Chapter 2 The Science of Life in the Universe

Size: px
Start display at page:

Download "Chapter 2 The Science of Life in the Universe"

Transcription

1 Chapter 2 The Science of Life in the Universe The Big Idea This is a perspective Chapter How did we get to the point where we can address the question of extra-terrestrial life in a scientific way? And what does scientific way mean, anyway? Jump ahead 1

2 Ch The Copernican Revolution The Heliocentric All Star Team I. Nicholas Copernicus (~1540) revives the heliocentric idea Tycho Brahe (~1580) most precise naked-eye planetary positions accuracy ~1/60 of a degree! Johannes Kepler (~1610) detailed analysis of Tycho s data heliocentric model works best planet orbits are ellipses planet orbital speeds vary bigger orbits longer periods 3 Laws of Planetary Motion (see Figs ) 2

3 Ch The Copernican Revolution The Heliocentric All Star Team I. Nicholas Copernicus (~1540) revives the heliocentric idea Tycho Brahe (~1580) most precise naked-eye planetary positions accuracy ~1/60 of a degree! Johannes Kepler (~1610) detailed analysis of Tycho s data heliocentric model works best planet orbits are ellipses planet orbital speeds vary bigger orbits longer periods 3 Laws of Planetary Motion (see Figs ) 3

4 The Heliocentric All Star Team II. Galileo (early 1600 s) first telescopic observations favored heliocentric model (but couldn t prove Earth moves!) early understanding of physics of motion Isaac Newton (~1700) discovered physical principles behind Keplers results mathematically describes the physics of motion Newton s Three Laws of Motion (see Fig 2.12) 4

5 The Heliocentric All Star Team II. Galileo (early 1600 s) first telescopic observations favored heliocentric model (but couldn t prove Earth moves!) early understanding of physics of motion Isaac Newton (~1700) discovered physical principles behind Keplers results mathematically describes the physics of motion Newton s Three Laws of Motion (see Fig 2.12) 5

6 Kepler s Three Laws 1. Orbits are ellipses 2. Orbital speed changes during orbit 3. Orbital size and period are related 6

7 But What About Extraterrestrial Life? Greek atomists believed heavens composed of same element as Earth - and populated by life. Others ( Aristotelians ) believed Earth to be unique the special center of the Universe Copernican Revolution showed that Earth does not occupy a special place in the Universe Earth is just another place What happens here probably happens in lots of other places Made it easier to believe the life might exist elsewhere 7

8 So it seems intellectually reasonable to think about extra-terrestrial life But how do we approach the issue scientifically? 8

9 Ch The Nature of Modern Science definition: science = the view that the physical Universe is governed by a welldefined set of rules (i.e., is a rational place) = the endeavor to uncover those rules The rules that govern the physical Universe can be expressed mathematically (this is a great thing) 9

10 The Scientific Method An idealized view of how science proceeds This is the key part A scientific theory is testable A scientific theory is falsifiable A scientific theory can never be proven to be right! Fig

11 Distinguishing Science from Pseudo-Science There are several characteristics which define scientific thinking UFO-ology, creationism, belief in psychic powers, astrology, etc. all fail to achieve one or more of the hallmarks. They are not science Fig

12 So, our approach to Life in the Universe will be a scientific one. We will utilize only reliable & repeatable observations If we formulate any conclusions, explanations, or theories, they must be testable and falsifiable! 12

13 Science in Action Ch The Fact and Theory of Gravity Isaac Newton Newton first realized that an attractive force (gravity) could explain many different phenomena Falling apples, rocks, cows, Earth s orbit around Sun Moon s orbit around Earth, etc. Strength of force depends only only on masses & separation! Successfully predicted comet orbits, existence of Uranus, Fig

14 But what the heck is a force Action at a distance sounds a bit like magic. Newton s Universal Law of Gravitation really doesn t tell us what gravity is. And it doesn t actually work all the time! 14

15 Albert Einstein Suggests gravity results from curvature of space! mass distorts space orbits are straight lines in curved space! Fig 2.17 General Relativity reproduces all of Newton s results plus - it works in places where Newton s theory didn t 15

16 General Relativity has passed all tests so far But is it right? Do we understand gravity? Probably not! GR not consistent with quantum mechanics (the study of the subatomic world) There s probably a bigger theory out there, but we don t know what it is yet predicting & testing go on 16

The Main Point. The Scientific Method. Laws of Planetary Motion. Lecture #3: Orbits and Gravity. Laws of Planetary Motion:

The Main Point. The Scientific Method. Laws of Planetary Motion. Lecture #3: Orbits and Gravity. Laws of Planetary Motion: Lecture #3: Orbits and Gravity Laws of Planetary Motion: Kepler's Laws. Newton's Laws. Gravity. Planetary Orbits. Spacecraft Orbits. The Main Point Motions of planets, moons, and asteroids can be very

More information

Lecture 6: Newton & Kepler. Tycho Brahe ( ) Johannes Kepler

Lecture 6: Newton & Kepler. Tycho Brahe ( ) Johannes Kepler Lecture 6: Newton & Kepler Johannes Kepler (1600) was employed by Tycho to develop a mathematical theory to explain the observations made by Tycho Kepler was a pure theorist; Tycho a pure observer Issac

More information

Chapter 3 Reading Quiz Clickers. The Cosmic Perspective Seventh Edition. The Science of Astronomy Pearson Education, Inc.

Chapter 3 Reading Quiz Clickers. The Cosmic Perspective Seventh Edition. The Science of Astronomy Pearson Education, Inc. Reading Quiz Clickers The Cosmic Perspective Seventh Edition The Science of Astronomy 3.1 The Ancient Roots of Science In what ways do all humans use scientific thinking? How is modern science rooted in

More information

Chapter 3 The Science of Astronomy

Chapter 3 The Science of Astronomy Chapter 3 The Science of Astronomy Days of the week were named for Sun, Moon, and visible planets. What did ancient civilizations achieve in astronomy? Daily timekeeping Tracking the seasons and calendar

More information

Universal Law of Gravitation Honors Physics

Universal Law of Gravitation Honors Physics Universal Law of Gravitation Honors Physics Newton s Law of Universal Gravitation The greatest moments in science are when two phenomena that were considered completely separate suddenly are seen as just

More information

PHYS-1000 Chapter 3 Homework Solutions Due: September 9, 2012

PHYS-1000 Chapter 3 Homework Solutions Due: September 9, 2012 1. In the Greek geocentric model, the retrograde motion of a planet occurs when A. Earth is about to pass the planet in its orbit around the Sun. B. the planet actually goes backward in its orbit around

More information

Chapter 25.1: Models of our Solar System

Chapter 25.1: Models of our Solar System Chapter 25.1: Models of our Solar System Objectives: Compare & Contrast geocentric and heliocentric models of the solar sytem. Describe the orbits of planets explain how gravity and inertia keep the planets

More information

Today. Galileo. Planetary Motion. Tycho Brahe s Observations. Kepler s Laws

Today. Galileo. Planetary Motion. Tycho Brahe s Observations. Kepler s Laws Today Galileo Planetary Motion Tycho Brahe s Observations Kepler s Laws 1 Galileo c. 1564-1642 First telescopic astronomical observations 2 First use of telescope for astronomy in 1609 400 years ago! 3

More information

From Aristotle to Newton

From Aristotle to Newton From Aristotle to Newton The history of the Solar System (and the universe to some extent) from ancient Greek times through to the beginnings of modern physics. The Geocentric Model Ancient Greek astronomers

More information

Announcements. Eclipses 2/1/12. HW1 is due Thursday. You have to be registered at MasteringAstronomy to do the homework!

Announcements. Eclipses 2/1/12. HW1 is due Thursday. You have to be registered at MasteringAstronomy to do the homework! Announcements HW1 is due Thursday. You have to be registered at MasteringAstronomy to do the homework! TA Qufei Gu will be in RH111 4:00-5:00PM Wednesday to help with homework. Email: zyx88@unm.edu Feb

More information

Today. The Copernican Revolution. Galileo. Planetary Motion. Tycho Brahe s Observations. Kepler s Laws

Today. The Copernican Revolution. Galileo. Planetary Motion. Tycho Brahe s Observations. Kepler s Laws Today The Copernican Revolution Galileo Planetary Motion Tycho Brahe s Observations Kepler s Laws Galileo c. 1564-1640 First telescopic astronomical observations Galileo s observations of phases of Venus

More information

Website: Reading: Homework: Discussion:

Website: Reading: Homework: Discussion: Reminders! Website: http://starsarestellar.blogspot.com/ Lectures 1-5 are available for download as study aids. Reading: You should have Chapters 1-4 read, Chapter 5 by the end of today, and Chapters 6

More information

Lecture Outlines. Chapter 2. Astronomy Today 7th Edition Chaisson/McMillan Pearson Education, Inc.

Lecture Outlines. Chapter 2. Astronomy Today 7th Edition Chaisson/McMillan Pearson Education, Inc. Lecture Outlines Chapter 2 Astronomy Today 7th Edition Chaisson/McMillan Chapter 2 The Copernican Revolution Units of Chapter 2 2.1 Ancient Astronomy 2.2 The Geocentric Universe 2.3 The Heliocentric Model

More information

The Heliocentric Model of the Solar System

The Heliocentric Model of the Solar System The Heliocentric Model of the Solar System Hypothesis: The Sun is the center of the solar system. Only Moon orbits around Earth; Planets orbit around Sun. Aristarchus of Samos was the first to propose

More information

Name: Earth 110 Exploration of the Solar System Assignment 1: Celestial Motions and Forces Due in class Tuesday, Jan. 20, 2015

Name: Earth 110 Exploration of the Solar System Assignment 1: Celestial Motions and Forces Due in class Tuesday, Jan. 20, 2015 Name: Earth 110 Exploration of the Solar System Assignment 1: Celestial Motions and Forces Due in class Tuesday, Jan. 20, 2015 Why are celestial motions and forces important? They explain the world around

More information

The Solar System. Unit 4 covers the following framework standards: ES 10 and PS 11. Content was adapted the following:

The Solar System. Unit 4 covers the following framework standards: ES 10 and PS 11. Content was adapted the following: Unit 4 The Solar System Chapter 7 ~ The History of the Solar System o Section 1 ~ The Formation of the Solar System o Section 2 ~ Observing the Solar System Chapter 8 ~ The Parts the Solar System o Section

More information

Scientific Revolution

Scientific Revolution Scientific Revolution Learning Objective Students will be able to: * define the Scientific Revolution * identify the historical roots of modern science. (a historical root is the start of something) The

More information

Unit 8 Lesson 2 Gravity and the Solar System

Unit 8 Lesson 2 Gravity and the Solar System Unit 8 Lesson 2 Gravity and the Solar System Gravity What is gravity? Gravity is a force of attraction between objects that is due to their masses and the distances between them. Every object in the universe

More information

Kepler, Newton and Gravitation

Kepler, Newton and Gravitation Kepler, Newton and Gravitation Kepler, Newton and Gravity 1 Using the unit of distance 1 AU = Earth-Sun distance PLANETS COPERNICUS MODERN Mercury 0.38 0.387 Venus 0.72 0.723 Earth 1.00 1.00 Mars 1.52

More information

Jupiter Impact! Monday Sept. 10, 2012 at 11:35 UT Possible asteroid or comet Frame from a video recording made in Dallas, Texas by amateur astronomer

Jupiter Impact! Monday Sept. 10, 2012 at 11:35 UT Possible asteroid or comet Frame from a video recording made in Dallas, Texas by amateur astronomer Jupiter Impact! Monday Sept. 10, 2012 at 11:35 UT Possible asteroid or comet Frame from a video recording made in Dallas, Texas by amateur astronomer George Hall Read story in Space weather web site:www.spaceweather.com

More information

13 Universal Gravitation. Everything pulls on everything else.

13 Universal Gravitation. Everything pulls on everything else. Everything pulls on everything else. Gravity was not discovered by Isaac Newton. What Newton discovered, prompted by a falling apple, was that gravity is a universal force that it is not unique to Earth,

More information

Chapter 13: Universal Gravitation

Chapter 13: Universal Gravitation Chapter 13: Universal Gravitation I. The Falling Apple (13.1) A. Isaac Newton (1642-1727) 1. Formulated ideas based on earlier work by Galileo (concept of inertia) 2. Concept if object undergoes change

More information

Motion and Gravity in Space

Motion and Gravity in Space Motion and Gravity in Space Each planet spins on its axis. The spinning of a body, such a planet, on its axis is called rotation. The orbit is the path that a body follows as it travels around another

More information

Kepler, Newton, and laws of motion

Kepler, Newton, and laws of motion Kepler, Newton, and laws of motion !! " The only history in this course:!!!geocentric vs. heliocentric model (sec. 2.2-2.4)" The important historical progression is the following:!! Ptolemy (~140 AD) Copernicus

More information

Lecture 7: Light Waves. Newton s Laws of Motion (1666) Newton s First Law of Motion

Lecture 7: Light Waves. Newton s Laws of Motion (1666) Newton s First Law of Motion Lecture 7: Light Waves Isaac Newton (1643-1727) was born in the year Galileo died He discovered the Law of Gravitation in 1665 He developed the Laws of Mechanics that govern all motions In order to solve

More information

Chapter 13 Newton s Theory of Gravity

Chapter 13 Newton s Theory of Gravity Chapter 13 Newton s Theory of Gravity Chapter Goal: To use Newton s theory of gravity to understand the motion of satellites and planets. Slide 13-2 Chapter 13 Preview Slide 13-3 Chapter 13 Preview Slide

More information

4. Discuss the information as a class (transparency key)

4. Discuss the information as a class (transparency key) Teacher: Sherry Tipps-Holder Grade: 8 Subject: World History/ Lesson designed for inclusion in unit on Scientific Revolution Essential Question: What were the major contributions/innovations of the who

More information

Astronomy 1140 Quiz 1 Review

Astronomy 1140 Quiz 1 Review Astronomy 1140 Quiz 1 Review Prof. Pradhan September 15, 2015 What is Science? 1. Explain the difference between astronomy and astrology. (a) Astrology: nonscience using zodiac sign to predict the future/personality

More information

PHYS-1000 Final Exam Study Guide Fall 2012

PHYS-1000 Final Exam Study Guide Fall 2012 This study guide is for the final exam of the course, covering chapters 1 through 5 and 7 through 13. You are responsible for all material in these chapters referenced from this guide as well as the corresponding

More information

Lecture 13. Gravity in the Solar System

Lecture 13. Gravity in the Solar System Lecture 13 Gravity in the Solar System Guiding Questions 1. How was the heliocentric model established? What are monumental steps in the history of the heliocentric model? 2. How do Kepler s three laws

More information

Tycho Brahe ( )

Tycho Brahe ( ) Gravity Tycho Brahe (1546-1601) Tycho Brahe (without a telescope) made extremely accurate measurements of the posiaons of the stars and planets over the course of 20 years. Tycho believed that the other

More information

Physics 130 Astronomy Exam #1 July 19, 2004

Physics 130 Astronomy Exam #1 July 19, 2004 Physics 130 Astronomy Exam #1 July 19, 2004 Name Multiple Choice: 1. A scientist observes a new phenomenon that disagrees with his explanation or hypothesis. Following the scientific methods, he should

More information

Unit 11: Gravity & the Solar System

Unit 11: Gravity & the Solar System Unit 11: Gravity & the Solar System Inquiry Physics www.inquiryphysics.org Historical development Kepler s Laws Newton s Universal Gravitation Next 11: Gravity & the Solar System Historical development

More information

GRAVITY. You can t blame gravity for falling in love. Albert Einstein

GRAVITY. You can t blame gravity for falling in love. Albert Einstein You can t blame gravity for falling in love. Albert Einstein LITTLE PLANET If an asteroid was very small but supermassive, could you really live on it like the Little Prince? WHAT IS GRAVITY? Gravity is

More information

Lecture 5: Newton s Laws. Astronomy 111

Lecture 5: Newton s Laws. Astronomy 111 Lecture 5: Newton s Laws Astronomy 111 Isaac Newton (1643-1727): English Discovered: three laws of motion, one law of universal gravitation. Newton s great book: Newton s laws are universal in scope,

More information

What s going on during a solar eclipse. Solar Eclipses. Total Solar Eclipse on March 29, 2006 (viewed from Turkey) Partial, Total, and Annular

What s going on during a solar eclipse. Solar Eclipses. Total Solar Eclipse on March 29, 2006 (viewed from Turkey) Partial, Total, and Annular Solar Eclipses The Sun disappears behind the Moon The Moon is always in the New phase during a solar eclipse Can only be seen from certain places on Earth These events are even more rare than lunar eclipses

More information

Where is Fundamental Physics Heading? Nathan Seiberg IAS Apr. 30, 2014

Where is Fundamental Physics Heading? Nathan Seiberg IAS Apr. 30, 2014 Where is Fundamental Physics Heading? Nathan Seiberg IAS Apr. 30, 2014 Disclaimer We do not know what will be discovered. This is the reason we perform experiments. This is the reason scientific research

More information

LESSON 3 THE SOLAR SYSTEM. Chapter 8, Astronomy

LESSON 3 THE SOLAR SYSTEM. Chapter 8, Astronomy LESSON 3 THE SOLAR SYSTEM Chapter 8, Astronomy OBJECTIVES Identify planets by observing their movement against background stars. Explain that the solar system consists of many bodies held together by gravity.

More information

7.2 Calculate force of gravity at a given distance given the force of gravity at another distance (making use of the inverse square relationship).

7.2 Calculate force of gravity at a given distance given the force of gravity at another distance (making use of the inverse square relationship). Chapter 7 Circular Motion and Gravitation 7.1 Calculate force of gravity using Newton s Law of Universal Gravitation. 5. What is the gravitational force between the Earth and the Sun? (Mass of Earth: 5.98

More information

ELEMENTS OF PHYSICS MOTION, FORCE, AND GRAVITY

ELEMENTS OF PHYSICS MOTION, FORCE, AND GRAVITY 1 Pre-Test Directions: This will help you discover what you know about the subject of motion before you begin this lesson. Answer the following true or false. 1. Aristotle believed that all objects fell

More information

Today. Laws of Motion Conservation Laws Gravity tides. What is the phase of the moon?

Today. Laws of Motion Conservation Laws Gravity tides. What is the phase of the moon? Today Laws of Motion Conservation Laws Gravity tides What is the phase of the moon? How is mass different from weight? Mass the amount of matter in an object Weight the force that acts upon an object You

More information

Gravity: The Law of Attraction

Gravity: The Law of Attraction Gravity: The Law of Attraction 2009, Copyright@2008 Lecture 1, Oct. 1 2009 Oct. 1, 2009 #1 Questions of the day: How are Force, acceleration, and mass related? Why is gravity the most important force for

More information

Gravitation and Newton s Synthesis

Gravitation and Newton s Synthesis Gravitation and Newton s Synthesis Vocabulary law of unviversal Kepler s laws of planetary perturbations casual laws gravitation motion casuality field graviational field inertial mass gravitational mass

More information

Exercise: Estimating the Mass of Jupiter Difficulty: Medium

Exercise: Estimating the Mass of Jupiter Difficulty: Medium Exercise: Estimating the Mass of Jupiter Difficulty: Medium OBJECTIVE The July / August observing notes for 010 state that Jupiter rises at dusk. The great planet is now starting its grand showing for

More information

Tycho Brahe and Johannes Kepler

Tycho Brahe and Johannes Kepler Tycho Brahe and Johannes Kepler The Music of the Spheres SC/NATS 1730, XIII 1 1546-1601 1601 Motivated by astronomy's predictive powers. Saw and reported the Nova of 1572. Considered poor observational

More information

Periods of Western Astronomy. Chapter 1. Prehistoric Astronomy. Prehistoric Astronomy. The Celestial Sphere. Stonehenge. History of Astronomy

Periods of Western Astronomy. Chapter 1. Prehistoric Astronomy. Prehistoric Astronomy. The Celestial Sphere. Stonehenge. History of Astronomy Periods of Western Astronomy Chapter 1 History of Astronomy Western astronomy divides into 4 periods Prehistoric (before 500 B.C.) Cyclical motions of Sun, Moon and stars observed Keeping time and determining

More information

AST 105 HW #2 Solution

AST 105 HW #2 Solution AST 105 HW #2 Solution Week of August 31 th, 2015 Note: All Problems are from The Cosmic Perspective (6ed) Chapter 3 Review Problems 1. In what way is scientific thinking natural to all of us? How does

More information

How fast do they fly?

How fast do they fly? Gravity in Action Orbits and rockets The orbiting of an artificial satellite or the Moon around the Earth implies that there is a force present. Otherwise, these objects would go flying off into space

More information

The farthest bright galaxies that modern telescopes are capable of seeing are up to

The farthest bright galaxies that modern telescopes are capable of seeing are up to Chapter 1-3 The farthest bright galaxies that modern telescopes are capable of seeing are up to 1. 1 million light years away 2. 10 million light years away 3. 1 billion light years away 4. 10 billion

More information

Astron 100 Sample Exam 1 1. Solar eclipses occur only at (A) New moon (B) 1 st quarter moon (C) Full moon (D) 3 rd quarter moon (E) The equinoxes 2.

Astron 100 Sample Exam 1 1. Solar eclipses occur only at (A) New moon (B) 1 st quarter moon (C) Full moon (D) 3 rd quarter moon (E) The equinoxes 2. Astron 100 Sample Exam 1 1. Solar eclipses occur only at (A) New moon (B) 1 st quarter moon (C) Full moon (D) 3 rd quarter moon (E) The equinoxes 2. If the Moon is at first quarter tonight in Amherst,

More information

4.1 Describing Motion. How do we describe motion? Chapter 4 Making Sense of the Universe: Understanding Motion, Energy, and Gravity

4.1 Describing Motion. How do we describe motion? Chapter 4 Making Sense of the Universe: Understanding Motion, Energy, and Gravity Chapter 4 Making Sense of the Universe: Understanding Motion, Energy, and Gravity 4.1 Describing Motion Our goals for learning:! How do we describe motion?! How is mass different from weight? How do we

More information

AE554 Applied Orbital Mechanics. Hafta 1 Egemen Đmre

AE554 Applied Orbital Mechanics. Hafta 1 Egemen Đmre AE554 Applied Orbital Mechanics Hafta 1 Egemen Đmre A bit of history the beginning Astronomy: Science of heavens. (Ancient Greeks). Astronomy existed several thousand years BC Perfect universe (like circles

More information

Making Sense of the Universe: Understanding Motion, Energy, and Gravity

Making Sense of the Universe: Understanding Motion, Energy, and Gravity Making Sense of the Universe: Understanding Motion, Energy, and Gravity 1. Newton s Laws 2. Conservation Laws Energy Angular momentum 3. Gravity Review from last time Ancient Greeks: Ptolemy; the geocentric

More information

Chapter 13. Newton s Theory of Gravity

Chapter 13. Newton s Theory of Gravity Chapter 13. Newton s Theory of Gravity The beautiful rings of Saturn consist of countless centimeter-sized ice crystals, all orbiting the planet under the influence of gravity. Chapter Goal: To use Newton

More information

The Cosmic Perspective Seventh Edition. Making Sense of the Universe: Understanding Motion, Energy, and Gravity. Chapter 4 Lecture

The Cosmic Perspective Seventh Edition. Making Sense of the Universe: Understanding Motion, Energy, and Gravity. Chapter 4 Lecture Chapter 4 Lecture The Cosmic Perspective Seventh Edition Making Sense of the Universe: Understanding Motion, Energy, and Gravity Making Sense of the Universe: Understanding Motion, Energy, and Gravity

More information

AST 101 Lecture 7. Newton s Laws and the Nature of Matter

AST 101 Lecture 7. Newton s Laws and the Nature of Matter AST 101 Lecture 7 Newton s Laws and the Nature of Matter The Nature of Matter Democritus (c. 470-380 BCE) posited that matter was composed of atoms Atoms: particles that can not be further subdivided 4

More information

A Brief History of Orbital Mechanics

A Brief History of Orbital Mechanics A Brief History of Orbital Mechanics Aristotle (384-322 BC) Ptolemy (87-150 AD) Nicolaus Copernicus (1473-1543) Tycho Brahe (1546-1601) Johannes Kepler (1571-1630) Galileo Galilei (1564-1642) Sir Isaac

More information

Isaac Newton & the Newtonian Age

Isaac Newton & the Newtonian Age Newton By William Blake ~1800 Ch 5 pg. 91-95 ++ Lecture 3 Isaac Newton & the Newtonian Age If I have ever made any valuable discoveries, it has been owing more to patient attention, than to any other talent.

More information

Lab 6: Kepler's Laws. Introduction. Section 1: First Law

Lab 6: Kepler's Laws. Introduction. Section 1: First Law Lab 6: Kepler's Laws Purpose: to learn that orbit shapes are ellipses, gravity and orbital velocity are related, and force of gravity and orbital period are related. Materials: 2 thumbtacks, 1 pencil,

More information

Newton s Law of Universal Gravitation

Newton s Law of Universal Gravitation Newton s Law of Universal Gravitation The greatest moments in science are when two phenomena that were considered completely separate suddenly are seen as just two different versions of the same thing.

More information

WORLD HISTORY: SCIENTIFIC REVOLUTION AND ENLIGHTENMENT. Jeopardy Version Watch out Alex Trebek

WORLD HISTORY: SCIENTIFIC REVOLUTION AND ENLIGHTENMENT. Jeopardy Version Watch out Alex Trebek WORLD HISTORY: SCIENTIFIC REVOLUTION AND ENLIGHTENMENT Jeopardy Version Watch out Alex Trebek Scientists Philosophes Enlightenment Spreads Terms Thnkers 100 100 100 100 100 200 200 200 200 200 300 300

More information

Summary: The Universe in 1650

Summary: The Universe in 1650 Celestial Mechanics: The Why of Planetary Motions Attempts to Describe How Celestial Objects Move Aristotle, Hipparchus, and Ptolemy: The Ptolemaic System Aristarchus, Copernicus, and Kepler: The Copernican

More information

1 Newton s Laws of Motion

1 Newton s Laws of Motion Exam 1 Ast 4 - Chapter 2 - Newton s Laws Exam 1 is scheduled for the week of Feb 19th Bring Pencil Scantron 882-E (available in the Bookstore) A scientific calculator (you will not be allowed to use you

More information

Astronomy 210 Fall 2016: Quiz 2 Flashcard Questions 1

Astronomy 210 Fall 2016: Quiz 2 Flashcard Questions 1 Astronomy 210 Fall 2016: Quiz 2 Flashcard Questions 1 1. The moon is in its phase during a lunar eclipse. solar (A) new. (B) first quarter. (C) full. (D) third quarter. (E) (Depends on the time of day.)

More information

Introduction to Gravity and Orbits. Isaac Newton. Newton s Laws of Motion

Introduction to Gravity and Orbits. Isaac Newton. Newton s Laws of Motion Introduction to Gravity and Orbits Isaac Newton Born in England in 1642 Invented calculus in early twenties Finally published work in gravity in 1687 The Principia Newton s Laws of Motion 1: An object

More information

1 Kepler s Laws of Planetary Motion

1 Kepler s Laws of Planetary Motion 1 Kepler s Laws of Planetary Motion 1.1 Introduction Johannes Kepler published three laws of planetary motion, the first two in 1609 and the third in 1619. The laws were made possible by planetary data

More information

Kepler s Laws and Gravity. Ian Morison

Kepler s Laws and Gravity. Ian Morison Kepler s Laws and Gravity Ian Morison Observations of a supernova. Tycho made detailed observations of the supernova of 1572 now called Tycho s supernova. It was initially brighter than Venus and was visible

More information

Vocabulary - Understanding Revolution in. our Solar System

Vocabulary - Understanding Revolution in. our Solar System Vocabulary - Understanding Revolution in Universe Galaxy Solar system Planet Moon Comet Asteroid Meteor(ite) Heliocentric Geocentric Satellite Terrestrial planets Jovian (gas) planets Gravity our Solar

More information

Lenses and Telescopes

Lenses and Telescopes Notes for teachers on Module 3 Lenses and Telescopes Lenses are a basic optical component. However, understanding how they work is non-trivial! They have a wide variety of applications. One such use is

More information

Lecture 4: Announcements

Lecture 4: Announcements 1 Lecture 4: Announcements Homework: If you do not have access to M.A. then talk to me or send me an email ASAP! My office hours: Today 2:00-3:30 pm, starting at ISB 201 (my office), check if there is

More information

Background Biology and Biochemistry Notes A

Background Biology and Biochemistry Notes A Background Biology and Biochemistry Notes A Vocabulary dependent variable evidence experiment hypothesis independent variable model observation prediction science scientific investigation scientific law

More information

Newton s Law of Universal Gravitation

Newton s Law of Universal Gravitation 12.1 Newton s Law of Universal Gravitation SECTION Explain Kepler s laws. Describe Newton s law of universal gravitation. Apply Newton s law of universal gravitation quantitatively. KEY TERMS OUTCOMES

More information

2-1. True of False: All planets undergo retrograde motion as seen from Earth.

2-1. True of False: All planets undergo retrograde motion as seen from Earth. Discovering the Essential Universe Chapter 2, quiz. 2-1. True of False: All planets undergo retrograde motion as seen from Earth. a.) True b.) False X 2-2. The occasional westward (left to right) motion

More information

Renaissance Astronomy

Renaissance Astronomy Published on Explorable.com (https://explorable.com) Renaissance Astronomy Tragedy, Theology and Science Tragedy, Theology and Science Very few areas of study capture the spirit of the Renaissance as much

More information

Schools Projects for Autumn Moonwatch

Schools Projects for Autumn Moonwatch International Year of Astronomy 2009 Schools Projects for Autumn Moonwatch Project 2: Exploring the phases of the Moon Suitable for all ages, and for naked-eye or telescopic observing. The Moon can be

More information

Gravitation. Gravitation

Gravitation. Gravitation 1 Gravitation Newton s observations A constant center seeking force is required to keep an object moving along a circular path. You know that the moon orbits the earth and hence there should be a force

More information

The Solar System. I. Introduction. S. Gavin and S. P. Karrer Physics Department, Wayne State University, Detroit, MI, 48201 sean@physics.wayne.

The Solar System. I. Introduction. S. Gavin and S. P. Karrer Physics Department, Wayne State University, Detroit, MI, 48201 sean@physics.wayne. The Solar System S. Gavin and S. P. Karrer Physics Department, Wayne State University, Detroit, MI, 48201 sean@physics.wayne.edu I. Introduction As children we all learned that the Earth is one of many

More information

Today. Laws of Motion. Conservation Laws. Gravity

Today. Laws of Motion. Conservation Laws. Gravity Today Laws of Motion Conservation Laws Gravity Laws of Motion Motion notions: slow fast Speed: Rate at which object moves fast change in direction slow example: speed of 10 m/s Velocity: Speed and direction

More information

Determination of the Orbit of Mars Using Kepler s Triangulation Technique. Abstract

Determination of the Orbit of Mars Using Kepler s Triangulation Technique. Abstract APS Determination of the Orbit of Mars Using Kepler s Triangulation Technique N. Copernicus University of Central Arkansas (Dated: August 25, 2008) Abstract The eccentricity (ɛ), semi-major axis (a), and

More information

5. Universal Laws of Motion

5. Universal Laws of Motion 5. Universal Laws of Motion If I have seen farther than others, it is because I have stood on the shoulders of giants. Sir Isaac Newton (1642 1727) Physicist 5.1 Describing Motion: Examples from Daily

More information

Understanding the motion of the Universe. Motion, Force, and Gravity

Understanding the motion of the Universe. Motion, Force, and Gravity Understanding the motion of the Universe Motion, Force, and Gravity Laws of Motion Stationary objects do not begin moving on their own. In the same way, moving objects don t change their movement spontaneously.

More information

The University of Texas at Austin. Gravity and Orbits

The University of Texas at Austin. Gravity and Orbits UTeach Outreach The University of Texas at Austin Gravity and Orbits Time of Lesson: 60-75 minutes Content Standards Addressed in Lesson: TEKS6.11B understand that gravity is the force that governs the

More information

Study Guide: Solar System

Study Guide: Solar System Study Guide: Solar System 1. How many planets are there in the solar system? 2. What is the correct order of all the planets in the solar system? 3. Where can a comet be located in the solar system? 4.

More information

Newton s derivation of Kepler s laws (outline)

Newton s derivation of Kepler s laws (outline) Newton s derivation of Kepler s laws (outline) 1. Brief history. The first known proposal for a heliocentric solar system is due to Aristarchus of Samos (ancient Greece, c. 270 BC). Following a long period

More information

Lecture 19 Big Bang Cosmology

Lecture 19 Big Bang Cosmology The Nature of the Physical World Lecture 19 Big Bang Cosmology Arán García-Bellido 1 News Exam 2: you can do better! Presentations April 14: Great Physicist life, Controlled fusion April 19: Nuclear power,

More information

The Motions of Celestial Bodies, and Newton s Laws of Motion

The Motions of Celestial Bodies, and Newton s Laws of Motion The Motions of Celestial Bodies, and Newton s Laws of Motion Announcements The results of Quiz 1 are posted in OWL Looking ahead: Homework 1 is on-going, and is due on Thu, Sept. 29 th ; Homework 2 will

More information

Solar System Formation

Solar System Formation Solar System Formation Background Information System: Many pieces that make up a whole Solar System: Anything that orbits the Sun Just like in the formation of of stars.. Gravity plays a major role. Gravitational

More information

Chapter 4 Making Sense of the Universe: Understanding Motion, Energy, and Gravity

Chapter 4 Making Sense of the Universe: Understanding Motion, Energy, and Gravity Chapter 4 Making Sense of the Universe: Understanding Motion, Energy, and Gravity How do we describe motion? Precise definitions to describe motion: Speed: Rate at which object moves sp e e d = d ista

More information

Physics 53. Gravity. Nature and Nature's law lay hid in night: God said, "Let Newton be!" and all was light. Alexander Pope

Physics 53. Gravity. Nature and Nature's law lay hid in night: God said, Let Newton be! and all was light. Alexander Pope Physics 53 Gravity Nature and Nature's law lay hid in night: God said, "Let Newton be!" and all was light. Alexander Pope Kepler s laws Explanations of the motion of the celestial bodies sun, moon, planets

More information

8.5: Motions of Earth, the Moon, and Planets pg. 320

8.5: Motions of Earth, the Moon, and Planets pg. 320 8.5: Motions of Earth, the Moon, and Planets pg. 320 Key Concepts: 1. Careful observation of the night sky can offer clues about the motion of celestial objects. 2. Celestial objects in the Solar System

More information

Study Guide due Friday, 1/29

Study Guide due Friday, 1/29 NAME: Astronomy Study Guide asteroid chromosphere comet corona ellipse Galilean moons VOCABULARY WORDS TO KNOW geocentric system meteor gravity meteorite greenhouse effect meteoroid heliocentric system

More information

The Copernican Revolution and the Size of the Universe

The Copernican Revolution and the Size of the Universe The Copernican Revolution and the Size of the Universe T. Lu 1 and H. Aslaksen 2 1 Department of Physics, Faculty of Science, National University of Singapore 10 Kent Ridge Road, Singapore 117546 2 Department

More information

QUESTION BANK UNIT-6 CHAPTER-8 GRAVITATION

QUESTION BANK UNIT-6 CHAPTER-8 GRAVITATION QUESTION BANK UNIT-6 CHAPTER-8 GRAVITATION I. One mark Questions: 1. State Kepler s law of orbits. 2. State Kepler s law of areas. 3. State Kepler s law of periods. 4. Which physical quantity is conserved

More information

Newton s Universal Law of Gravitation The Apple and the Moon Video

Newton s Universal Law of Gravitation The Apple and the Moon Video Name Date Pd Newton s Universal Law of Gravitation The Apple and the Moon Video Objectives Recognize that a gravitational force exists between any two objects and that the force is directly proportional

More information

tps Q: If the Earth were located at 0.5 AU instead of 1 AU, how would the Sun s gravitational force on Earth change?

tps Q: If the Earth were located at 0.5 AU instead of 1 AU, how would the Sun s gravitational force on Earth change? tps Q: If the Earth were located at 0.5 AU instead of 1 AU, how would the Sun s gravitational force on Earth change? A. It would be one-fourth as strong. B. It would be one-half as strong. C. It would

More information

from the Romans and the Greeks to better understand the world around them.

from the Romans and the Greeks to better understand the world around them. During the 14 th and 15 th centuries thinkers and scholars looked to ancient texts from the Romans and the Greeks to better understand the world around them. Astronomers looked back to texts from Aristotle

More information

Chapter 5: Circular Motion, the Planets, and Gravity

Chapter 5: Circular Motion, the Planets, and Gravity Chapter 5: Circular Motion, the Planets, and Gravity 1. Earth s gravity attracts a person with a force of 120 lbs. The force with which the Earth is attracted towards the person is A. Zero. B. Small but

More information

Lecture 6 Chapter 3. The Copernican Revolution

Lecture 6 Chapter 3. The Copernican Revolution Lecture 6 Chapter 3 The Copernican Revolution From the last lecture Question!"#$%&#$'($)"*+"$("#$&,,-$.*/#/$0#1#-0/$,-$*(/$ 1"'/#$21"'/#$,3$("#$&,,-$0#1#-0/$,-$("#$.#4'%5#$1,/*%,-/$,3$("#$67-8$9,,-$:$;'.("

More information

Gravity Attraction of Objects of Different Masses in Space

Gravity Attraction of Objects of Different Masses in Space GRACE Education Curriculum Gravity Teachers Grades 3-5 Science Gravity Attraction of Objects of Different Masses in Space Background Information: Gravity controls the orbit of planets. We can see that

More information

Understanding the motion of the Universe. Motion, Force, and Gravity

Understanding the motion of the Universe. Motion, Force, and Gravity Understanding the motion of the Universe Motion, Force, and Gravity Laws of Motion Stationary objects do not begin moving on their own. In the same way, moving objects don t change their movement spontaneously.

More information