycles Ecosystem Ecology Energy Flows and Nutrient Cycles Introduction to Ecosystems Some reflected Some converted to heat Some absorbed PSN Some absorbed by organisms, soils, water Introduction to Ecosystems

More information

Section 5.1 Food chains and food webs

Section 5.1 Food chains and food webs Section 5.1 Food chains and food webs The ultimate source of energy in an ecosystem comes from sunlight This energy is converted to an organic form using photosynthesis which is then passed between organisms

More information

Commensalism is a symbiotic relationship in which one organism benefits and the other organism is not affected.. What they might ask:

Commensalism is a symbiotic relationship in which one organism benefits and the other organism is not affected.. What they might ask: B-6.1 Explain how the interrelationships among organisms (including predation, competition, parasitism, mutualism, and commensalism) generate stability within ecosystems. ecosystem - biotic community (all

More information

food chain Encyclopedic Entry

food chain Encyclopedic Entry This website would like to remind you: Your browser (Apple Safari 7) is out of date. Update your browser for more security, comfort and the best experience on this site. Encyclopedic Entry food chain For

More information

Consumers/producers photosynthesis cellular respiration scavengers/decomposers

Consumers/producers photosynthesis cellular respiration scavengers/decomposers Energy Flow Student Name Class Consumers/producers photosynthesis cellular respiration scavengers/decomposers 1. What effect would there be on the ecosystem we live in, if All biting insects were eliminated?

More information

Ecology limiting factors plant limiting factors field mouse nitrogen nitrogen ALL nitrogen returned to soil process major role; mutualism

Ecology limiting factors plant limiting factors field mouse nitrogen nitrogen ALL nitrogen returned to soil process major role; mutualism Ecology List some limiting factors that would affect a plant (such as a corn plant) population. Light, carbon dioxide concentration, temperature, nutrients in soil, water List some limiting factors that

More information

ECOSYSTEM 1. SOME IMPORTANT TERMS

ECOSYSTEM 1. SOME IMPORTANT TERMS ECOSYSTEM 1. SOME IMPORTANT TERMS ECOSYSTEM:- A functional unit of nature where interactions of living organisms with physical environment takes place. STRATIFICATION:- Vertical distribution of different

More information

Ecosystems and Energy

Ecosystems and Energy 3 Ecosystems and Energy Overview of Chapter 3 What is Ecology? The Energy of Life Laws of Thermodynamics Photosynthesis and Cellular Respiration Flow of Energy Through Ecosystems Producers, Consumers &

More information

Food Chains and Webs --- "What's for dinner?"

Food Chains and Webs --- What's for dinner? Food Chains and Webs --- "What's for dinner?" Every organism needs to obtain energy in order to live. For example, plants get energy from the sun, some animals eat plants, and some animals eat other animals.

More information

ECOSYSTEM : STRUCTURE AND FUNCTION

ECOSYSTEM : STRUCTURE AND FUNCTION ECOSYSTEM : STRUCTURE AND FUNCTION Environment The term environment denotes all the physical, chemical and biotic conditions surrounding and influencing a living organism. Favourable environmental conditions

More information

Biological Productivity and Coastal Habitats

Biological Productivity and Coastal Habitats Biological Productivity and Coastal Habitats Why do we care? Fishing Water quality Wildlife Ecology and Ecosystems Ecology Natural systems Include interactions between living and non-living parts Ecosystem

More information

FOOD CHAINS, FOOD WEBS AND ECOLOGICAL PYRAMIDS

FOOD CHAINS, FOOD WEBS AND ECOLOGICAL PYRAMIDS FOOD CHAINS, FOOD WEBS AND ECOLOGICAL PYRAMIDS SECTION 1 In an ecosystem, plants capture the sun's energy and use it to convert inorganic compounds into energy-rich organic compounds. This process of using

More information

UNIVERSITY HIGH SCHOOL

UNIVERSITY HIGH SCHOOL UNIVERSITY HIGH SCHOOL A Nationally Recognized Exemplary School 4771 Campus Drive, Irvine, California 92612 PH 949-936-7600 FAX 949-936-7609 Website: www.unihigh.org AP Biology Student: John Pehrson Principal

More information

Section 3: Trophic Structures

Section 3: Trophic Structures Marine Conservation Science and Policy Service learning Program Trophic Structure refers to the way in which organisms utilize food resources and hence where energy transfer occurs within an ecosystem.

More information

Introduction to Ecology

Introduction to Ecology Introduction to Ecology Ecology is the scientific study of the interactions between living organisms and their environment. Scientists who study ecology are called ecologists. Because our planet has many

More information

1.2 The Biosphere and Energy

1.2 The Biosphere and Energy 1.2 The Biosphere and Energy All activities require a source of energy a fuel. For example, to sustain a campfire, you need to keep it supplied with wood. To reach a destination by car, you need to have

More information

PRIMARY PRODUCTION AND ENERGY FLOW

PRIMARY PRODUCTION AND ENERGY FLOW Chapter Concepts Chapter 18 PRIMARY PRODUCTION AND ENERGY FLOW Terrestrial Primary Production is generally limited by temperature and moisture Aquatic Primary Production is generally limited by nutrient

More information

Lecture Eight: Energy Flow And Biogeochemical Cycles

Lecture Eight: Energy Flow And Biogeochemical Cycles Lecture Eight: Energy Flow And Biogeochemical Cycles We now know what a FOOD WEB is, and what TROPHIC LEVELS are. The Food Web reflects the flow of ENERGY and NUTRIENTS through ecosystems. ENERGY (E) is

More information

Ecological Pyramids. How does energy flow through an ecosystem? 24 kcal Hawk (carnivore) 470 kcal Blue jays (omnivore) Caterpillars (herbivore)

Ecological Pyramids. How does energy flow through an ecosystem? 24 kcal Hawk (carnivore) 470 kcal Blue jays (omnivore) Caterpillars (herbivore) Why? Ecological Pyramids How does energy flow through an ecosystem? Every organism in an ecosystem is either eating or being eaten. When cows eat grass, they obtain some of the energy that the grass transferred

More information

How Ecosystems Work ( Holt Environmental Science Chapter 5)

How Ecosystems Work ( Holt Environmental Science Chapter 5) How Ecosystems Work ( Holt Environmental Science Chapter 5) Study online at quizlet.com/_i2rl5 1. AUTOTROPH OR PRODUCER Organism that makes its own food by photosynthesis 2. Biodiversity When an ecosystem

More information

Effective June 2008 All indicators in Standard B-6 1 / 16

Effective June 2008 All indicators in Standard B-6 1 / 16 B-6.1 Explain how the interrelationships among organisms (including predation, competition, parasitism, mutualism, and commensalism) generate stability within ecosystems. Taxonomy Level: 2.7-B Understand

More information

Amherst County Public Schools. AP Environmental Science Curriculum Pacing Guide. College Board AP Environmental Science Site

Amherst County Public Schools. AP Environmental Science Curriculum Pacing Guide. College Board AP Environmental Science Site Amherst County Public Schools AP Environmental Science Curriculum Pacing Guide College Board AP Environmental Science Site REV: 8/12 1 st 9 weeks AP Objectives Energy Resources and Consumption A. Energy

More information

Ecosystems and Food Webs

Ecosystems and Food Webs Ecosystems and Food Webs How do AIS affect our lakes? Background Information All things on the planet both living and nonliving interact. An Ecosystem is defined as the set of elements, living and nonliving,

More information

Unit 3 Lecture 4 Energy flow in an ecosystem

Unit 3 Lecture 4 Energy flow in an ecosystem Energy flow is the movement of energy through an ecosystem: from the external environment through a series of organisms and back to the external environment. It is one of the fundamental processes common

More information

4. Give two examples of the impact of abiotic factors on the distribution of organism: a. Temperature

4. Give two examples of the impact of abiotic factors on the distribution of organism: a. Temperature AP Biology Chapter Packet 8- Ecology Name Chapter 50: An introduction to Ecology and the Biosphere 1. Define the following terms: a. Abiotic b. Biotic c. Biota d. Give an example of an interaction between

More information

Ecosystems Processes: Energy Flow

Ecosystems Processes: Energy Flow Ecosystems Processes: Energy Flow 6 STRUCTURE 6.1 Introduction 6.2 Objectives 6.3 Understanding Energy Flow 6.4 Energy in Ecological Systems 6.5 Food Chains 6.6 Understanding Food Chains 6.7 Conclusion

More information

The animals at higher levels are more competitive, so fewer animals survive. B.

The animals at higher levels are more competitive, so fewer animals survive. B. Energy Flow in Ecosystems 1. The diagram below shows an energy pyramid. Which of the following best explains why the number of organisms at each level decreases while moving up the energy pyramid? The

More information

Carbon and Nitrogen Cycles Interdependence within Environmental Systems. Carbon the Element

Carbon and Nitrogen Cycles Interdependence within Environmental Systems. Carbon the Element Carbon the Element The element carbon is one of the most essential elements on our planet. All living organisms contain carbon, making it a critical component of all life on planet earth. In fact, the

More information

Energy flow in ecosystems. Lecture 6 Chap. 6

Energy flow in ecosystems. Lecture 6 Chap. 6 Energy flow in ecosystems Lecture 6 Chap. 6 1 What is an ecosystem? System = regularly interacting and interdependent components forming a unified whole Ecosystem = an ecological system; = a community

More information

Chapter 3 Ecosystems and Energy

Chapter 3 Ecosystems and Energy Chapter 3 Ecosystems and Energy Overview of Chapter 3 o Ecology o Energy, the ability to do work First Law of Thermodynamics Second Law of Thermodynamics o Photosynthesis and Cellular Respiration o Flow

More information

FOOD CHAINS, FOOD WEBS AND ECOLOGICAL PYRAMIDS

FOOD CHAINS, FOOD WEBS AND ECOLOGICAL PYRAMIDS FOOD CHAINS, FOOD WEBS AND ECOLOGICAL PYRAMIDS In an ecosystem, plants capture the sun's energy and use it to convert inorganic compounds into energy-rich organic compounds. This process of using the sun's

More information

1. In food chains and webs, what trophic level must you have more of than others? 2. Each trophic level has how much LESS energy?

1. In food chains and webs, what trophic level must you have more of than others? 2. Each trophic level has how much LESS energy? Pyramid of Energy Packet Every organism needs to obtain energy in order to live. For example, plants get energy from the sun, some animals eat plants, and some animals eat other animals. A food chain is

More information

16) DETRITIVORE: An organism that feeds on detritus or organic waste but leaves some detritus or feces behind.

16) DETRITIVORE: An organism that feeds on detritus or organic waste but leaves some detritus or feces behind. 16) DETRITIVORE: An organism that feeds on detritus or organic waste but leaves some detritus or feces behind. By consuming dead organic matter they speed up decomposition by increasing the surface area

More information

Ecosystems and Restoration Ecology

Ecosystems and Restoration Ecology 55 Ecosystems and Restoration Ecology KEY CONCEPTS 55.1 Physical laws govern energy flow and chemical cycling in ecosystems 55.2 Energy and other limiting factors control primary production in ecosystems

More information

5 1 Energy Flow in Ecosystems 2 The Cycling of Materials 3 How Ecosystems Change

5 1 Energy Flow in Ecosystems 2 The Cycling of Materials 3 How Ecosystems Change How Ecosystems Work CHAPTER 5 1 Energy Flow in Ecosystems 2 The Cycling of Materials 3 How Ecosystems Change READING WARM-UP Before you read this chapter, take a few minutes to answer the following questions

More information

8 TH GRADE MATHEMATICS, OR PERMISSION OF ARHS SCIENCE DEPARTMENT HEAD

8 TH GRADE MATHEMATICS, OR PERMISSION OF ARHS SCIENCE DEPARTMENT HEAD DEPARTMENT: SCIENCE Course Title: Ecology 9 Honors/ Environmental Science 9 Honors Course Numbers: 210 & 211 PRE-REQUISITES: PRE-REQUISITES (IF ANY): SUCCESSFUL COMPLETION OF ALGEBRA I, A B OR BETTER IN

More information