CS560 Lecture: Client-Server and Service-Oriented Architecture. A. O Riordan, 2009 Based on slides by I. Sommerville

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1 CS560 Lecture: Client-Server and Service-Oriented Architecture A. O Riordan, 2009 Based on slides by I. Sommerville

2 Distributed Systems Virtually all large computer-based systems are now distributed systems. Information processing is distributed over several computers rather than confined to a single machine. Different distributed systems architectures parallel/cluster/grid computing client-server distributed object architectures - CORBA;.NET; J2EE peer-to-peer service-oriented architectures

3 Distributed system characteristics Resource sharing - sharing of hardware and software resources Openness use of equipment and software from different vendors Concurrency - concurrent processing to enhance performance Scalability -increased throughput by adding new resources Fault tolerance - ability to continue in operation after a fault as occurred Security Manageability

4 Middleware Software that manages and supports the different components of a distributed system. In essence, it sits in the middle of the system. Middleware can be off-the-shelf rather than specially written software Examples Transaction processing monitors; Data converters; Communication controllers.

5 Client-server architecture Distributed system model where data and processing is distributed across a range of components Set of servers which provide specific services such as printing, data management, etc. Set of clients which call on these services Network which allows clients to access servers Clients know of servers but servers need not know of clients

6 Example: Film and picture library Client 1 Client 2 Client 3 Client 4 Wide-bandwidth network Catalogue server Video server Picture server Hypertext server Catalogue Film clip files Digitiz ed photographs Hypertext web

7 Computers in a C/S network c1 c2 c3, c4 CC1 CC2 CC3 s1, s2 Network s3, s4 Server computer SC2 SC1 c5, c6, c7 CC4 CC5 c8, c9 c10, c1 1, c1 2 CC6 Client computer

8 Client-server characteristics Advantages Distribution of data is straightforward Makes effective use of networked systems May require cheaper hardware Easy to add new servers or upgrade existing servers Disadvantages No shared data model so sub-systems use different data organisation - data interchange may be inefficient Redundant management in each server No central register of names and services - it may be hard to find out what servers and services are available

9 Layered application architecture Presentation layer Concerned with presenting the results of a computation to system users and with collecting user inputs Application processing layer Concerned with providing application specific functionality e.g., in a banking system, banking functions such as open account, close account, etc. Data management layer Concerned with managing the system databases Presentation layer Application processing layer Data management layer

10 Thin-client model Thin and fat clients all of the application processing and data management is carried out on the server client is simply responsible for running the presentation software Fat-client model the server is only responsible for data management software on the client implements the application logic and the interactions with the system user

11 Thin and fat clients Thin-client model Client Presentation Server Data management Application processing Fat-client model Client Presentation Application processing Server Data management

12 Scaling Environment is typically heterogeneous and multi-vendor Client-server systems can be scaled horizontally or vertically Horizontal scaling means adding or removing client workstations with only a slight performance impact. Vertical scaling means migrating to a larger and faster server machine or multi servers. The front-end task and back-end task have fundamentally different requirements for computing resources servers typically expensive, fast, multi-processor systems, with large storage capacity clients less expensive

13 Tiering A two-tier architecture is one where a client talks directly to a server, with no intervening server This type of architecture is typically used in small environments with less than 50 users A three-tier architecture introduces another server (or an "agent") between the client and the server The role of the middle-tier agent is many-fold - it can provide translation services as in adapting a legacy application on a mainframe to a client/server environment A plethora of software technologies have evolved to fill the middle tier - middleware

14 Three-tier architectures In a three-tier architecture, each of the application architecture layers may execute on a separate processor Allows for better performance than a thin-client approach and is simpler to manage than a fat-client approach A more scalable architecture - as demands increase, extra servers can be added Presentation Server Server Client Application processing Data management

15 Example: An internet banking system Client HTTP interaction Client Web server Account service provision SQL query Database server SQL Customer account database Client Client

16 Service-oriented architectures Based around the notion of externally provided services (web services). A web service is a standard approach to making a reusable component available and accessible across the web A tax filing service could provide support for users to fill in their tax forms and submit these to the tax authorities.

17 Web services Service registry Find Publish Service requestor Bind Service provider service

18 Service-oriented characteristics Provider independence Public advertising of service availability Potentially, run-time service binding Opportunistic construction of new services through composition Pay for use of services Smaller, more compact applications Reactive and adaptive applications

19 Web Services standards Web Services are based on agreed, XML-based standards so can be provided on any platform and written in any programming language. Key W3C standards (see SOAP - Simple Object Access Protocol; WSDL - Web Services Description Language; UDDI - Universal Description, Discovery and Integration Representational state transfer (REST) is a simpler style of software architecture for distributed systems such as the Web.

20 Services scenario An in-car information system provides drivers with information on weather, road traffic conditions, local information etc. This is linked to car radio so that information is delivered as a signal on a specific radio channel. The car is equipped with GPS receiver to discover its position and, based on that position, the system accesses a range of information services. Information may be delivered in the driver s specified language.

21 Automotive system Road traffic info Weather info Facilities info Road locator Traffic info gps coord gps coord gps coord Translator Mobile Info Service Collates information Service discovery Finds available services Info stream Language info command gps coord Receiver Receives information stream from services Transmitter Sends position and information request to services User inter face Receives request from user Radio Translates dig ital info stream to radio signal Locator Discovers car position In-car software system

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