# Pinhole Camera. Pinhole Camera with a mirror

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1 Pinhole Camera Pinhole Camera with a mirror

2 Camera Obscura Camera Obscura, Gemma Frisius, 1558 Camera Obscura with Lens Camera obscura, from a manuscript of military designs. 17th century, possibly Italian. Lens Based Camera Obscura,

3 Shrinking the Aperture Why not smaller and smaller aperture? Less light passes through Diffraction effects blur the image E. Hecht, Optics, 4 th Ed.,Pearson-Addison Wesley, 2002

4 Use of a Lens The Lens Focuses Light on to the Film or CCD/CMOS Array There is a specific distance at which objects are in focus Other points project to a circle of least confusion in the image plane

5 f-number or f/stop Lens System D Film or CCD/CMOS f-number = f/d = A A 2 Irradiance = E = k/a E E 0 /2 2 4 E 0 / E 0 / E 0 / E 0 / E 0 / E 0 / E 0 / E 0 / E 0 /1024 f Exposure (J/m 2 ) = Irradiance (W/m 2 ) Time (sec)

6 f-number or f/stop Exposure (J/m 2 ) = Irradiance (W/m 2 ) Time (sec) E = E 0 /256 1/8 = E 0 /128 1/15 = E 0 /64 1/30 = E 0 /32 1/60 = E 0 /16 1/125 = E 0 /8 1/250 = E 0 /4 1/500

7 Depth of Field and Depth of Focus Circle of Confusion (CoC) In photography, the circle of confusion (CoC) diameter limit for the final image is often defined as the largest blur spot that will still be perceived by the human eye as a point. Usually CoC = d/1500 (or d/1730) (d= diagonal of film or detector) Image Format Frame size CoC Small Format Nikon 1 series 8.8 mm 13.2 mm mm Four Thirds System 13.5 mm 18 mm mm APS-C 15.0 mm 22.5 mm mm APS-C Canon 14.8 mm 22.2 mm mm APS-C Nikon/Pentax/Sony 15.7 mm 23.6 mm mm APS-H Canon 19.0 mm 28.7 mm mm 35 mm 24 mm 36 mm mm Medium Format 645 (6 4.5) 56 mm 42 mm mm mm 56 mm mm mm 69 mm mm mm 84 mm mm mm 112 mm mm mm 168 mm 0.12 mm Large Format mm 127 mm 0.11 mm mm 178 mm 0.15 mm mm 254 mm 0.22 mm

8 Depth of Field and Depth of Focus

9 Depth of Field and Depth of Focus Range of object distances over which image is sufficiently well focused. Range for which blur circle is less than the resolution of the sensor.

10 Depth of Field and Depth of Focus

11 Depth of Field Depends on Aperture Frédo Durand MIT Computer Science and Artificial Intelligence Laboratory

12 Depth of Field Depends on Focusing Distance Frédo Durand MIT Computer Science and Artificial Intelligence Laboratory

13 Depth of Field Depends on Focal Length Frédo Durand MIT Computer Science and Artificial Intelligence Laboratory

14 Controlling Depth of Field f/8.0 f/5.6 f/2.8

15 From Similar Triangles Depth of Field and Depth of Focus s s D z f z f c d f z n z n c d n

16 Depth of Field and Depth of Focus Hyperfocal Lengths, H (exact) and H (approximate) s s D z f z f c Depth of Field z n z n d f c d n

17 Depth of Field and Depth of Focus s s D Hyperfocal Length, H z f z f c d f Depth of Field (for s>>f (practical case)) z n z n c d n

18 Hyperfocal Distance Find the lens' focal length on the horizontal axis. Read up to the f- number to find the hyperfocal distance at that f-number. For example, the arrows on the chart above illustrate how to read the hyperfocal distance for a 50mm lens set to f/16.

19 Depth of Field - Near and Far Distances

20 Depth of Field

21 Depth of Field In focus Out of focus (blurring)

22 DoF Depth of Field

23 Field of View Lens System φ/2 d f

24 Field of View CCD/CMOS Sensor Arrays Sizes in Digital Cameras Image of a CCD Array Standard CCD/CMOS Array Sizes

25 Field of View CCD/CMOS Sensor Arrays Sizes in Digital Cameras Sensor Sizes in different cameras (the relative size of the sensors in the table is done to scale)

26 CCD/CMOS Sensor Arrays in Digital Cameras CCD Array CMOS Array On a CCD, most functions take place on the camera s printed circuit board. If the application s demands change, a designer can change the electronics without redesigning the imager. A CMOS imager converts charge to voltage at the pixel, and most functions are integrated into the chip. This makes imager functions less flexible but, for applications in rugged environments, a CMOS camera can be more reliable.

27 CCD/CMOS Sensor Arrays in Digital Cameras Feature CCD CMOS Signal out of pixel Electron packet Voltage Signal out of chip Voltage (analog) Bits (digital) Signal out of camera Bits (digital) Bits (digital) System Noise Low Moderate Performance Responsivity Moderate Slightly better Power Consumption High Low Sensitivity High Moderate Resolution High High Cost High Low

28 Field of View CCD/CMOS Sensor Arrays Sizes in Digital Cameras Kodak KAF CCD Array Resolution: 8176 x 6132 Total Resolution: 50.1 MegaPixel Pixel Size (µm): 6.0 Dimensions (mm) : 49.1 x 36.8 Diagonal (mm): 61.3 Max Frame Rate (fps): 1.0 Configurations: Monochrome/Color

29 Field of View

30 Field of View (Zoom)

31 Field of View (Zoom)

32 Effect of Shutter Speed Freezing Motion Frédo Durand MIT Computer Science and Artificial Intelligence Laboratory

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