Antigens have specific regions where antibodies bind to them Antigens are usually molecules on the surface of viruses or foreign cells Antigenic

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1 Bio 100 Guide 22

2 Antigens have specific regions where antibodies bind to them Antigens are usually molecules on the surface of viruses or foreign cells Antigenic determinants are the specific regions on an antigen to which antibodies bind Antigens may have several different determinants Immune system may direct several distinct antibodies against one antigen

3 Lymphocytes mount a dual defense Lymphocytes originate from stem cells in the bone marrow Humoral immunity B cells secrete antibodies that circulate in blood and lymph to sites of infection Defends primarily against bacteria and viruses present in body fluids

4 LE 24-5a Bone marrow Thymus Stem cell Via blood Immature lymphocyte Antigen receptors B cell Humoral immunity Via blood T cell Cell-mediated immunity Other parts of the lymphatic system Lymph nodes, spleen, and other lymphatic organs Final maturation of B and T cells in lymphatic organ

5 LE 24-7b Second exposure to antigen X, first exposure to antigen Y Secondary immune response to antigen X Antibody concentration First exposure to antigen X Primary immune response to antigen X Primary immune response to antigen Y Antibodies to X Antibodies to Y Time (days)

6 BIG Questions What is the process by which antibodies are made? What is the basis of Antigenic Memory? This is very important because it is the basis of vaccination, one of our only medical defenses against viruses.

7

8 Clonal selection musters defensive forces against specific antigens Primary immune response: lymphocytes exposed to antigen for the first time Antigen activates a small subset of lymphocytes (B cells) bearing complementary receptors The selected B cells multiply into clones of effector and memory cells

9 Secondary immune response Memory cells exposed to same antigen a second time Second round of clonal selection ensues Secondary response is faster and stronger; produces very high levels of antibodies

10 LE 24-7a Primary immune response Antigen receptor (antibody on cell surface) Antigen molecules First exposure to antigen Antibody molecules Endoplasmic reticulum Plasma (effector) cells secreting antibodies Antigen molecules Second exposure to same antigen Memory cells Secondary immune response Antibody molecules Endoplasmic reticulum Plasma (effector) cells secreting antibodies Memory cells

11 Effector (plasma) cells Combat the antigen Secrete antibody molecules that circulate in blood and contribute to humoral immunity Last only 4 or 5 days Memory cells Remain in lymph nodes May last for decades, sometimes confer lifetime immunity

12 Antibodies are the weapons of humoral immunity Antibody molecules are secreted by plasma (effector) B cells Antibody molecule structure Y shaped, made of two identical "heavy" and two identical "light" polypeptide chains a C (constant) and a V (variable) region on each chain Antigen-binding sites specific to the antigenic determinants that elicited its secretion

13 LE 24-8b Antigen-binding sites Light chain C C Heavy chain

14 Antibody functions in humoral immunity Binds its antigen at the antigenbinding site Assists in elimination of the antigen, at the C region of the heavy chains

15 LE 24-6 Antibody A molecules Antigenbinding sites Antigenic determinants Antigen molecule Antibody B molecule

16 Antibodies mark antigens for elimination Effector mechanisms involve a specific recognition-and-attack phase followed by a nonspecific destruction phase Antibodies mark invaders by forming antigen-antibody complexes Binding triggers mechanisms to eliminate the invader Neutralization Agglutination of microbes Precipitation of dissolved antigens Activation of complement system

17

18 LE 24-9 Binding of antibodies to antigens inactivates antigens by Neutralization (blocks viral binding sites; coats bacteria) Virus Agglutination of microbes Bacteria Precipitation of dissolved antigens Activation of complement system Complement molecule Bacterium Antigen molecules Foreign cell Hole Enhances Leads to Phagocytosis Cell lysis Macrophage

19 BIG Questions How Does the body distinguish between self and non-self? Why don't we make antibodies against our the molecules (antigens) in our bodies?

20 The immune system depends on our molecular fingerprints Each person's cells have particular self protein "fingerprints" that mark them as off limits to attack by lymphocytes Self proteins are coded for by MHC (major histocompatibility complex) genes Except for identical twins, two individuals cannot have identical self proteins Transplanted organs may be rejected because their cells lack the unique fingerprint of the recipient's self proteins

21 BIG Questions 1 B cell makes 1 Antibody. How is the body to be able to make millions of different antibodies, even to molecules never conceived? Where is the genetic information for the differing variable ends on the antibody molecule?

22 Functioning of B and T cells Certain genes in the cell are turned on Cell synthesizes specific protein molecules, which are incorporated into the plasma membrane Antigen receptors sticking up from cell surface recognize specific antigens and mount a defense Millions of diverse B and T cells stand ready to recognize and bind virtually every possible antigen

23 Cell-mediated immunity In the thymus, immature lymphocytes specialize into T cells T cells attack cells infected with pathogens, fungi and protozoans, cancer cells T cells also promote phagocytosis and production of antibodies

24

25 Helper T cells stimulate humoral and cellmediated immunity Cell-mediated immunity produced by T cells battles pathogens that have entered body cells T cells respond only to antigens present on the surface of the body's own cells Cytotoxic T cells attack infected cells Helper T cells Help activate T cells, B cells, and macrophages Interact with antigen-presenting cells

26 Precise interaction of antigen-presenting cells and helper T cells Antigen-presenting cell self protein binds antigen nonself molecules and displays them on the cell surface Helper T cells recognize and bind to the self-nonself complex Depends on highly specific receptors in the T cell's plasma membrane Binding activates helper T cells Enhanced by other signals

27 Helper T cells are the major driving force and the main regulators of the immune defense. Their primary task is to activate B cells and killer T cells.

28 LE Microbe Macrophage Self-nonself complex T cell receptor Interleukin-2 stimulates cell division B cell Humoral immunity (secretion of antibodies by plasma cells) Helper T cell Interleukin-2 activates other B cells and T cells Antigen from microbe (nonself molecule) Self protein Antigen-presenting cell Interleukin-1 stimulates helper T cell Binding site for antigen Binding site for self protein Cytotoxic T cell Cell-mediated immunity (attack on infected cells)

29 Cytotoxic T cells destroy infected body cells Like helper T cells, cytotoxic T cells recognize and bind with self-nonself complexes on infected cells Mechanism of cytotoxic T cell action Binding to infected cell stimulates cytotoxic T cell to synthesize perforin Perforin makes holes in infected cell's membrane, and T cell enzymes enter Infected cell is destroyed

30 LE Cytotoxic T cell binds to infected cell Self-nonself complex Infected cell Foreign antigen Perforin makes holes in infected cell s membrane and enzyme enters Hole forming Infected cell is destroyed Perforin molecule Cytotoxic T cell Enzyme that can promote apoptosis

31 Cytotoxic T cells may help prevent cancer Genetic changes leading to cancer can result in new proteins displayed on cell surfaces T cells identify these tumor antigens as foreign and destroy the affected cells

32

33 Allergies are overreactions to certain environmental antigens Allergies are abnormal sensitivities to antigens (allergens) in the surroundings Allergic reactions occur in two stages Sensitization: initial exposure to allergen Allergen enters bloodstream B cells make antibodies Antibodies attach to mast cells that produce histamines and trigger the inflammatory response

34 Later exposure to same allergen Allergen binds to antibodies on mast cell Histamine is released, causing allergy symptoms Anaphylactic shock is a severe allergic reaction Causes severe drop in blood pressure Potentially fatal

35 LE B cell (plasma cell) Mast cell Antigenic determinant Allergen (pollen grain) enters blood stream B cells make antibodies Sensitization: Initial exposure to allergen Histamine Antibodies attach to mast cell Allergen binds to antibodies on mast cell Histamine is released, causing allergy symptoms Later exposure to same allergen

36 The End

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