Energy flow & Biomes. Pay particular attention to the diagrams

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1 Energy flow & Biomes Pay particular attention to the diagrams

2 Bacteria feed at EVERY trophic level!

3 Energy Movement Remember that organisms store energy to be used Stored energy is then taken by an organism higher up the food chain. Not all energy is transferred: most is lost due to metabolic activity and some is lost due to simply death. Unfortunately, not all substances are actually depleted as it moves through the food chain.

4 Toxins that do not follow the flow of energy model Biomaginification This happens when an organism has a small amount of toxin in its system and when consumed, it passes all of that toxin to the next organism. The cycle continues up the food chain. Bioaccumullation This happens when a top predator consumes organisms that have a small amount of toxin in their bodies, but over time, that toxin builds up to harmful levels in the top predator.

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6 Trophic Levels This is a feeding step in a food chain or food web. Each trophic level contains a certain amount of energy available to the next level. The lower trophic level always has more energy stored than the level above that s just the way energy moves All trophic levels begin with the producers Each trophic level can magnify the amount of toxins in tissues significantly, placing a heavy burden on the highest trophic levels.

7 Rule of 10 This is the concept that only 10% of the available energy at ANY trophic level gets transferred to the next highest level. 3 rd order consumers (10 kilocalories) 2 nd order consumers (100 kilocalories) 1 st order consumers (1,000 kilocalories) Producers (10,000 kilocalories)

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13 Organization in Ecology

14 Biomes Estuary Intertidal Zone Tundra Taiga Desert Grassland Temperate forest Tropical rainforest

15 Estuary Estuaries are partially enclosed bodies of water where freshwater meets salty ocean water. Bays, inlets and oceanflooded river valleys are all examples of estuaries. Areas of extreme chemical and physical changes that can result in large loss of life. Same extreme areas are rich with nutrients that support an enormous variety of aquatic & terrestrial life. They also show warning signs of pollution quicker than other natural places due to the estuary s sensitivity to change.

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17 Intertidal Zone Areas between the low tide and high tide, called Littoral Zone. Organisms have specifically adapted to live in the rapidly changing environment, such as changes in salinity, moisture, ph, DO, 7 food on a daily basis. Organisms are so specialized that the zone can be divided vertically to demonstrate the distribution of organisms.

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20 Tundra This is referred to as a Polar desert because of: low rainfall & precipitation, slow decomposition, permafrost, long cold winters, very short growing season, annual change from ~0-24 day light. Treeless, low shrubs, sedges, mosses& lichens Does not recover well after it has been disturbed. Caribou, musk ox, polar bears, birds, MOSQUITOES.

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22 Forest Biomes Taiga Forests (also called Boreal Forest) Temperate Forests Tropical Forests

23 Taiga Forest Largest terrestrial biome located between 50 & 60 degrees north latitudes. Low temperatures with a growing season of 130 days. Most precipitation is in the form of snow, ~16-40 inches of snow per year. Thin, nutrient poor soil, usually acidic due to coniferous detritus. Dominated by coniferous plant life which creates thick canopy which lets little sunlight to the forest floor. Animals include bats, shrews, chipmunks, deer, wolves, bear, moose, hawks etc.

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25 Temperate Forest Well defined seasons with a variety of flora & a growing season of days. Temperature range common to what we experience. Precipitation around inches distributed evenly throughout the year. Fertile soil with lost of organic matter & canopy allows light to reach forest floor. Deciduous trees located here. Animals include black bear, wolf, bobcat, lion, deer, birds, skunks, porcupines, etc.

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27 Tropical Forests Most species diverse terrestrial biome located along the equator about 23 degrees north or south. Temperature varies little throughout year, not more than 5 degrees C. Precipitation throughout entire year at over 80 inches. Soil is poor & low in nutrients with lost of decay. Canopy is multilayered & very dense allowing little light to penetrate to the forest floor. Continued next slide.

28 Tropical forest continued One square km can have up to 100 different tree species. Animals include: birds, bats, lots of small mammals, insects too many to count, reptiles etc. This is considered a rainforest, but only due to amount of rainfall. There are different kinds of rainforests, temperate or tropical, which is why it is called simple tropical forest.

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30 Desert Major characteristic here is lack of moisture, less than 20 inches a year. Flora is specialized to survive long periods without moisture, seeds have a long dormant stage that is remarkable. Animals adapted to life with little vegetation as well as harsh day & night conditions. Can be categorized as Hot & Dry, Semiarid, Coastal, and Cold. The Atacama Desert is one of the driest places on Earth.

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32 Grasslands There are different types of grasslands, but they all have grasses are the dominant vegitation. Prairies Pampas Savanna Steppe

33 Prairies (French for Meadow) Tall, Mixed & Short grass prairies are all prairies but with different types of grasses due to the amount of available moisture. Precipitation ranges from 21.7 inches to 12.6 inches a year, yet every 30 years or so, long droughts occur. i.e. 1930s Dust Bowl Years (also called dirty 30s) Prairies are maintained by climate, fires and gazing. Natural fires swept across the prairies that burned off thatch and saplings yet left the root systems undamaged. Root system is the most important structure to keeping the prairie system alive

34 Prairies continued Roots create a dense mat underground providing habitat for millions of microbes & animals. Some grass roots can grow 7-11 feet long, while the buffalo gourd plant has a tap root over 3 feet in diameter and 5 feet deep (one root was dug up and weighed in at 178 pounds!) Only 1 to 2% of the original prairie exists today. Most native grazing animals do not exist as they once have. Many states are establishing prairie restoration projects and reintroducing native plants and animals.

35 Pampas & Steppes Same as prairies but located in South America and Europe. Animals range from gazelles, zebras & rhinoceroses, to wolves deer, mice, grouse, snakes, spiders. Temperatures range from over 100 degree to -40 degrees.

36 Savanna Cover almost half of Africa, somewhere around 5 million square miles, parts of Australia, South America & India. Located in warm climates with inches of rain per year when most of it falls within a short time frame. Soil of Savannas is porous and drains quickly. There are trees here, but located in pockets with forbs. Dry season is extremely important for the Savanna to remain a grassland where fires periodically burn saplings and dead grasses.

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