Innovative Use Of FRP For Sustainable Precast Concrete Structures. Sami Rizkalla Distinguished Professor North Carolina State University, USA

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1 Innovative Use Of FRP For Sustainable Precast Concrete Structures Sami Rizkalla Distinguished Professor North Carolina State University, USA

2 FRP MATERIALS Fibers: GFRP CFRP AFRP + Resins: Epoxy Polyester Fiber Reinforced Polymers: Bars, Tendons, Grids, Laminates

3 FRP MATERIALS High strength toweight ratio Excellent durability Non magnetic Low transversal resistance (temporary works) Stress (ksi) HM CFRP (pitch) (220 ksi) CFRP (pan) (310 ksi) AFRP (240 ksi) GFRP (180 ksi) Steel (60 ksi) 0 0% 1% 2% 3% 4% 5% Strain

4 FRP MATERIALS FRP Fiber Reinforced Polymer Fiber Polymer Matrix

5 SEM IMAGE: CARBON/EPOXY

6 Earlier Applications Bridge Girders Concrete Filled Precast Piles Utility Poles

7 Earlier Applications Bridge Girders Concrete Filled Precast Piles Utility Poles

8 1993 Beddington Trail Bridge First Bulb-Tee bridge girder pre-tensioned with CFRP tendons, and monitored using Fiber Optic Sensors

9 1993 Beddington Trail Bridge No signs of degradation when tested in July 2008, after 15 years of service

10 1997 Taylor Bridge Instrumentation of the girder before casting First AASHTO Girder prestressed with CFRP tendons CFRP stirrups and deck reinforcement GFRP reinforced barrier walls Monitored using Fiber Optic Sensors

11 1998 PCI Innovative Design Award

12 Earlier Applications Bridge Girders Concrete Filled Precast Piles Utility Poles

13 Concrete Filled Precast Piles 700 load (kn) Confinement effect + Bending Resistance strain ( ) Axial Resistance

14 Route 40 Bridge, Virginia

15 Earlier Applications Bridge Girders Concrete Filled Precast Piles Utility Poles

16 Power line poles 5.8 t 12 t

17 Power line poles

18 Recent Advances In Precast Double-Tee beams Wall Panels Composite Non-composite Architectural Cladding

19 Recent Advances in Precast Double-Tee beams Wall Panels Composite Non-composite Architectural Cladding

20 Double Tee s in Parking Structures

21 Corrosion Free Double Tee Thin flange susceptible to chloride penetration CFRP Grid replacement for WWF conventional steel

22 Carbon Fiber Grids Carbon grids are manufactured in an automated process: High production volume High quality control

23 Pre topped Double Tees 23

24 Pre topped Double Tees 24

25 Carbon Fiber Installation Embedment and finishing machine to place the grid More precisely for optimum performance More consistent; less opportunity for human error

26 Research and Development at NCSU Flanges reinforced with CFRP grid Uniformly distributed applied load

27 Experimental Program

28 Testing Program

29 Testing Program Initial Cracking: DT1 DT2

30 Failure Mode DT1 2 thick flange Test Results

31 Failure Mode DT1 2 thick flange Test Results

32 Concentrated Load Test Failure load = 11,300 lbs

33 Connected DT

34 Field Testing (3) blocks = 16k on each side of the DT pair. Each block 24 x38 x72 Support blocks

35 Test Setup

36 Test Setup

37 Mid span Between Connectors

38 Midspan Between Connectors

39 Mid span Between Connectors Spanning the Gap

40 Recent Testing under Uniform pressure

41 Double Tee

42 Double Tee

43

44

45

46 Carbon Fiber Rupture

47 Recent Advances in Precast Double-Tee beams Wall Panels Composite Non-composite Architectural Cladding

48 Prestressed Concrete Sandwich Load Bearing Panels Resist vertical and lateral loads Provide building envelope Consists of two concrete wythes and a layer of rigid foam. Composite action achieved by shear connectors

49 Typical Wythe Connectors Steel truss connectors Thermally inefficient, Structurally efficient Steel tie connectors Thermally and structurally inefficient Discrete GFRP connectors Structurally inefficient, Thermally efficient Concrete solid zones Thermally inefficient

50 Composite Action Fully Composite Structurally efficient Thinner, lighter panels possible Non Composite Structurally inefficient Each wythe resists applied moment independently Partially Composite Capacity falls between full and non composite panels

51 GFRP Shear Grid Orthogonal FRP Grid Cut at a 45-degree angle to develop a truss action Provides composite action Structurally and thermally efficient 51

52 Insulated Sandwich Panel Wythe Reinforcement Exterior Interior Pilaster Carbon Fiber Shear Connector Typical Cross Section Carbon fiber grid shear connectors provide composite action between wythes; and 52 increase insulation value due to low thermal conductivity of the connector.

53 Experimental Program

54 Overall Panel Behavior Lateral Deflection (cm) Composite Lateral Load (lbs) Ultimate Load Representative EPS Panel Lateral Load (kn) 5000 Service Load 22 Non-composite Lateral Deflection (in)

55 Degree of Shear Connection

56 Experimental Results EPS 2 1.2D+0.5L r +1.6W 150

57 Flexural shear failure Failure Modes

58 Panel Separation Failure Modes

59 42 ft Sandwich Panel

60 42 foot panel tests

61 Strains on Panel Edge at Midspan

62 Typical Precast Concrete Sandwich Panel 3 Wythe Panel

63 Push out Specimens Testing Frame Data Acquisition System Load Cell 60 ton Hydraulic Jack Hydraulic Pump 2 Steel Bar, Supporting Outer Wythes

64 Experimental Program to study the effect of the various parameters Insulation Type High Density EPS (32 kg/m 3 ) Sandblasted XPS Untreated XPS Grid Spacing 300 mm 600 mm Insulation Thickness 50 mm 100 mm 150 mm HD EPS only Bond of the Rigid Foam Push Out Specimens with no GFRP Grid Grid Type High Strength : 10mm strand at 35mm spacing Normal Strength : 10mm strand at 53mm spacing CGRID Aging Effect (Freeze Thaw) 4 Specimens with 29 ºC to 60 ºC Freeze Thaw Cycles

65 Typical Failure Modes EPS Typ. Buckling of Cords in Compression XPS *No Pull Out Observed

66 Long Term Behavior

67 Thermal Cycles Chamber Panel Temperature (ºC) Temperature (ºF) Time (Days) Thermal Cycles -40 Environmental Chamber for Freeze-Thaw Cycles

68 Proposed Shear Flow Design Equation

69 Accuracy of the proposed Equation Avg. Experimental Shear Flow (kn/m) HD EPS XPS SB XPS 0 1 kn/m = 5.7 lb/in Avg. Calculated Shear Flow (kn/m)

70 Recent Advances in Precast Double Tee beams Wall Panels Composite Non composite Architectural Cladding

71 Recent Advances in Precast Double Tee beams Wall Panels Composite Non composite Architectural Cladding

72 Insulated Architectural Cladding Steel reinforced precast rib CFRP shear grid (thermal break) Insulating Foam CFRP grid secondary reinforcing Thin brick finish

73 Manufacturing Process

74 Test Setup At NCSU

75 Full-Scale Experimental Validation ± 1.2 kpa cyclic loading 2.5 kpa static loading

76 Specimen after Sustaining Factored Load in Both Directions (No Cracks)

77 Final Crack Pattern

78 Pressure vs. Deflection

79 Failure due to Pullout of End Connections

80 ProLogis Distribution Warehouse LOCATION: South Brunswick, N.J. ARCHITECT: Arco Design Build, Conshohocken, Pa. SIZE: 751,000 sq. ft.

81 Proximity Hotel LOCATION: Greensboro, NC ARCHITECT: Centrepoint Architecture SIZE: 118,000 sq. ft. SURFACE AREA: 55,000 sq. ft. AWARDS: LEED Platinum, USGBC GreenSite Project of the Year, 2010

82 Under Development Precast Prestressed Concrete Piles

83 Impact Force Steel Spirals Corrosion Replacement CFRP Grid

84 Testing of Pile Specimens

85 Prestressing and CGRID for Confinement

86 Casting with SSC

87 Testing by FDOT

88 Testing by FDOT

89 Closing Remarks Innovative use of FRP will lead to significant advancements in design, construction and sustainability of precast concrete structures and bridges. Questions?

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