Isaac Nunoo* and Beneficta Nsiah Frimpong Kwame Nkrumah University of Science and Technology Rural Education and Agriculture Development

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1 Isaac Nunoo* and Beneficta Nsiah Frimpong Kwame Nkrumah University of Science and Technology Rural Education and Agriculture Development International CSIR-Crops Research Institute

2 OUTLINE OF PRESENTATION Introduction Methodology of the study Results of the study Conclusions Recommendations References

3 INTRODUCTION Sales of certified cocoa grew by 248% between 2003 to 2008 (Potts et al., 2010). Sale of organic chocolate increased by 44% ($171 million - $304 million). Total market share is very small despite increase in sales of organically grown cocoa and its products (ICCO, 2006). Demand for organic cocoa product is on the ascendancy. Expansion of organic cocoa in producing countries has been much slower

4 Total area under cocoa cultivation has increased by 50,000 hectares (from 1,600,000ha to 1,650,000ha) between 2012 and 2013 INTRODUCTION CONTINUE Modern cocoa farming inputs have produced great increases in yields but social and environmental costs have been high. Total area under cocoa cultivation has increased by 50,000 hectares (from 1,600,000ha to 1,650,000ha) between 2012 and 2013 Increasing deterioration of agricultural sub sector has raised concerns on the importance of organic farming by farmers, policy makers and intellectuals.

5 INTRODUCTION CONTINUE Organic cocoa farming ensures sustainability on agricultural systems. Despite the economic, environmental and sustainable cocoa production potential of organic cocoa, farmers have not adopted organic farming practices entirely. Decisions to adopt are influenced by government policies, technological change, market forces, environmental concerns, demographic factors, institutional factors and delivery mechanism

6 RESEARCH QUESTIONS The following research questions are raised: 1. What factors affect cocoa farmers decision to convert their inorganic cocoa farming to organic one. 2. What are the cocoa yield trend under the different shade levels in Ghana. 3. What amount of agrochemicals are used under the different cocoa shade levels.

7 OBJECTIVE OF THE STUDY To empirically assess the factors that directly affect cocoa farmers decision to convert the inorganic cocoa farming to organic one. Cocoa yield trends under the different shade levels in Ghana Determine agrochemicals usage under the different cocoa agroforestry shade levels

8 STUDY AREA District is one of the highest producers of cocoa in Ghana Area coverage of about 2,634 square kilometers. The vegetation of the district is made up of the moist semideciduous rain forest in the northern part. Annual average rainfall of mm and most soils are loamy supporting variety of crops. Total population of 139,000 comprising males 50.2% and 49.8% females.

9 MAP OF THE STUDY AREA

10 SAMPLING TECHNIQUE Multi stage sampling: 200 cocoa farmers Random sampling of 5 communities Random sampling: 40 cocoa farmers from each community. The respondent were stratified into 4:

11 DATA ANALYSIS This study used logistic regression model to analyze the data. The model was specified as: Zi Log Pi / (1 Pi 1X1 2X 2... k X k u Where: i= 1, 2, 3. k are the observations, = constant. = the regression parameter to be estimated. = linear combination of independent variables. Z i = the log odds of choice for the i th observation. P i = the probability of observing a specific outcome of the dependent variable (adoption). X n = the nth explanatory observation. u = the error term. Descriptive tools including frequency and distribution tables

12 RESULTS OF THE STUDY Demographic Characteristics CHARACTERISTICS Mean Age of respondent 46 Household size 7 Plot size (Ha) 2.2 Age of farm 15 Years in cocoa farming 20 GENDER OF RESPONDENTS Female Male LEVEL OF EDUCATION None Basic Secondary Tertiary 31 (15.5) 169 (84.5) 62 (31) 121 (60.5) 15 (7.5) 2 (1)

13 RESULTS FROM EMPIRICAL ESTIMATION Variable Name Estimate SE Wald p (Sig.) Odds ratio Agriculture land Size *.787 Experience in cocoa farming ** Member of farmer Assciation ** Gender Awareness of organic cocoa ** Age of respondent Access to extension service *** 0.51 Constant *** Model chi-square p< log likelihood a Nagelkerke (R Square).730 ***Significant at 1%, ** Significant at 5% and *Significant at 10%

14 QUANTITY OF AGROCHEMICAL USE UNDER DIFFERENT COCOA AGROFORESTRY SYSTEMS Agrochemicals/Ha No Low Medium Heavy shade shade shade shade Weedicide (Litres) Fertilizer (Kg) Fungicide (g) Insecticide (Litres)

15 CONCLUSION There is growing evidence that organic cocoa farming can offer sustainable cocoa production. Main factors that influence cocoa farmers decision to adopt organic cocoa practices: Land size, member of farmer association, experience in cocoa farming, awareness of organic cocoa and access to extension service are the.

16 RECOMMENDATIONS Effective extension services through farmer field school programs. Establishment of organic cocoa farmers organizations and resource extension agents. Enhance cocoa farmers access to information and credit for organic cocoa. Governments should provide premium prices and subsidies for organic cocoa production.

17 RECOMMENDATION Lets Walk the Talk and the Voice Organic Agriculture and Farming Systems Would be Heard

18 REFERENCES International Cocoa Organization (ICCO) (2006). A study on the market for organic cocoa. Accessed on, 11 May 2011.<http://www.icco.org/documents document category. aspx? dispmode=detailed& catid=82>. Potts, J., Meer J.V., and Daitchman J. (2010). The state of sustainability initiatives review 2010: Sustainability and transparency. Accessed on, 15 June <http:// pdf>. Ryan D., Bright G.A., Somarriba E. (2009). Damage and yield change in cocoa crops due to harvesting of timber shade trees in Talamanca, Costa Rica. Agroforestry Systems.

19 Thank You-(Kam sa ham ni da)

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