Domestic tourism participation by public sector workers: a case study from Accra, Ghana

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1 Domestic tourism participation: a case study from Accra Domestic tourism participation by public sector workers: a case study from Accra, Ghana Foster Frempong Joel I. Deichmann Candice Delassie Kpanga ABSTRACT - international tourism, as tour operators focus their efforts on selling tickets and tours for - - Keywords: INTRODUCTION Tourism is among the new agendas for addressing poverty in less-developed countries Tourism Today - Fall Other Papers 91

2 Foster Frempong, Joel I. Deichmann, Candice Delassie Kpanga pro-poor tourism, ecotourism, and community-based tourism to attract tourists, protect the environment, and sustain local communities, and nearly all of these divisions of the industry - - tivities of each of these organisations have been focused upon the international tourist rather only mention of domestic tourism falls under the section on marketing, and states the goal of The aforementioned emphasis upon international tourism is due to the fact that in the developing world, earnings from international tourism are much greater than those from domestic - about the re-development of slave castles in Cape Coast and Elmina, which are targeted to In developed countries, on the other hand, by far the greatest portion of tourism generated is 92 Tourism Today - Fall Other Papers

3 Domestic tourism participation: a case study from Accra Hence, domestic tourism serves as a tool for further development in most already-developed almost year-round, bridging the seasonality gap in the tourism sector and thereby creating - incomes, an increased standard of living, and ever-improving land, rail and air infrastructure, nology (ICT) that virtually reaches all corners of some wealthy countries, people are more - - the Millennium Development goals) by attracting foreign direct investment and international Tourism Highlights - LITERATURE REVIEW Tourism Today - Fall Other Papers 93

4 Foster Frempong, Joel I. Deichmann, Candice Delassie Kpanga that a poorly-managed industry can result in problems of foreign domination and depend- international tourism, but many of his cautionary suggestions nevertheless apply to domestic - plores destination competitiveness on the basis of natural endowments and government pol- both quantitative and qualitative data to build a destination competitiveness framework that Tourism Today - Fall Other Papers

5 Domestic tourism participation: a case study from Accra live abroad, the author underscores the enormous economic importance of their return to the - sectors of the economy that service the tourism sector, including construction, transportation, changes that local people could adopt as a result of tourism interactions, which often create small business enterprises and impact the infrastructural and natural resource base of the - intensive than farming, in other words when tourists are intensive users of rural land, such as of the industry, but unfortunately stop short of plugging empirical data into their theoretical - annual leave component from compensation packages many years ago has discouraged most - Tourism Today - Fall Other Papers 95

6 Foster Frempong, Joel I. Deichmann, Candice Delassie Kpanga ism policies, inadequate research and marketing efforts, (the) high cost of doing business in ism as part of the government welfare system, with emphasis on school-aged children who - leisure time and scarce disposable income for participants, alongside other variables that tor are considered to be above average in terms of income, and for that matter are among the to inform policy, it would be valuable to discover the factors that impede domestic travel, especially among public sectors workers, those who are most likely to participate in the do- METHODS AND DATA 96 Tourism Today - Fall Other Papers

7 Domestic tourism participation: a case study from Accra Figure 1: Study Area of Osu Klottey, Accra Metropolitan Area. the government ministries are located here, including the Ministry of Transport, Ministry of - - Tourism Today - Fall Other Papers 97

8 Foster Frempong, Joel I. Deichmann, Candice Delassie Kpanga - - factors that inhibit domestic tourism, and the perceived attractiveness of the domestic tour Table 1: Socio-demographic characteristic of respondents Age category Educational level 98 Tourism Today - Fall Other Papers

9 Domestic tourism participation: a case study from Accra Marital status ANALYSIS The tourism industry produces both durables and non-durable goods for the enjoyment and selves, but can also be thought of in reference to advertisement, accommodation facilities and services at the site, restaurant services, tourism information services and activities of tour achieve a wide range of objectives that may include changing attitudes or building image as PERCEPTIONS OF DOMESTIC TOURISM PRODUCTS IN GHANA Table 2, revealing that domestic tourism products are generally not perceived as attractive by Tourism Today - Fall Other Papers 99

10 Foster Frempong, Joel I. Deichmann, Candice Delassie Kpanga Table 2: Satisfaction Levels of Industry Components as Perceived by Respondents V. Satisfactory Satisfactory Unsatisfactory V. unsatisfactory No idea The appeal of domestic tourism products also includes restaurant services in attraction ar- makes the tourist aware of what is available, when it is available, factors that might affect the that few respondents are familiar with such professionals because they are less concerned Tourism Today - Fall Other Papers

11 Domestic tourism participation: a case study from Accra PROBLEMS ASSOCIATED WITH UNATTRACTIVE TOURISM PRODUCTS determines level of satisfaction, which can relate to goods and services provided by suppli- Therefore, it is important to understand the ways in which respondents rate these components Table 3: Perception of Domestic Tourism Product Domestic tourism Frequency Percentage Total N=250 multiple response - respondents cited a lack of good sanitation, as well as infrastructure problems related to roads clear indication of the need to look at some of these issues and consider ways to make the - response for the reasons attributed to the unattractiveness of the domestic tourism product, Tourism Today - Fall Other Papers 101

12 Foster Frempong, Joel I. Deichmann, Candice Delassie Kpanga provement in information technology and dissemination of information is likely to enhance the tourism product and promote domestic travel, as information brings about awareness - MOTIVATION FOR TRAVEL establish different goals to satisfy those needs, and take different actions to achieve those Table 4: Purpose of Domestic Travel in Ghana by Respondents in Osu Klottey Purpose Frequency Percentage Total lighted by respondents include education, visits to attraction sites, shopping, and for curios Tourism Today - Fall Other Papers

13 Domestic tourism participation: a case study from Accra bution to the community or region visited may be limited because most of these services that FACTORS HINDERING PARTICIPATION IN DOMESTIC TOURISM providers international tourism is more popular than domestic tourism due to the perceived Table 5: Factors Impeding Domestic Tourism Agree Agree Disagree Disagree Mean - - Tourism Today - Fall Other Papers 103

14 Foster Frempong, Joel I. Deichmann, Candice Delassie Kpanga Table 5 reveals two major factors that should be considered as far as participation in tourism son who takes a trip could be giving up income earning opportunities, or the pleasure from discover that many respondents attribute inadequate time for domestic travels to pressures in discretionary activity, most people are denied the required resources to partake in tourism Tourism Today - Fall Other Papers

15 Domestic tourism participation: a case study from Accra Figure 2: Minimum Wages in Ghana over Time (in GHC) However, our respondents within the lower income group indicate they would participate As new data become available, more detailed interest in income levels should therefore in- tions, and, once again the issue of inadequate information on tourism related activities in service providers should possess good communication and service skills, and these translate - provide good customer services are appreciated by both the customers and the organisation Tourism Today - Fall Other Papers 105

16 Foster Frempong, Joel I. Deichmann, Candice Delassie Kpanga - MARKETING AND MANAGEMENT OF THE DOMESTIC TOURISM PRODUCT - tey district believe that tourism products have not been marketed to them, nor to others in not only the development of the product itself, but also other tourism-supporting services Day, which attract many international tourists, although their impact on domestic tourists is Most often, the host government in question assumes the responsibility for managing tourist TRAVEL MOTIVATION AND DECISION MAKING Whatever the reason for taking a holiday, many factors both economic and non-economic elements that motivate tourists to travel, including Tourism Today - Fall Other Papers

17 Domestic tourism participation: a case study from Accra Total The decision to travel relies mostly on individual workers themselves rather than on other our responses, most public sector workers decide by themselves whether or not to partake public sector workers is mostly intrinsic and highly personal, an observation that might be CONCLUSIONS AND SUGGESTIONS In assessing the attractiveness of the domestic tourism product to public sector workers, we to show that the level of satisfaction in the domestic tourism products based on the facilities mentioned in the survey would have to be improved in order for domestic tourism products enhanced through the distribution of brochures to institutions such as schools, government - using electronic media such as the Internet as well as video documentaries and print media, information about domestic tourism participation in the country can be distributed, thereby Tourism Today - Fall Other Papers 107

18 Foster Frempong, Joel I. Deichmann, Candice Delassie Kpanga - - commitment to sell destinations not only to the international market, but also to satisfy the - Although tourism products are consumed in situ, facilities and new tourism products should instances where certain tourist destinations are not easy to reach due to substandard infra Tourist destinations should offer different forms of activities in order to appeal to a variety of markets, but also so that tourists will have a variety of things to see, to do, and to buy, which the activities traditionally sought for such enjoyment include football games, festivals, wed- Destinations vary, and with the differences in preferences, individuals make a range of choic- attractions, underscoring the importance of wildlife protection and the conservation of life Tourism Today - Fall Other Papers

19 Domestic tourism participation: a case study from Accra - In some cases, it has in some cases led to acculturation, which in some cases even changed sponsibility of taking care of the aged and the young, as well as unforeseen events such as - was a lack of or limited information and this could be easily improved through proper market- Better information and promotion would lead to an enhanced interest in tourism activities, Participation in domestic tourism is a means to unlock a number of opportunities in the tourism, development, and poverty need to be better understood so that promotion and devel- Developing interest in domestic tourism as shown here with responses from public sector accomplished through various marketing strategies by individuals, groups and government should be made available to the public to enhance their interest and also serve as an entice- Tourism Today - Fall Other Papers 109

20 Foster Frempong, Joel I. Deichmann, Candice Delassie Kpanga other government agencies, it should facilitate proper marketing and management of domes- - promotion, private sectors and local communities could focus on areas of common interest - ism should be promoted in light of its potential positive impacts, spatial diversity, cultural it should be remembered that the decision to travel depends on the individual and his or her marital status, and other variables, in the interest of better guiding tourism development and in the industry, while helping them build a better understanding of the industry that can guide REFERENCES Introduction to Tourism and Hospitality Management A Handbook of Human Resource Management 10th Ed, Cam- Pathways to Prosperity Ð How Can Tourism Reduce Poverty: A Review of Pathways, Evidence and Methods Population, Space, and Place 110 Tourism Today - Fall Other Papers

21 Domestic tourism participation: a case study from Accra Annals of Tourism R E-tourism: Information Technology for Strategic Tourism Management - Journal of Business Research Tourism Marketing Tourism Principles and Practices 3rd Annals of Tourism Research, Marketing Visitor Attractions- Marketing Insight from A to Z The Service Industries Journal Tourism And The Economy, Understanding The Economics Of Tourism - - Tourism Today - Fall Other Papers 111

22 Foster Frempong, Joel I. Deichmann, Candice Delassie Kpanga Jounal of Travel Research The Tourist Experience Annals of Tourism Research - - The Stages of Economic Growth - - Journal of Travel Research - Tourism Market Trends in Ghana - Annals of Tourism Research 112 Tourism Today - Fall Other Papers

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