Name Class Date WHAT I KNOW. life by observing many different kinds of life forms. sunlight for their energy. Other animals eat food to get energy.

Size: px
Start display at page:

Download "Name Class Date WHAT I KNOW. life by observing many different kinds of life forms. sunlight for their energy. Other animals eat food to get energy."

Transcription

1 The Biosphere Matter of Energy, Interdependence in Nature Q: How do Earth s living and nonliving parts interact and affect the survival of organisms? 3.1 How do we study life? WHAT I KNOW SAMPLE ANSWER: Biologists study life by observing many different kinds of life forms. WHAT I LEARNED SAMPLE ANSWER: Modern ecologists use three methods to study life: observation, experimentation, and modeling. 3.2 How do different organisms get the energy they need to survive? SAMPLE ANSWER: Plants use sunlight for their energy. Other animals eat food to get energy. SAMPLE ANSWER: Autotrophs can capture energy from sunlight or chemicals and convert it into forms that living cells can use. Heterotrophs must acquire energy from other organisms. 3.3 How does energy move through an ecosystem? SAMPLE ANSWER: Energy moves through ecosystems when one organism ingests another organism. SAMPLE ANSWER: Energy flows through an ecosystem in a one-way stream, from primary producers to various consumers. 3.4 Why is the cycling of matter important to life on Earth? SAMPLE ANSWER: Organisms need certain kinds of matter in order to grow and perform life processes. SAMPLE ANSWER: Living organisms are composed mostly of four elements: oxygen, carbon, hydrogen, and nitrogen. The availability of these elements depends on how quickly they are cycled through the environment. Chapter 3 Workbook A Copyright by Pearson Education, Inc., or its affiliates. All Rights Reserved. 29

2 3.1 What Is Ecology? Lesson Objectives Describe the study of ecology. Explain how biotic and abiotic factors influence an ecosystem. Describe the methods used to study ecology. Lesson Summary Studying Our Living Planet Ecology is the scientific study of interac tions among organisms and between organisms and their environment. Earth s organisms live in the biosphere. The biosphere consists of the parts of the planet in which all life exists. Ecologists may study different levels of ecological organization: Individual organism An assemblage of individuals that belong to the same species and live in the same area is called a population. An assemblage of different populations that live together in an area is referred to as a community. An ecosystem includes all the organisms that live in a par ticular place, together with their physical environment. A group of ecosystems that have similar climates and organisms is called a biome. Biotic and Abiotic Factors Ecosystems include biotic and abiotic factors. A biotic factor is any living part of an environment. An abiotic factor is any nonliving part of an environment. Ecological Methods Ecologists use three basic methods of research: observation, experimentation, and modeling: Observation often leads to questions and hypotheses. Experiments can be used to test hypotheses. Modeling helps ecologists understand complex processes. Studying Our Living Planet 1. What is ecology? It is the scientific study of interactions among organisms and between organisms and their environment. 2. What does the biosphere contain? It contains all the organisms and physical environments of Earth. Lesson 3.1 Workbook A Copyright by Pearson Education, Inc., or its affiliates. All Rights Reserved. 30

3 3. How are human economics and ecology linked? Economics has to do with human houses and interactions based on money and trade. Ecological interactions have to do with nature s houses and are based on energy and nutrients. Humans depend on ecological processes to provide nutrients that can be bought or traded. Use the diagram to answer Questions 4 5. biosphere biome ecosystem individual population community 4. Label each level of organization on the diagram. 5. Explain the relationship between ecosystems and biomes. An ecosystem describes all of the organisms that live in a place, together with their physical environment. A group of ecosystems that share similar climates and organisms is considered a biome. Lesson 3.1 Workbook A Copyright by Pearson Education, Inc., or its affiliates. All Rights Reserved. 31

4 Biotic and Abiotic Factors 6. Use the terms in the box to fill in the Venn diagram. List parts of the environment that consist of biotic factors, abiotic factors, and some components that are a mixture of both. air animals bacteria heat mushrooms plants precipitation soil sunlight Both Biotic Factors animals, plants, mushrooms, bacteria soil sunlight, heat, precipitation, air Abiotic Factors Ecological Methods 7. Why might an ecologist set up an artificial environment in a laboratory? An ecologist might do that to imitate and manipulate conditions that organisms would encounter in the natural world. 8. Why are many ecological phenomena difficult to study? They occur over long periods of time or over large areas. 9. Why do ecologists make models? They make models to gain insights into complex phenomena. 10. What makes a planet living? Explain your answer by comparing Earth with Mars. Earth is a living planet because it contains organisms. Life exists on Earth on the land, in the water, and in the atmosphere. Earth s environments can be described based on biotic and abiotic factors. In contrast, Mars is a planet void of life. Mars can be described based only on abiotic factors such as sunlight, heat, wind, soil type, and so on. Lesson 3.1 Workbook A Copyright by Pearson Education, Inc., or its affiliates. All Rights Reserved. 32

5 3.2 Energy, Producers, and Consumers Lesson Objectives Define primary producers. Describe how consumers obtain energy and nutrients. Lesson Summary Primary Producers Sunlight is the main energy source for life on Earth. Organisms that can capture energy from sunlight or chemicals and use that energy to produce food are called autotrophs, or primary producers. The process in which autotrophs capture light energy and use it to convert carbon dioxide and water into oxygen and sugars is called photosynthesis. The process in which autotrophs use chemical energy to produce carbohydrates is called chemosynthesis. Consumers Organisms that rely on other organisms for their energy and food are called heterotrophs. Heterotrophs are also referred to as consumers. There are many different types of heterotrophs: Herbivores, such as cows, obtain energy by eating only plants. Carnivores, such as snakes, eat only animals. Omnivores, such as humans, eat both plants and animals. Detritivores, such as earthworms, feed on dead matter. Decomposers, such as fungi, break down organic matter. Scavengers, such as vultures, consume the carcasses of other animals. Primary Producers 1. What do autotrophs do during photosynthesis? They use light energy to power chemical reactions that convert carbon dioxide and water into oxygen and energy-rich carbohydrates such as sugars and starch. 2. Can some organisms survive without energy from the sun? Explain your answer. Yes, some deep-sea ecosystems do not depend on the sun for their energy source. Primary producers can harness chemical energy from inorganic molecules such as hydrogen sulfide to produce carbohydrates through chemosynthesis. 3. Can organisms create their own energy? Explain your answer. No, primary producers harness energy from the sun or chemicals to produce carbohydrates. They do not produce their own energy. Other organisms obtain their energy from primary producers. Lesson 3.2 Workbook A Copyright by Pearson Education, Inc., or its affiliates. All Rights Reserved. 33

6 Consumers 4. Complete the table about types of heterotrophs. Types of Heterotrophs Type Definition Examples Herbivore Heterotroph that obtains energy by eating only plants cows, rabbits Carnivore Heterotroph that eats animals snakes, dogs, owls Omnivore Heterotroph that eats both plants and animals humans, bears, pigs Detritivore Heterotroph that feeds on detritus mites, earthworms, snails, crabs Decomposer Heterotroph that breaks down organic matter bacteria, fungi Scavenger Heterotroph that consumes the carcasses of dead animals but does not typically kill them itself vulture, hyena 5. What is a consumer? A consumer is any organism that relies on other organisms for energy and nutrients. 6. How would you categorize a consumer that usually catches and eats prey, but also eats dead animal carcasses? a carnivore 7. What role do producers play in establishing Earth as a living planet? Energy enters the biotic portion of Earth s ecosystems through primary producers. Primary producers convert nonliving, abiotic factors, such as sunlight or chemicals, into carbohydrates. In this way, producers make the energy accessible to other organisms on the planet. Photosynthetic producers also give off oxygen, a gas that is required by most other organisms, during photosynthesis. Lesson 3.2 Workbook A Copyright by Pearson Education, Inc., or its affiliates. All Rights Reserved. 34

7 3.3 Energy Flow in Ecosystems Lesson Objectives Trace the flow of energy through living systems. Identify the three types of ecological pyramids. Lesson Summary Food Chains and Food Webs Energy flows through an ecosystem in one direction from primary producers to various consumers. A food chain is a series of steps in which organisms transfer energy by eating and being eaten. Producers, such as floating algae called phytoplankton, are at the base of every food chain. A food web is a network of all the food chains in an ecosystem. Food webs are very complex. Small disturbances to one population can affect all populations in a food web. Changes in populations of zooplankton, small marine animals that feed on algae, can affect all of the animals in the marine food web. Trophic Levels and Ecological Pyramids Each step in a food chain or food web is called a trophic level. Producers make up the first trophic level. Consumers make up higher trophic levels. Each consumer depends on the trophic level below it for energy. An ecological pyramid is a diagram that shows the relative amounts of energy or matter contained within each trophic level in a food chain or food web. Types of ecological pyramids are pyramids of energy, pyramids of biomass, and pyramids of numbers: Pyramids of energy show relative amounts of energy available at different trophic levels. Pyramids of biomass show the total amount of living tissue at each trophic level. A pyramid of numbers shows the relative numbers of organisms at different trophic levels. Food Chains and Food Webs 1. Complete the table about feeding relationships. Feeding Relationships Relationship Food Chain Food Web Description A series of steps in which organisms transfer energy by eating and being eaten A network of complex interactions formed by the feeding relationships among the various organisms in an ecosystem Lesson 3.3 Workbook A Copyright by Pearson Education, Inc., or its affiliates. All Rights Reserved. 35

8 Use the food chain to answer Questions Draw arrows between the organisms to show how energy moves through this food chain. Write producer, herbivore, or carnivore under each organism. carnivore carnivore carnivore herbivore producer 3. Explain how energy flows through this food chain. Phytoplankton are photosynthetic organisms. They use energy from the sun to create carbohydrates. The zooplankton eats the phytoplankton to obtain energy. The small fish eat the zooplankton. The squid eats the small fish. The shark eats the squid. 4. What would happen to this food chain if a disturbance caused a serious decline in the shark population? If the shark numbers declined, there would be no natural predator to control the number of squids. Therefore the squid population might increase. The larger population of squid would then eat more fish than the typical population would have. Eventually the squid would run out of fish to eat and start to die out. 5. What role does energy play in the diagram, and how is it represented? Energy is both taken in and recycled by the decomposers and the primary producers. The recycling machines represent the mechanisms by which those organisms convert energy from the forms they use (the house and building blocks) to the forms into which they recycle it (building blocks, ship and bridge). Lesson 3.3 Workbook A Copyright by Pearson Education, Inc., or its affiliates. All Rights Reserved. 36

9 Trophic Levels and Ecological Pyramids Write True or False on the line provided. False 6. Primary consumers always make up the first trophic level in a food web. True 7. Ecological pyramids show the relative amount of energy or matter contained within each trophic level in a given food web. False 8. On average, about 50 percent of the energy available within one trophic level is transferred to the next trophic level. False 9. The more levels that exist between a producer and a given consumer, the larger the percentage of the original energy from producers is available to that consumer. Use the diagram to answer Questions Marsh hawk Shrew Grasshopper Ribbed mussel Zooplankton Detritus Marsh grass Algae Match the organism with its trophic level. A trophic level may be used more than once. Organism A 10. algae B 11. grasshopper A 12. marsh grass D 13. marsh hawk C 14. plankton-eating fish B 15. ribbed mussel C 16. shrew B 17. zooplankton Trophic Level A. primary producer B. first-level consumer C. second-level consumer D. third-level consumer Lesson 3.3 Workbook A Copyright by Pearson Education, Inc., or its affiliates. All Rights Reserved. 37

10 18. Complete the energy pyramid by writing the source of the energy for the food web and how much energy is available to first-, second-, and third-level consumers. Heat Heat Heat 0.1% 1% Third-level consumers Second-level consumers Heat 10% First-level consumers 100% Producers Light or chemical energy For Questions 19 21, complete each statement by writing the correct word or words. 19. A pyramid of biomass illustrates the relative amount of living organic matter available at each trophic level in an ecosystem. 20. A pyramid of numbers shows the relative numbers of individual organisms at the trophic levels in an ecosystem. 21. A pyramid of energy shows the relative amounts of energy available at the trophic levels of a food chain or food web. 22. Identify which type of ecological pyramid best traces the flow of matter through an ecosystem. Explain your answer. Biomass pyramids show the amount of organic material at each trophic level; thus, they are the best type of ecological pyramid to use in order to model the flow of matter through an ecosystem. A numbers pyramid would not as accurately display this kind of information because a larger producer, such as a tree, which contains a great deal of matter, would be able to feed hundreds or thousands of small first-level consumers, such as wood-eating insects. Lesson 3.3 Workbook A Copyright by Pearson Education, Inc., or its affiliates. All Rights Reserved. 38

Energy, Producers, and Consumers. Lesson Overview. Lesson Overview. 3.2 Energy, Producers, and Consumers

Energy, Producers, and Consumers. Lesson Overview. Lesson Overview. 3.2 Energy, Producers, and Consumers Lesson Overview 3.2 Energy, Producers, and Consumers THINK ABOUT IT At the core of every organism s interaction with the environment is its need for energy to power life s processes. Where does energy

More information

Chapter 3 Section 3.2 Energy, Producers, and Consumers

Chapter 3 Section 3.2 Energy, Producers, and Consumers Chapter 3 Section 3.2 Energy, Producers, and Consumers At the core of every organism s interaction with the environment is its need for energy to power life s processes. Where does energy in living systems

More information

List and define the six levels of organization in ecology, from the most specific to the most complex. individual (organism)- a single living

List and define the six levels of organization in ecology, from the most specific to the most complex. individual (organism)- a single living List and define the six levels of organization in ecology, from the most specific to the most complex. individual (organism)- a single living organism population- a group of individuals that belong to

More information

a. a population. c. an ecosystem. b. a community. d. a species.

a. a population. c. an ecosystem. b. a community. d. a species. Name: practice test Score: 0 / 35 (0%) [12 subjective questions not graded] The Biosphere Practice Test Multiple Choice Identify the letter of the choice that best completes the statement or answers the

More information

Level Description Example 1. Organism 2. Population 3. Community 4. Ecosystem 5. Biosphere. Organism Population Community Ecosystem Biosphere

Level Description Example 1. Organism 2. Population 3. Community 4. Ecosystem 5. Biosphere. Organism Population Community Ecosystem Biosphere Main Idea: Ecologists study environments at different levels of organization. Write a description of each level of organization in the table. Also, provide an example for each level. Level Description

More information

The animals at higher levels are more competitive, so fewer animals survive. B.

The animals at higher levels are more competitive, so fewer animals survive. B. Energy Flow in Ecosystems 1. The diagram below shows an energy pyramid. Which of the following best explains why the number of organisms at each level decreases while moving up the energy pyramid? The

More information

FOOD CHAINS, FOOD WEBS AND ECOLOGICAL PYRAMIDS

FOOD CHAINS, FOOD WEBS AND ECOLOGICAL PYRAMIDS FOOD CHAINS, FOOD WEBS AND ECOLOGICAL PYRAMIDS In an ecosystem, plants capture the sun's energy and use it to convert inorganic compounds into energy-rich organic compounds. This process of using the sun's

More information

Contrast the flow of energy and chemicals in ecosystems. Explain how trophic levels relate to food chains and food webs.

Contrast the flow of energy and chemicals in ecosystems. Explain how trophic levels relate to food chains and food webs. Objectives Contrast the flow of energy and chemicals in ecosystems. Explain how trophic levels relate to food chains and food webs. Key Terms producer consumer decomposer trophic level food chain herbivore

More information

5.1 Ecosystems, Energy, and Nutrients

5.1 Ecosystems, Energy, and Nutrients CHAPTER 5 ECOSYSTEMS 5.1 Ecosystems, Energy, and Nutrients Did anyone ever ask you the question: Where do you get your energy? Energy enters our world from the Sun but how does the Sun s energy become

More information

Introduction to Ecology

Introduction to Ecology Introduction to Ecology Ecology is the scientific study of the interactions between living organisms and their environment. Scientists who study ecology are called ecologists. Because our planet has many

More information

UNIT 4: SUSTAINABILITY OF ECOSYSTEMS Worksheet #4: Energy Flow In An Ecosystem

UNIT 4: SUSTAINABILITY OF ECOSYSTEMS Worksheet #4: Energy Flow In An Ecosystem SCIENCE 1206 UNIT 4: SUSTAINABILITY OF ECOSYSTEMS Worksheet #4: Energy Flow In An Ecosystem The sun is the source of energy for Earth. It is a one-way flow. Energy enters food chains through the process

More information

The main source of energy in most ecosystems is sunlight.

The main source of energy in most ecosystems is sunlight. Energy in Ecosystems: Ecology: Part 2: Energy and Biomass The main source of energy in most ecosystems is sunlight. What is the amount of energy from the sun? 100 W/ft 2 The energy gets transferred through

More information

STAAR Science Tutorial 52 TEK 8.11D: Food Webs & Symbiosis

STAAR Science Tutorial 52 TEK 8.11D: Food Webs & Symbiosis Name: Teacher: Pd. Date: STAAR Science Tutorial 52 TEK 8.11D: Food Webs & Symbiosis TEK 8.11A: Describe producer/consumer, predator/prey, and parasite/host relationships as they occur in food webs within

More information

Food Chains and Webs --- "What's for dinner?"

Food Chains and Webs --- What's for dinner? Food Chains and Webs --- "What's for dinner?" Every organism needs to obtain energy in order to live. For example, plants get energy from the sun, some animals eat plants, and some animals eat other animals.

More information

CCR Biology - Chapter 13 Practice Test - Summer 2012

CCR Biology - Chapter 13 Practice Test - Summer 2012 Name: Class: Date: CCR Biology - Chapter 13 Practice Test - Summer 2012 Multiple Choice Identify the choice that best completes the statement or answers the question. 1. A group of organisms of the same

More information

FOOD CHAINS, FOOD WEBS AND ECOLOGICAL PYRAMIDS

FOOD CHAINS, FOOD WEBS AND ECOLOGICAL PYRAMIDS FOOD CHAINS, FOOD WEBS AND ECOLOGICAL PYRAMIDS SECTION 1 In an ecosystem, plants capture the sun's energy and use it to convert inorganic compounds into energy-rich organic compounds. This process of using

More information

1. In food chains and webs, what trophic level must you have more of than others? 2. Each trophic level has how much LESS energy?

1. In food chains and webs, what trophic level must you have more of than others? 2. Each trophic level has how much LESS energy? Pyramid of Energy Packet Every organism needs to obtain energy in order to live. For example, plants get energy from the sun, some animals eat plants, and some animals eat other animals. A food chain is

More information

Section 13.1 Ecologists Study Relationships. KEY CONCEPT Ecology is the study of the relationships among organisms and their environment.

Section 13.1 Ecologists Study Relationships. KEY CONCEPT Ecology is the study of the relationships among organisms and their environment. Section 13.1 Ecologists Study Relationships KEY CONCEPT Ecology is the study of the relationships among organisms and their environment. Ecologists study environments at different levels of organization.

More information

Energy Production. Marine Ecology. Activity 3

Energy Production. Marine Ecology. Activity 3 Energy Production In their daily struggle for survival marine animals perform a variety of activities e.g. movement - squids and octopuses use jet propulsion, scallops clap their shells and fish swim.

More information

The Biosphere Levels Organism Species Populations

The Biosphere Levels Organism Species Populations The Biosphere Levels Organism- one individual living thing Species- group of organisms so similar to one another that they can breed and produce fertile offspring Populations- groups of individuals that

More information

Principles of Ecology

Principles of Ecology Principles of Ecology Before You Read Use the What I Know column to list the things you know about ecology. Then list the questions you have about ecology in the What I Want to Find Out column. K W L What

More information

How Ecosystems Work ( Holt Environmental Science Chapter 5)

How Ecosystems Work ( Holt Environmental Science Chapter 5) How Ecosystems Work ( Holt Environmental Science Chapter 5) Study online at quizlet.com/_i2rl5 1. AUTOTROPH OR PRODUCER Organism that makes its own food by photosynthesis 2. Biodiversity When an ecosystem

More information

Energy & Matter in Ecosystems. Chapter 13

Energy & Matter in Ecosystems. Chapter 13 Energy & Matter in Ecosystems Chapter 13 The Big Idea Matter cycles between organisms and the abiotic environment. Energy flows one way, from sunlight to producers to consumers and decomposers. Lesson

More information

FOOD CHAINS AND FOOD WEBS PHYTOPLANKTON ZOOPLANKTON SILVERSIDE BLUEFISH

FOOD CHAINS AND FOOD WEBS PHYTOPLANKTON ZOOPLANKTON SILVERSIDE BLUEFISH FOOD CHAINS AND FOOD WEBS Food Chains All living organisms (plants and animals) must eat some type of food for survival. Plants make their own food through a process called photosynthesis. Using the energy

More information

Chapter 5 The Roles of Organisms in an Ecosystem 5.1: The Roles of Organisms in an Ecosystems

Chapter 5 The Roles of Organisms in an Ecosystem 5.1: The Roles of Organisms in an Ecosystems Chapter 5 The Roles of Organisms in an Ecosystem 5.1: The Roles of Organisms in an Ecosystems photosynthesis a process by which plants use water, carbon dioxide, and sunlight to produce sugars (food) Types

More information

Eastern Regional High School. F 2. Like nutrients and water, energy also recycles through an ecosystem.

Eastern Regional High School. F 2. Like nutrients and water, energy also recycles through an ecosystem. Eastern Regional High School Honors Biology Name: Period: Date: Unit 14 Introduction to Ecology Worksheet The Science of Ecology Part 1 - True or False Write true if the statement is true or false if the

More information

UNIT 1 - Living Organisms and the Environment Situations. Ecology

UNIT 1 - Living Organisms and the Environment Situations. Ecology Lesson Summaries HUMAN AND SOCIAL BIOLOGY UNIT 1 - Living Organisms and the Environment Situations Lesson 5 Ecology OBJECTIVES At the end of this lesson you will be able to: a) Define food chain and food

More information

Ecology - Exchange of energy and matter

Ecology - Exchange of energy and matter - Exchange of energy and matter You should be able to: (a) briefly describe the non-cyclical nature of energy flow (b) establish the relationship of the following in food webs: producer, consumer, herbivore,

More information

Ecology- an ecosystem: a Biome: o They are either terrestrial or aquatic. rainforests, deserts, coral reefs

Ecology- an ecosystem: a Biome: o They are either terrestrial or aquatic. rainforests, deserts, coral reefs Topic 17: Ecology Ecology- The environment is an organism s surroundings o It includes:! biotic factors: Ecosystems! abiotic factors: an ecosystem: In order for an ecosystem to maintain life it must: -

More information

food chain Encyclopedic Entry

food chain Encyclopedic Entry This website would like to remind you: Your browser (Apple Safari 7) is out of date. Update your browser for more security, comfort and the best experience on this site. Encyclopedic Entry food chain For

More information

Matter and Energy in Ecosystems

Matter and Energy in Ecosystems Matter and Energy in Ecosystems The interactions that take place among biotic and abiotic factors lead to transfers of energy and matter. Every species has a particular role, or niche, in an ecosystem.

More information

Ecology. Initial Vocab and Practice. Page 1 in notes

Ecology. Initial Vocab and Practice. Page 1 in notes 2015 1 Ecology Initial Vocab and Practice Page 1 in notes 2 The study of the interactions of living organisms with one another and with their environment. 3 Organism/species an individual living thing.

More information

aerobic cellular respiration a process by which organisms convert sugar into usable energy (SRB, IG)

aerobic cellular respiration a process by which organisms convert sugar into usable energy (SRB, IG) FOSS Populations and Ecosystems, Second Edition Glossary abiotic nonliving (SRB, aerobic cellular respiration a process by which organisms convert sugar into usable energy (SRB, aquatic of the water (SRB,

More information

Ecosystems and Food Webs

Ecosystems and Food Webs Ecosystems and Food Webs How do AIS affect our lakes? Background Information All things on the planet both living and nonliving interact. An Ecosystem is defined as the set of elements, living and nonliving,

More information

Ecology limiting factors plant limiting factors field mouse nitrogen nitrogen ALL nitrogen returned to soil process major role; mutualism

Ecology limiting factors plant limiting factors field mouse nitrogen nitrogen ALL nitrogen returned to soil process major role; mutualism Ecology List some limiting factors that would affect a plant (such as a corn plant) population. Light, carbon dioxide concentration, temperature, nutrients in soil, water List some limiting factors that

More information

8 th grade Review TOPIC: Ecology Do Now: Give an example of a biotic factor. Notes: (found on Ms. Harris s Carey website)

8 th grade Review TOPIC: Ecology Do Now: Give an example of a biotic factor. Notes: (found on Ms. Harris s Carey website) 8 th grade Review TOPIC: Ecology Do Now: Give an example of a biotic factor. Notes: (found on Ms. Harris s Carey website) ECOLOGY I. ECOSYSTEMS 1. ECOSYSTEM all the living & nonliving things in an environment

More information

13.1. Principles of Ecology CHAPTER 13. Ecology is the study of the relationships among organisms and their environment.

13.1. Principles of Ecology CHAPTER 13. Ecology is the study of the relationships among organisms and their environment. SECTION 13.1 KEY CONCEPT ECOLOGISTS STUDY RELATIONSHIPS Study Guide Ecology is the study of the relationships among organisms and their environment. VOCABULARY ecology community MAIN IDEA: Ecologists study

More information

Ecosystems and Energy

Ecosystems and Energy 3 Ecosystems and Energy Overview of Chapter 3 What is Ecology? The Energy of Life Laws of Thermodynamics Photosynthesis and Cellular Respiration Flow of Energy Through Ecosystems Producers, Consumers &

More information

9/6/2013. Ecosystem Ecology. Orgnaisms (biotic factors) interact with abiotic factors

9/6/2013. Ecosystem Ecology. Orgnaisms (biotic factors) interact with abiotic factors Ecosystem Ecology Orgnaisms (biotic factors) interact with abiotic factors 1 Matter and Energy Matter has mass and occupies space: it is the stuff you and everything else is made of. Energy is what you

More information

Multiple Choice Identify the choice that best completes the statement or answers the question.

Multiple Choice Identify the choice that best completes the statement or answers the question. Ecology Food Web Multiple Choice Identify the choice that best completes the statement or answers the question. 1. A bird eats a worm. Who is the predator? a. the worm c. both the bird and the worm b.

More information

Chapter 3 Ecosystems and Energy

Chapter 3 Ecosystems and Energy Chapter 3 Ecosystems and Energy A. Ecology I. Ecology 1. eco house & logy study of 2. The study of interactions among and between organisms in their abiotic environment B. Biotic - living environment 1.Includes

More information

Ecological Communities

Ecological Communities LESSON Ecological Communities Guiding Question: How do energy and nutrients move through communities? Explain the difference between a producer and a consumer. Explain the effect of inefficient energy

More information

Materials: Containers for holding and collecting water (Could be buckets or trays) Paper or Styrofoam cups Graduated Cylinders or Measuring Cups

Materials: Containers for holding and collecting water (Could be buckets or trays) Paper or Styrofoam cups Graduated Cylinders or Measuring Cups ENERGY FLOW THROUGH ECOSYSTEMS PASS How does energy flow through ecosystems? Energy flows through ecosystems in one direction from photosynthetic organisms to herbivores to carnivores to decomposers. Through

More information

Chapter 3. 3.3 Energy Flow in Ecosystems

Chapter 3. 3.3 Energy Flow in Ecosystems Chapter 3 3.3 Energy Flow in Ecosystems Key Questions: 1) What happens to energy stored in body tissues when one organism eats another? 2) How does energy flow through an ecosystem? 3) What do the three

More information

The Ecosystem of the Forest

The Ecosystem of the Forest The Ecosystem of the Forest The Ecosystem of the Forest Even if it doesn t look like it, all living things constantly interact with their environment. For instance, every time you take a breath, you get

More information

Oikos: House and Ology: to Study Scientific discipline in which the relationships among living organisms and the interaction the organisms have with

Oikos: House and Ology: to Study Scientific discipline in which the relationships among living organisms and the interaction the organisms have with Oikos: House and Ology: to Study Scientific discipline in which the relationships among living organisms and the interaction the organisms have with their environments are studied. An Ecologist is someone

More information

Energy and Food Webs: Communities & Ecosystems. Practice Worksheets

Energy and Food Webs: Communities & Ecosystems. Practice Worksheets Name 8 A or B Energy and Food Webs: Communities & Ecosystems Practice Worksheets Lesson - Food Chains and Webs --- "What's for dinner?" Every organism needs to obtain energy in order to live. For example,

More information

Energy Flow Through an Ecosystem. Food Chains, Food Webs, and Ecological Pyramids

Energy Flow Through an Ecosystem. Food Chains, Food Webs, and Ecological Pyramids Energy Flow Through an Ecosystem Food Chains, Food Webs, and Ecological Pyramids What is Ecology? ECOLOGY is a branch of biology that studies ecosystems. Ecological Terminology Environment Ecology Biotic

More information

Consumers/producers photosynthesis cellular respiration scavengers/decomposers

Consumers/producers photosynthesis cellular respiration scavengers/decomposers Energy Flow Student Name Class Consumers/producers photosynthesis cellular respiration scavengers/decomposers 1. What effect would there be on the ecosystem we live in, if All biting insects were eliminated?

More information

Life on Earth. Page 1. Energy (sunlight) Energy (heat) Nutrients. Nutrients. Chapter 28: How Do Ecosystems Work?

Life on Earth. Page 1. Energy (sunlight) Energy (heat) Nutrients. Nutrients. Chapter 28: How Do Ecosystems Work? Chapter 28: How Do Ecosystems Work? Introduction to Ecology Ecology - Increasing Levels of Complexity: Population: All members of a particular species living within a defined area Organism Community: All

More information

Section 3: Trophic Structures

Section 3: Trophic Structures Marine Conservation Science and Policy Service learning Program Trophic Structure refers to the way in which organisms utilize food resources and hence where energy transfer occurs within an ecosystem.

More information

Ecology 1 Star. 1. Missing from the diagram of this ecosystem are the

Ecology 1 Star. 1. Missing from the diagram of this ecosystem are the Name: ate: 1. Missing from the diagram of this ecosystem are the 5. ase your answer(s) to the following question(s) on the diagram below and on your knowledge of biology.. biotic factors and decomposers.

More information

3.2 Energy flows through ecosystems

3.2 Energy flows through ecosystems 3.2 Energy flows through ecosystems Printed Page 60 [Notes/Highlighting] To understand how ecosystems function and how to best protect and manage them, ecosystem ecologists study not only the biotic and

More information

Student Worksheets. 9th Grade. Name

Student Worksheets. 9th Grade. Name Student Worksheets 9th Grade Name Ecosystems Ecosystems are complex entities made up of interacting inorganic and biotic elements. In this worksheet, we will mainly be concerned with one particular ecosystem

More information

Some Background Concerning Life Science Content Standards for Fourth-Grade Teachers:

Some Background Concerning Life Science Content Standards for Fourth-Grade Teachers: Some Background Concerning Life Science Content Standards for Fourth-Grade Teachers: Energy and Matter in Ecosystems by Ellen Deehan, M.S. Contents 1. Introduction 2. Biological Overview: Hierarchy of

More information

Presents: Marine Food Chains and Webs

Presents: Marine Food Chains and Webs Presents: Marine Food Chains and Webs Copyright Sharks4Kids 2015 Vocabulary Abiotic - The non-living parts of an ecosystem (sunlight, soil, air, water). Apex Predator - top predator of an ecosystem, no

More information

A Biotic and Abiotic Factors

A Biotic and Abiotic Factors Ecology Project Earth s Biomes Biomes 1. Savanna 2. Temperate Grasslands 3. Desert 4. Tropical Rain Forest 5. Taiga /Boreal Forest 6. Tundra 7. Temperate Forest 8. Temperate Shrubland/Scrublands 9. Nothwestern

More information

Energy Flow in the Biosphere

Energy Flow in the Biosphere Energy Flow in the Biosphere 36.1-36.2 Objectives Compare and contrast the pathways of matter and energy in an ecosystem. Identify and describe the various feeding relationships in an ecosystem. Describe

More information

1. Lesson 1- What is Ecology? Lesson 2- Energy Flow Through an Ecosystem Lesson 3- Food Chains and Webs Worksheet- Food Chain 15

1. Lesson 1- What is Ecology? Lesson 2- Energy Flow Through an Ecosystem Lesson 3- Food Chains and Webs Worksheet- Food Chain 15 ECOLOGY Table of Contents: 1. Lesson 1- What is Ecology? 1 2. Lesson 2- Energy Flow Through an Ecosystem 7 3. Lesson 3- Food Chains and Webs 12 4. Worksheet- Food Chain 15 5. Worksheet- Food Web 16 6.

More information

ECOSYSTEM : STRUCTURE AND FUNCTION

ECOSYSTEM : STRUCTURE AND FUNCTION ECOSYSTEM : STRUCTURE AND FUNCTION Environment The term environment denotes all the physical, chemical and biotic conditions surrounding and influencing a living organism. Favourable environmental conditions

More information

Ecology - Interactions in Communities

Ecology - Interactions in Communities Ecology - Interactions in Communities Symbiotic Relationships ( living together ) symbiosis - dissimilar organisms living together symbiont lives in /on a second species, host parasitism and mutualism

More information

Name period date assigned date due date returned. Chains, Webs, and Pyramids Assessment. EXAMPLE : sun grass deer human

Name period date assigned date due date returned. Chains, Webs, and Pyramids Assessment. EXAMPLE : sun grass deer human Name period date assigned date due date returned Assessment Living organisms from bacterial decomposers to plants, herbivores, carnivores, omnivores and scavengers can be arranged in food chains, webs,

More information

Ecology: Practice Questions #1

Ecology: Practice Questions #1 Ecology: Practice Questions #1 1. One biotic factor that affects consumers in an ocean ecosystem is A. number of autotrophs B. temperature variation C. salt content D. ph of water 2. A food web is represented

More information

UNIT 3 LECTURE 3 FOOD CHAIN, FOOD WEB, ECOLOGICAL PYRAMID. Italics indicate text already on slide

UNIT 3 LECTURE 3 FOOD CHAIN, FOOD WEB, ECOLOGICAL PYRAMID. Italics indicate text already on slide UNIT 3 LECTURE 3 FOOD CHAIN, FOOD WEB, ECOLOGICAL PYRAMID Italics indicate text already on slide SLIDE 1 Definition of food chain The transfer of food energy from the source in plants through a series

More information

Relationships in Ecosystems. Vocabulary

Relationships in Ecosystems. Vocabulary Relationships in Ecosystems Vocabulary Relationships in Ecosystems Big Ideas Diversity and Evolution of Living Organisms Explore the scientific theory of evolution by relating how the inability of a species

More information

Food Chains and Food Webs

Food Chains and Food Webs Program Support Notes by: Spiro Liacos B.Ed. Produced by: VEA Pty Ltd Commissioning Editor: Sandra Frerichs B.Ed, M.Ed. Executive Producers: Edwina Baden-Powell B.A, CVP. Sandra Frerichs B.Ed, M.Ed. You

More information

Chapter 36: Population Growth. Population Concepts. Population: Carrying Capacity: Critical Number: Growth Rate: Growth rate = Birth rate - Death rate

Chapter 36: Population Growth. Population Concepts. Population: Carrying Capacity: Critical Number: Growth Rate: Growth rate = Birth rate - Death rate Chapter 36: Population Growth Population: Population Concepts interbreeding group of same species Carrying Capacity: maximum population size an ecosystem can sustainably support Critical Number: minimum

More information

5.9B Food Webs Student Expectation. Key Concepts. Fundamental Questions. Pre-Assessment: Assigned February 9 th Due February 13 th, 2015

5.9B Food Webs Student Expectation. Key Concepts. Fundamental Questions. Pre-Assessment: Assigned February 9 th Due February 13 th, 2015 5.9B Food Webs Student Expectation The student is expected to describe how the flow of energy derived from the Sun, used by producers to create their own food, is transferred through a food chain and food

More information

food webs reflect look out! what do you think?

food webs reflect look out! what do you think? reflect Imagine for a moment that you stay after school one day to clean up the classroom. While cleaning, you move some plants away from the sunny windows. A week later, you remember to move the plants

More information

Principles of Ecology

Principles of Ecology Principles of Ecology Chapter 2. pp. 33-61 Flexbook. pp. 709-746 Principles of Ecology Ecology the study of interactions that take place between organisms and their environments Living things are affected

More information

2.6: Interactions in the Ecosystem pg. 42

2.6: Interactions in the Ecosystem pg. 42 2.6: Interactions in the Ecosystem pg. 42 Ecological Niche: the function a species serves in its ecosystem, including where it lives, what it eats, what eats it, and how it behaves. Trophic Level: the

More information

HOLT ENVIRONMENTAL SCIENCE HOW ECOSYSTEMS WORK

HOLT ENVIRONMENTAL SCIENCE HOW ECOSYSTEMS WORK HOLT ENVIRONMENTAL SCIENCE CHAPTER 05 HOW ECOSYSTEMS WORK I. Energy Flow in Ecosystems List two examples of ecological succession. Explain how a pioneer species contributes to ecological succession. Explain

More information

ESA Study Guide Year 10 Science

ESA Study Guide Year 10 Science 1. What is ecology the study of? Then and now Questions from page 234 of 2. Why did Maori and European settlers burn forests and drain wetlands? 3. Give figures for four examples of a change that has occurred

More information

Chapter 4 Interactions of Life Review Matching

Chapter 4 Interactions of Life Review Matching Chapter 4 Interactions of Life Review Matching a. population density i. producers q. ecosystem b. community j. ecology r. autotroph c. population k. carrying capacity s. competition d. habitat l. symbiosis

More information

Science Tenth Edition

Science Tenth Edition Richard T. Wright Environmental Science Tenth Edition Chapter 2 Ecosystems: What They Are Copyright 2008 Pearson Prentice Hall, Inc. Key Topics Ecosystems: A Description The Structure of Ecosystems From

More information

ENERGY FLOW THROUGH LIVING SYSTEMS

ENERGY FLOW THROUGH LIVING SYSTEMS reflect Enter the word domino as a search term on the Internet; you can fi nd some amazing domino runs. You can make your own by setting up a series of dominoes in a line. When you push the fi rst domino

More information

8 th Grade Science Organisms and their Environment Review

8 th Grade Science Organisms and their Environment Review 8 th Grade Science Organisms and their Environment Review #1 The tree is an example of a in the food web. Producers perform photosynthesis. A: Prey B: Decomposer C: producer D: Herbivore C. Producer #2

More information

BIOLOGY CLASS 9 ECOSYSTEMS

BIOLOGY CLASS 9 ECOSYSTEMS BIOLOGY CLASS 9 ECOSYSTEMS Q1. Define the following terms: a) Biosphere The whole of the region of the earth s surface, the sea, and the air where living organisms are found is termed as Biosphere. It

More information

Chapter 55: Ecosystems and Restoration Ecology

Chapter 55: Ecosystems and Restoration Ecology Chapter 55: Ecosystems and Restoration Ecology Overview: 1. What is an ecosystem? Name Period An ecosystem is the sum of all the organisms living in a given area and the abiotic factors with which they

More information

autotroph Encyclopedic Entry producer

autotroph Encyclopedic Entry producer This website would like to remind you: Your browser (Safari 7) is out of date. Update your browser for more security, comfort and the best experience on this site. Encyclopedic Entry autotroph producer

More information

Ecosystem Ecology. Community interacts with abiotic factors. Objectives

Ecosystem Ecology. Community interacts with abiotic factors. Objectives Ecosystem Ecology Community interacts with abiotic factors Objectives Compare the processes of energy flow and chemical cycling as they relate to ecosystem dynamics. Define and list examples of producers,

More information

Ecology: An Explanation

Ecology: An Explanation Ecology: An Explanation Define Ecology - study of the interactions that take place among Biosphere - part of Earth that supports life, including the top portion of Earth's crust, the atmosphere, and all

More information

Ecosystems. Chapter 55. Biology Eighth Edition Neil Campbell and Jane Reece. PowerPoint Lecture Presentations for

Ecosystems. Chapter 55. Biology Eighth Edition Neil Campbell and Jane Reece. PowerPoint Lecture Presentations for Chapter 55 Ecosystems PowerPoint Lecture Presentations for Biology Eighth Edition Neil Campbell and Jane Reece Lectures by Chris Romero, updated by Erin Barley with contributions from Joan Sharp Overview:

More information

Ecology Module B, Anchor 4

Ecology Module B, Anchor 4 Ecology Module B, Anchor 4 Key Concepts: - The biological influences on organisms are called biotic factors. The physical components of an ecosystem are called abiotic factors. - Primary producers are

More information

Grassland Food Webs: Teacher Notes

Grassland Food Webs: Teacher Notes Grassland Food Webs: Teacher Notes Alan Henderson ecosystem Objectives After completing this activity students will be able to: Create a food web and identify producers and consumers. Assign organisms

More information

5 1 Energy Flow in Ecosystems 2 The Cycling of Materials 3 How Ecosystems Change

5 1 Energy Flow in Ecosystems 2 The Cycling of Materials 3 How Ecosystems Change How Ecosystems Work CHAPTER 5 1 Energy Flow in Ecosystems 2 The Cycling of Materials 3 How Ecosystems Change READING WARM-UP Before you read this chapter, take a few minutes to answer the following questions

More information

How Ecosystems Work: Energy Flow and Nutrient Cycles. Multiple Choice Test

How Ecosystems Work: Energy Flow and Nutrient Cycles. Multiple Choice Test How Ecosystems Work: Energy Flow and Nutrient Cycles Multiple Choice Test 1. The flow of solar energy through an ecosystem is marked by a) plants converting light energy to chemical energy via photosynthesis

More information

2. What kind of energy is stored in food? A. chemical energy B. heat energy C. kinetic energy D. light energy

2. What kind of energy is stored in food? A. chemical energy B. heat energy C. kinetic energy D. light energy Assessment Bank Matter and Energy in Living Things SC.8.L.18.4 1. What is energy? A. anything that takes up space B. anything that has mass C. the ability to conduct current D. the ability to do work 2.

More information

Science. Class 7. A food chain shows the different organisms that live in a habitat, and what eats what.

Science. Class 7. A food chain shows the different organisms that live in a habitat, and what eats what. Food chains Science 7 A food chain shows the different organisms that live in a habitat, and what eats what. Producers and consumers A food chain always starts with a producer, which is an organism that

More information

Energy Flow in the Pond Teacher s Guide February 2011

Energy Flow in the Pond Teacher s Guide February 2011 Energy Flow in the Pond Teacher s Guide February 2011 Grades: 6, 7 & 8 Time: 3 hours With the pond as a model, students explore how energy that originates from the sun keeps changing shape and form as

More information

Key Idea 2: Ecosystems

Key Idea 2: Ecosystems Key Idea 2: Ecosystems Ecosystems An ecosystem is a living community of plants and animals sharing an environment with non-living elements such as climate and soil. An example of a small scale ecosystem

More information

Ecology. Abiotic Factors: non-living physical and chemical factors which pffect the ability of organisms to survive and reproduce.

Ecology. Abiotic Factors: non-living physical and chemical factors which pffect the ability of organisms to survive and reproduce. Biotic vs. Abiotic Ecology Abiotic Factors: non-living physical and chemical factors which pffect the ability of organisms to survive and reproduce. Some Abiotic Factors light intensity temperature range

More information

Ecological Pyramids. How does energy flow through an ecosystem? 24 kcal Hawk (carnivore) 470 kcal Blue jays (omnivore) Caterpillars (herbivore)

Ecological Pyramids. How does energy flow through an ecosystem? 24 kcal Hawk (carnivore) 470 kcal Blue jays (omnivore) Caterpillars (herbivore) Why? Ecological Pyramids How does energy flow through an ecosystem? Every organism in an ecosystem is either eating or being eaten. When cows eat grass, they obtain some of the energy that the grass transferred

More information

ECOSYSTEMS: THE ROLE OF ABIOTIC FACTORS from the series Biology: The Science of Life Pre-Test

ECOSYSTEMS: THE ROLE OF ABIOTIC FACTORS from the series Biology: The Science of Life Pre-Test 1 Pre-Test Directions: Answer each of the following either true or false: 1. In ecosystems, non-living (abiotic) factors usually have insignificant effects on living things. True False 2. Carbon dioxide

More information

Ecology PS 12 PS 13:

Ecology PS 12 PS 13: Ecology PS 12: Matter cycles and energy flows through living and nonliving components in ecosystems. The transfer of matter and energy is important for maintaining the health and sustainability of ecosystems.

More information

Predator-prey relationships

Predator-prey relationships Predator-prey relationships Can insects hunt for food? When you think of an animal hunting for its food, large animals such as lions may come to mind. But many tiny animals also hunt for their food. For

More information

Biological Productivity and Coastal Habitats

Biological Productivity and Coastal Habitats Biological Productivity and Coastal Habitats Why do we care? Fishing Water quality Wildlife Ecology and Ecosystems Ecology Natural systems Include interactions between living and non-living parts Ecosystem

More information

Answers. Food Webs. Year 7 Science Chapter 3. p43. p45. p47

Answers. Food Webs. Year 7 Science Chapter 3. p43. p45. p47 Answers Food Webs Year 7 Science hapter 3 p43 p45 1 erbivores are animals that eat primary producers such as plants. 2 arnivores eat primary consumers such as herbivores. 3 Omnivores eat plants and animals.

More information

Lesson 4.13: Life Science Ecosystems 1

Lesson 4.13: Life Science Ecosystems 1 Weekly Focus: Reading Comprehension Weekly Skill: Finding Evidence from Passage Lesson Summary: This week students will read two different passages with information on ecosystems. The first passage includes

More information