CH 21 THE IMMUNE SYSTEM

Size: px
Start display at page:

Download "CH 21 THE IMMUNE SYSTEM"

Transcription

1 CH 21 THE IMMUNE SYSTEM Several lines of defense exist for the human body to help ensure maintenance of homeostasis. Some are general in action and others are extremely specific. Overall, we say that two intrinsic defense systems (nonspecific and specific) act independently but cooperatively to facilitate body defense. 1 - NONSPECIFIC BODY DEFENSES A - FIRST LINE DEFENSES: SKIN AND MUCOUS MEMBRANES Skin Mechanical Barrier Keratin Mucous Membranes Mechanical Barrier Sebum HCl Saliva Lacrimal Fluid Lysozyme Cilia Hair B - SECOND LINE DEFENSES Five Nonspecific Defenses Inflammation Phagocytosis Natural Killer (NK) Cells Antimicrobial Proteins Fever Production 29

2 INFLAMMATION Inflammation triggered by injury to body tissues helps (1) prevent spread of invaders, (2) dispose of cell debris and pathogens, and (3) initiate mechanism for repair. Four Signs of Inflammation Redness Hyperemia Heat Hyperemia Swelling Edema Pain Possible Fifth Sign Impairment of Function Chemotactic Agents Sequence of Inflammation Leukocyte-Inducing Factors Leukocytosis Margination Pavementing Diapedesis Emigration Macrophage Activation Pus Formation Infectious Granulomas PHAGOCYTOSIS Stages of Phagocytosis Adhesion Phagosome Phagolysosome Exocytosis 30

3 Respiratory Burst Defensins Opsonization Types of Phagocytes Macrophages Histiocytes Fixed Free Neutrophils NATURAL KILLER (NK) CELLS Targets Self-cells Perforins ANTIMICROBIAL PROTEINS Various forms, including: 1 - Interferons 2 - Complement Fixation MAC Formation Several Pathways: Classical Alternative Properdin Lectin FEVER PRODUCTION Hypothalamus 31

4 Thermostat 98.6/36.2 Pyrogens SPECIFIC BODY DEFENSES: IMMUNITY (ADAPTIVE DEFENSE) This system recognizes specific foreign substances and acts to immobilize, neutralize, or destroy them. The goal: elimination of all pathogens. It must be primed by an initial exposure to the antigen (agglutinogen). Hence, lag-time before memory cell protection via antibody (agglutinin) production. Agglutinogen (Ags) Self Antigens MHC-Class I HLA MHC-Class II Non-Self Antigens Complete Antigens Haptens Agglutinin Antigenic Determinants The immune system is antigen-specific. It is systemic, not isolated to initial infection site. It is equipped with memory after initial attacks. There are several forms of immunity and they involve defensive T-cells and B-cells. T-cells cannot react to antigens in solution and B-cells cannot cross a cell membrane. That is why you need both. The T-cells defend against abnormal cells as well as antigens within cells and the B-cells defend against pathogens outside the cell that are within the body fluids. FORMS OF IMMUNITY Acquired Immunity Naturally Acquired 32

5 Artificially Acquired Active Immunity Passive Immunity CELL-MEDIATED IMMUNITY: THE ACTION OF T-CELLS Thymus Immunocompetent Thymosins Classification CD-4 CD-8 Alpha/Beta Gamma/Delta Five Types of T-Cells: These cells are classified based on function and on presence/absence of pair of cell differentiation glycoproteins displayed on membrane surface of the mature T-cell. Cytotoxic Perforins Lymphotoxins TNF Tumor Necrosis Factor Helper Lymphokines Adhesion Co-Stimulation Regulatory Formerly suppressor T-cells. Delayed Hypersensitivity Memory 33

6 ANTIGEN PRESENTING CELLS Antigen presenting cells (APC s) are mobile sentinels located throughout the body. T-cells and activated B-cells are antigen-presenting cells. Some other cells in the body that are non-lymphocytes are also antigen-presenters. APC s include dendritic cells (DC s) (like the epidermal Langerhans cells) and macrophages (including the Kupffer (stellate) cells of the liver and the microglia of the CNS). HUMORAL IMMUNITY (ANTIBODY-MEDIATED): THE ACTION OF B-CELLS B-cells originate in bone marrow. They mature and develop immunocompetence while in bone marrow. If an antigen encounters a B-cell and if they have mutually compatible receptors, they will bond. Mechanisms of antibody action: Neutralization Agglutination Precipitation Complement activation Clonal Selection: Plasma Cells Memory Cells THE ANTIBODIES (A/K/A: IMMUNOGLOBINS, Ig s, GAMMA GLOBULINS) These molecules constitute the gamma globulin portion of our plasma proteins. They each consist of four looping polypeptide chains that are linked by disulfide bonds. Antibody structure includes: Heavy Chain Light Chain Variable Chain Constant Chain 34

7 CLASSES OF ANTIBODIES IgD IgM IgG IgA IgE TRANSPLANTS Allografts Autografts Isografts Xenografts 35

8 DISORDERS-DISEASES AIDS Autoimmune diseases Glomerulonephritis HIV (human immunodeficiency virus) causes destruction of defensive helper T-cell white blood cells. Body turns against itself, fails to recognize own cells as self and attacks them. This causes inflammation and destruction. Severe impairment of renal function. Grave s disease Causes production of excessive amounts of thyroxin. Hashimoto s thyroiditis Juvenile diabetes mellitus (Type I) Multiple sclerosis Myasthenia gravis Rheumatoid arthritis Thyroglobin is released into bloodstream due to trauma to thyroid gland causing rupture of thyroid follicles. Released material regarded as a foreign object in blood stream and provokes immune response. Systematic autoimmune destruction of the beta cells of the pancreas. The myelin sheaths in the CNS are gradually destroyed and replaced with nonfunctional hardened sheaths called scleroses. Affects primarily skeletal muscles. Inhibits transmission of nerve impulses via ACh. Systematically destroys joints. Scleroderma Sjogren s syndrome Systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE) Hypersensitivities CT disease. Several forms, the systemic form can affect internal organs and can be fatal. Skin only is chronic, not fatal. Autoimmune inflammation of glands; leads to the development of dry eyes and mouth. Primarily females affected. Diagnosis via ANA (antinuclear antibody test). Butterfly rash across face = common symptom. Allergies, allergens, anaphylaxis, and anaphylactic shock. Sarcoidosis SCID Possibly autoimmune. Causes formation of granulomas in body organs. Often associated with lungs. A/k/a: severe combined immunodeficiency disease. Devastating congenital condition. Genetic defect causes lack of B-cells and T-cells for defense. 36

Immune System A&P II

Immune System A&P II Immune System A&P II Lymphatic Outline Lymphatic System Defense Systems Innate Immune System Adaptive Defense System Immunodeficiencies Immune Responses Lymphatic System: Overview Figure 21.1a, b Lymphatic

More information

Immune System. Daryl Beatty Brazosport College Anatomy & Physiology II

Immune System. Daryl Beatty Brazosport College Anatomy & Physiology II Immune System Daryl Beatty Brazosport College Anatomy & Physiology II 21 The Immune System: Innate and Adaptive Body Defenses Which of the following best describes the immune system? a. the set of organs

More information

Lymphatic System - Structures

Lymphatic System - Structures Lymphatic System - Structures Lymphatic vessels Lymphatic tissues and organs 1 Lymphatic System - Functions Returns leaked plasma to blood vessels Cleanses lymph of bacteria & other foreign matter Provides

More information

The Lymphatic System and Body Defenses The Lymphatic System Consists of two semi-independent parts Lymphatic vessels Lymphoid tissues and organs

The Lymphatic System and Body Defenses The Lymphatic System Consists of two semi-independent parts Lymphatic vessels Lymphoid tissues and organs The Lymphatic System and Body Defenses The Lymphatic System Consists of two semi-independent parts Lymphatic vessels Lymphoid tissues and organs Lymphatic system functions Transports escaped fluids back

More information

CHAPTER 16: LYMPHATIC SYSTEM AND IMMUNITY OBJECTIVES. Transport excess tissue fluid back to blood stream

CHAPTER 16: LYMPHATIC SYSTEM AND IMMUNITY OBJECTIVES. Transport excess tissue fluid back to blood stream CHAPTER 16: LYMPHATIC SYSTEM AND IMMUNITY OBJECTIVES 1. Name the organs that compose the lymphatic system and give three general functions performed by this system. Control Disease Bone Marrow Thymus Transport

More information

Chapter 43: The Immune System

Chapter 43: The Immune System Name Period Our students consider this chapter to be a particularly challenging and important one. Expect to work your way slowly through the first three concepts. Take particular care with Concepts 43.2

More information

ANIMALS FORM & FUNCTION BODY DEFENSES NONSPECIFIC DEFENSES PHYSICAL BARRIERS PHAGOCYTES. Animals Form & Function Activity #4 page 1

ANIMALS FORM & FUNCTION BODY DEFENSES NONSPECIFIC DEFENSES PHYSICAL BARRIERS PHAGOCYTES. Animals Form & Function Activity #4 page 1 AP BIOLOGY ANIMALS FORM & FUNCTION ACTIVITY #4 NAME DATE HOUR BODY DEFENSES NONSPECIFIC DEFENSES PHYSICAL BARRIERS PHAGOCYTES Animals Form & Function Activity #4 page 1 INFLAMMATORY RESPONSE ANTIMICROBIAL

More information

Chapter 22: The Lymphatic System and Immunity

Chapter 22: The Lymphatic System and Immunity Chapter 22: The Lymphatic System and Immunity Introduction Immune system the body s defenses against pathogens that produce disease 2 types of immunity Nonspecific immune mechanisms (Innate immunity) Provide

More information

Test 4 Immune System (Chapters 20 & 21)

Test 4 Immune System (Chapters 20 & 21) Test 4 Immune System (Chapters 20 & 21) Name: Date: 1) The is the largest lymphoid organ. 1) A. lymph node B. spleen C. thymus D. tonsil 2) Tonsils promote memory of pathogens by. 2) A. secreting antibodies

More information

Name (print) Name (signature) Period. (Total 30 points)

Name (print) Name (signature) Period. (Total 30 points) AP Biology Worksheet Chapter 43 The Immune System Lambdin April 4, 2011 Due Date: Thurs. April 7, 2011 You may use the following: Text Notes Power point Internet One other person in class "On my honor,

More information

Antigens have specific regions where antibodies bind to them Antigens are usually molecules on the surface of viruses or foreign cells Antigenic

Antigens have specific regions where antibodies bind to them Antigens are usually molecules on the surface of viruses or foreign cells Antigenic Bio 100 Guide 22 Antigens have specific regions where antibodies bind to them Antigens are usually molecules on the surface of viruses or foreign cells Antigenic determinants are the specific regions on

More information

Innate Host Defenses Graphics are used with permission of Pearson Education Inc., publishing as Benjamin Cummings (http://www.aw-bc.com).

Innate Host Defenses Graphics are used with permission of Pearson Education Inc., publishing as Benjamin Cummings (http://www.aw-bc.com). Innate Host Defenses Graphics are used with permission of Pearson Education Inc., publishing as Benjamin Cummings (http://www.aw-bc.com). Page 1: Introduction Surface barriers (the skin, mucous membranes,

More information

specific B cells Humoral immunity lymphocytes antibodies B cells bone marrow Cell-mediated immunity: T cells antibodies proteins

specific B cells Humoral immunity lymphocytes antibodies B cells bone marrow Cell-mediated immunity: T cells antibodies proteins Adaptive Immunity Chapter 17: Adaptive (specific) Immunity Bio 139 Dr. Amy Rogers Host defenses that are specific to a particular infectious agent Can be innate or genetic for humans as a group: most microbes

More information

Chapter 39 - The Body Defenses

Chapter 39 - The Body Defenses Chapter 39 - The Body Defenses Immunity - refers to the body s ability to resist or eliminate potentially harmful foreign material s or abnormal cells Mechanisms include: 1. Defense against invading pathogens

More information

Lymphatic and Immune Systems Homeostatic role of defense against pathogens, injury, diseased body cells, and toxins.

Lymphatic and Immune Systems Homeostatic role of defense against pathogens, injury, diseased body cells, and toxins. Lymphatic and Immune Systems Homeostatic role of defense against pathogens, injury, diseased body cells, and toxins Requires both lymph and immune systems to be effective Three levels of defense 1.Skin,

More information

One of the more complex systems we re looking at. An immune response (a response to a pathogen) can be of two types:

One of the more complex systems we re looking at. An immune response (a response to a pathogen) can be of two types: Immune system. One of the more complex systems we re looking at. An immune response (a response to a pathogen) can be of two types: (pathogen - disease causing organism) 1) Non specific. Anything foreign

More information

11/20/2011. Outline. Immune System Function. Terminology. Two Types of Immune Defense. Innate Immunity = Non Specific

11/20/2011. Outline. Immune System Function. Terminology. Two Types of Immune Defense. Innate Immunity = Non Specific Chapter 43 Immune System Outline I. Nonspecific Defenses A. Barrier B. Protective proteins C. Phagocytes D. Natural killer cells E. Inflammatory reaction II. Specific Defenses A. B cells Antibody mediated

More information

Immune System. Chapter 24

Immune System. Chapter 24 Immune System Chapter 24 Chapter Outline Immunology Lymphatic System Non-specific defense a. Defense at body surface b. Inflammation c. Phagocytosis macrophages, neutrophils d. Opsonins Ig and C 3 b e.

More information

Introduction. Skin. The Immune System. Chapter 51

Introduction. Skin. The Immune System. Chapter 51 The Immune System Chapter 51 Introduction Vertebrates have three levels of defenses -1. The Integumentary System -Skin and mucous membranes provide first line of defense -2. Nonspecific (innate) Immune

More information

The Immune System: A Tutorial

The Immune System: A Tutorial The Immune System: A Tutorial Modeling and Simulation of Biological Systems 21-366B Shlomo Ta asan Images taken from http://rex.nci.nih.gov/behindthenews/uis/uisframe.htm http://copewithcytokines.de/ The

More information

The Lymphatic System

The Lymphatic System The Lymphatic System Transports escaped fluids back to the blood Plays essential roles in body defense and resistance to disease Lymph excess tissue fluid carried by lymphatic vessels Properties of lymphatic

More information

Chapter 22: Lymphatic System and Immunity

Chapter 22: Lymphatic System and Immunity I. Lymphatic System A. Functions of the Lymphatic System - list and describe: 1. 2. 3. B. Lymphatic Vessels 1. What are lymphatic capillaries? 2. Lymphatic capillaries differ from blood capillaries in

More information

Chapter 14: The Lymphatic System and Immunity

Chapter 14: The Lymphatic System and Immunity Chapter 14: The Lymphatic System and Immunity Major function of the Lymphatic System o Network of vessels that collect and carry excess fluid from interstitial spaces back to blood circulation o Organs

More information

The Lymphatic System and Body Defenses

The Lymphatic System and Body Defenses o The Lymphatic System and Body Defenses Lymphatic system Anatomy Non specific defenses o The Lymphatic System Consists of two semi-independent parts Lymphatic vessels Lymphoid tissues and organs Lymphatic

More information

IMMUNOLOGY STRUCTURE AND FUNCTION OF IMMUNE SYSTEM

IMMUNOLOGY STRUCTURE AND FUNCTION OF IMMUNE SYSTEM 59 IMMUNOLOGY STRUCTURE AND FUNCTION OF IMMUNE SYSTEM 59.1 INTRODUCTION The immune system is engaged in a constant surveillance of the body for pathogens or tumors. Whether disease develops depends on

More information

Microbiology AN INTRODUCTION EIGHTH EDITION

Microbiology AN INTRODUCTION EIGHTH EDITION TORTORA FUNKE CASE Microbiology AN INTRODUCTION EIGHTH EDITION Differentiate between innate and acquired immunity. Chapter 17 Specific Defenses of the Host: The Immune Response B.E Pruitt & Jane J. Stein

More information

Lecture 7 Immunology

Lecture 7 Immunology Slide 1 Lecture 7 Immunology Structure Components Leukocytes Lymphoid tissue Recognition of self Innate Immunity Physical and chemical barriers Phagocytosis Inflammation Adaptive immunity Humoral responses

More information

Types of Hypersensitivity. Type I: Allergic Reactions. more on Allergic Reactions

Types of Hypersensitivity. Type I: Allergic Reactions. more on Allergic Reactions Chapter 19: Disorders of the Immune System 1. Hypersensitivity 2. Autoimmunity 3. Transplant Rejection 1. Hypersensitivity What is Hypersensitivity? Hypersensitivity is an immunological state in which

More information

The Body s Defenses CHAPTER 24

The Body s Defenses CHAPTER 24 CHAPTER 24 The Body s Defenses PowerPoint Lectures for Essential Biology, Third Edition Neil Campbell, Jane Reece, and Eric Simon Essential Biology with Physiology, Second Edition Neil Campbell, Jane Reece,

More information

Immunity and Abnormal Responses. Immune System. The Normal Immune Response. Bio 375. Pathophysiology

Immunity and Abnormal Responses. Immune System. The Normal Immune Response. Bio 375. Pathophysiology Immunity and Abnormal Responses Bio 375 Pathophysiology Immune System The immune system is a major component of the body s defenses It is a SPECIFIC defense, responding to particular substances: Cells

More information

Body Defenses & Immunity

Body Defenses & Immunity immunity = resistance to disease Body Defenses & Immunity the immune system provides defense against all the microorganisms and toxic cells to which we are exposed without it we would not survive till

More information

The Humoral Immune system Structure and Diversity

The Humoral Immune system Structure and Diversity The Humoral Immune system Structure and Diversity Discussion: Introduction Our immune system protects our bodies from the harmful affects of a dizzying array of disease causing pathogens. Although our

More information

The Immune System. 2 Types of Defense Mechanisms. Lines of Defense. Line of Defense. Lines of Defense

The Immune System. 2 Types of Defense Mechanisms. Lines of Defense. Line of Defense. Lines of Defense The Immune System 2 Types of Defense Mechanisms Immune System the system that fights infection by producing cells to inactivate foreign substances to avoid infection and disease. Immunity the body s ability

More information

The Immune System: Innate and Adaptive Body Defenses

The Immune System: Innate and Adaptive Body Defenses The Immune System: Innate and Adaptive Body Defenses 1 Disclosure The material and the illustrations are adopted from the textbook Human Anatomy and Physiology / Ninth edition/ Eliane N. Marieb 2013 Dr.

More information

1) Siderophores are bacterial proteins that compete with animal A) Antibodies. B) Red blood cells. C) Transferrin. D) White blood cells. E) Receptors.

1) Siderophores are bacterial proteins that compete with animal A) Antibodies. B) Red blood cells. C) Transferrin. D) White blood cells. E) Receptors. Prof. Lester s BIOL 210 Practice Exam 4 (There is no answer key. Please do not email or ask me for answers.) Chapters 15, 16, 17, 19, HIV/AIDS, TB, Quorum Sensing 1) Siderophores are bacterial proteins

More information

22. Immune System and the Body s Defense

22. Immune System and the Body s Defense 22. Immune System and the Body s Defense I. Overview of Diseases Caused by Infectious Agents Disease can be caused by a variety of factors, some have causes within our bodies (e.g., genetic disorders and

More information

The Adaptive Immune System

The Adaptive Immune System Chapter 17 Functional Anatomy of Prokaryotic and Eukaryotic Cells Lectures prepared by Christine L. Case The Adaptive Immune System Learning Objectives 17-1 Differentiate innate from adaptive immunity.

More information

Innate Immunity: Nonspecific Defenses of the Host

Innate Immunity: Nonspecific Defenses of the Host 16 Innate Immunity: Nonspecific Defenses of the Host SLOs Differentiate between innate and adaptive immunity. Define toll-like receptors. Differentiate physical from chemical factors, and list examples

More information

Lymph Transport and Immunity

Lymph Transport and Immunity Lymph Transport and Immunity Outline The Lymphatic System Lymph Vessels Lymphoid Organs Nonspecific Defenses Barriers Inflammatory Response Specific Defenses Antibodies T Cells Induced Immunity Active

More information

Chapter 22: The Lymphatic System and Immunity

Chapter 22: The Lymphatic System and Immunity Bio40C schedule Lecture: Immune system Lecture exam 2 postponed to Tu Feb 23 covers Ch 22, 26, 27 Multiple choice and short answer Study guides posted on website Extra credit total of 15 pts Work sheets

More information

What is the lymphatic system and what are its functions? Detail the path followed by fluid entering lymphatic capillaries. What forces cause the

What is the lymphatic system and what are its functions? Detail the path followed by fluid entering lymphatic capillaries. What forces cause the 2. 2. 2. 3. 4. 5. 6. 7. 8. 9. 10. 1 12. 13. 14. 15. What is the lymphatic system and what are its functions? Detail the path followed by fluid entering lymphatic capillaries. What forces cause the fluid

More information

Assignment. Write a two page essay describing the differences between specific and non- specific immunity

Assignment. Write a two page essay describing the differences between specific and non- specific immunity Assignment Write a two page essay describing the differences between specific and non- specific immunity 1 The Immune System 2 I. Immunity A. defense against invading parasites and abnormal cells B. Types:

More information

Immune system. Nonspecific response: inflammation. Inflammation : the beginning. Nonspecific immunity vs. Adaptive immunity

Immune system. Nonspecific response: inflammation. Inflammation : the beginning. Nonspecific immunity vs. Adaptive immunity Immune system Body must resist disease in order to function Defends against pathogens, identifies and destroys abnormal cells. The primary pathogens are bacteria and viruses. Nonspecific immunity vs. Adaptive

More information

Immune response is a response by your immune system to some type of pathogen. A pathogen is a disease causing organism.

Immune response is a response by your immune system to some type of pathogen. A pathogen is a disease causing organism. Immune system. This is one of the more complex systems we re looking at, mostly because we need to look at the cellular level to really understand what's going on. First some definitions: Immune response

More information

Immunology. Lecture- 3

Immunology. Lecture- 3 Immunology Lecture- 3 Complement System complement system is a part of the immune system that helps or complements the ability of antibodies and phagocytic cells to destroy and clear pathogens and viruses.

More information

The Human Immune System

The Human Immune System The Human Immune System What is the immune system? The body s defense against disease causing organisms, malfunctioning cells, and foreign particles The First Line of Defense Skin The dead, outer layer

More information

KEY POINTS INFLAMMATION CELLS

KEY POINTS INFLAMMATION CELLS THE IMMUNE RESPONSE IN VARIOUS TISSUES HYPERSENSITIVE & AUTOIMMUNE RESPONSES KEY POINTS The immune system has two responses, cell mediated and humoral, Cell mediated involves T lymphocytes Humoral mediated

More information

Psychoneuroimmunology. Josée L. Jarry, Ph.D. Health Psychology, psy333 Department of Psychology University of Toronto September 30, 2002

Psychoneuroimmunology. Josée L. Jarry, Ph.D. Health Psychology, psy333 Department of Psychology University of Toronto September 30, 2002 Psychoneuroimmunology Josée L. Jarry, Ph.D. Health Psychology, psy333 Department of Psychology University of Toronto September 30, 2002 Psychoneuroimmunology - Definition The study of the link between

More information

Unit Four. Human Anatomy & Physiology

Unit Four. Human Anatomy & Physiology Human Anatomy & Physiology 16 Lymphatic System URLs http://www.howstuffworks.com/immune-system.htm http://www.thebody.com/step/immune.html http://www.emc.maricopa.edu/faculty/farabee/biobk/ BioBookIMMUN.html

More information

10. T and B cells are types of a. endocrine cells. c. lymphocytes. b. platelets. d. complement cells.

10. T and B cells are types of a. endocrine cells. c. lymphocytes. b. platelets. d. complement cells. Virus and Immune System Review Directions: Write your answers on a separate piece of paper. 1. Why does a cut in the skin threaten the body s nonspecific defenses against disease? a. If a cut bleeds, disease-fighting

More information

AP BIOLOGY 2007 SCORING GUIDELINES (Form B)

AP BIOLOGY 2007 SCORING GUIDELINES (Form B) AP BIOLOGY 2007 SCORING GUIDELINES (Form B) Question 2 The defenses of the human body to the entry and establishment of a pathogen (disease-causing organism) can be divided into nonspecific responses and

More information

Human Immunity. How our body s cells defend against microbial and viral invaders

Human Immunity. How our body s cells defend against microbial and viral invaders Human Immunity How our body s cells defend against microbial and viral invaders What is Immunity? The word immunity comes from the Latin immunus meaning free of burden. Thus; it is a body s general ability

More information

Supplemental Material CBE Life Sciences Education. Su et al.

Supplemental Material CBE Life Sciences Education. Su et al. Supplemental Material CBE Life Sciences Education Su et al. APPENDIX Human Body's Immune System Test This test consists of 31 questions, with only 1 answer to be selected for each question. Please select

More information

Type I. Type II. Type III. Type IV Delayed type, cell mediated. Allergy (immediate) cytotoxic, antibody-dependent. Immune complex diseases

Type I. Type II. Type III. Type IV Delayed type, cell mediated. Allergy (immediate) cytotoxic, antibody-dependent. Immune complex diseases Hypersensitivity refers to undesirable reactions produced by the normal immune system Vahid Naseri Supervised: horand; berzsu Type I Allergy (immediate) Type II cytotoxic, antibody-dependent Type III Immune

More information

M I C R O B I O L O G Y WITH DISEASES BY TAXONOMY, THIRD EDITION

M I C R O B I O L O G Y WITH DISEASES BY TAXONOMY, THIRD EDITION M I C R O B I O L O G Y WITH DISEASES BY TAXONOMY, THIRD EDITION Chapter 18 Other Immune Disorders Lecture prepared by Mindy Miller-Kittrell, University of Tennessee, Knoxville Hypersensitivities Hypersensitivity

More information

BLOOD GROUPS AND IMMUNOGENETICS

BLOOD GROUPS AND IMMUNOGENETICS BLOOD GROUPS AND IMMUNOGENETICS Knowledge of human blood types is necessary for successful transfusions. Recognition that blood types have relatively simple inheritance patterns led to their use in paternity

More information

MICROBIOLOGY - IMMUNOLOGY MODULE Dr Ronnie Russell

MICROBIOLOGY - IMMUNOLOGY MODULE Dr Ronnie Russell The Specific/Adaptive Immune Response The Third Line of Defence Is called specific immunity The body s ability to recognize and defend itself against distinct invaders and their products Is a smart system

More information

Immune System Part II: The Innate Immune System

Immune System Part II: The Innate Immune System Immune System Part II: The Innate Immune System Devastation Caused by Pathogens Influenza epidemic 1918-1919 Killed 22 million people in 18 months. Three million people will die from malaria this year.

More information

Pathogens and the immune system

Pathogens and the immune system Review of lecture 7 Pathogens and the immune system Veronica Leautaud, Ph.D. vl2@ rice.edu BRC 511 / 530-lab Lecture 8 BIOE 301-Bioengineering and World Health Science Science is the human activity of

More information

Immune System and Disease

Immune System and Disease Immune System and Disease Homeostasis Q: How does the body fight against invading organisms that may disrupt homeostasis? WHAT I KNOW WHAT I LEARNED 35.1 How do people catch infectious diseases? SAMPLE

More information

Pathogens and the immune system

Pathogens and the immune system Pathogens and the immune system Veronica Leautaud, Ph.D. vl2@ rice.edu BRC 511 / 530-lab Lecture 8 BIOE 301-Bioengineering and World Health Review of lecture 7 Science Science is the human activity of

More information

Thought for the Day. Courage is not simply one of the virtues, but the form of every virtue at the testing point. ~ C. S. Lewis

Thought for the Day. Courage is not simply one of the virtues, but the form of every virtue at the testing point. ~ C. S. Lewis Thought for the Day Courage is not simply one of the virtues, but the form of every virtue at the testing point. ~ C. S. Lewis Anatomy & Physiology Bio 2401 Lecture Instructor: Daryl Beatty Section 2 Lecture

More information

Lymph capillaries, Lymphatic collecting vessels, Valves, Lymph Duct, Lymph node, Vein

Lymph capillaries, Lymphatic collecting vessels, Valves, Lymph Duct, Lymph node, Vein WLHS/A&P/Oppelt Name Lymphatic System Practice 1. Figure 12-1 provides an overview of the lymphatic vessels. First color code the following structures. Color code in Figure 12-1 Heart Veins Lymphatic vessels/lymph

More information

ANATOMY OF THE IMMUNE SYSTEM THE IMMUNE SYSTEM. ANATOMY OF THE IMMUNE SYSTEM Thymus glandular organ near the heart where T cells learn their jobs

ANATOMY OF THE IMMUNE SYSTEM THE IMMUNE SYSTEM. ANATOMY OF THE IMMUNE SYSTEM Thymus glandular organ near the heart where T cells learn their jobs THE IMMUNE SYSTEM 1 ANATOMY OF THE IMMUNE SYSTEM 2 We all get sick sometimes...but then we get better. What happens when we get sick? Why do we get better? The immune system is localized in several parts

More information

Figure 14.2 Overview of Innate and Adaptive Immunity

Figure 14.2 Overview of Innate and Adaptive Immunity I M M U N I T Y Innate (inborn) Immunity does not distinguish one pathogen from another Figure 14.2 Overview of Innate and Adaptive Immunity Our first line of defense includes physical and chemical barriers

More information

Fundamental Immunology (Introduction to the Immune System) By. Faculty of Medicine, Suez canal University, Ismailia EGYPT

Fundamental Immunology (Introduction to the Immune System) By. Faculty of Medicine, Suez canal University, Ismailia EGYPT Fogarty-IBRO School Nairobi-KENYA May 22 nd 25 th 2007 Fundamental Immunology (Introduction to the Immune System) By Ahmed El-Gohary, M.D. Faculty of Medicine, Suez canal University, Ismailia EGYPT The

More information

Chapter 17A: Adaptive Immunity Part I

Chapter 17A: Adaptive Immunity Part I Chapter 17A: Adaptive Immunity Part I 1. Overview of Adaptive Immunity 2. T and B Cell Production 3. Antigens & Antigen Presentation 4. Helper T cells 1. Overview of Adaptive Immunity The Nature of Adaptive

More information

The Most Common Autoimmune Disease: Rheumatoid Arthritis. Bonita S. Libman, M.D.

The Most Common Autoimmune Disease: Rheumatoid Arthritis. Bonita S. Libman, M.D. The Most Common Autoimmune Disease: Rheumatoid Arthritis Bonita S. Libman, M.D. Disclosures Two googled comics The Normal Immune System Network of cells and proteins that work together Goal: protect against

More information

The Immune System: Innate and Adaptive Body Defenses

The Immune System: Innate and Adaptive Body Defenses The Immune System: Innate and Adaptive Body Defenses Objectives Surface Barriers: Skin and Mucosae 1. Explain the roles of the skin and mucous membranes in the innate defense. 2. List and discuss the secretions

More information

I. Lymphatic System A. Lymphatic Vessels (Lymphatics) 1. Lymphatic Capillaries (Terminal Lymphatics) a. Absent in the following areas: 1) Avascular

I. Lymphatic System A. Lymphatic Vessels (Lymphatics) 1. Lymphatic Capillaries (Terminal Lymphatics) a. Absent in the following areas: 1) Avascular I. Lymphatic System A. Lymphatic Vessels (Lymphatics) 1. Lymphatic Capillaries (Terminal Lymphatics) a. Absent in the following areas: 1) Avascular Tissue 2) Central Nervous System 3) Bone 4) Bone Marrow

More information

The Immune System and its Diseases. Part 2. Outline 2/18/2011. Jonathan Fox

The Immune System and its Diseases. Part 2. Outline 2/18/2011. Jonathan Fox The Immune System and its Diseases. Part 2. Jonathan Fox jfox7@uwyo.edu Outline Self and non self Introduction to hypersensitivity and autoimmune diseases Type I hypersensitivity i i mechanism of disease

More information

Unit 4 Lecture 9. Specific Body Defenses

Unit 4 Lecture 9. Specific Body Defenses Unit 4 Lecture 9 Specific Body Defenses As stated earlier, a non-specific body defense is any defense that protects against a variety of invaders. A specific body defense is defense directed against a

More information

Chapter 43: The Immune System

Chapter 43: The Immune System Name Period Our students consider this chapter to be a particularly challenging and important one. Expect to work your way slowly through the first three concepts. Take particular care with Concepts 43.2

More information

CHAPTER 22 LYMPHATIC SYSTEM AND IMMUNITY

CHAPTER 22 LYMPHATIC SYSTEM AND IMMUNITY CHAPTER 22 LYMPHATIC SYSTEM AND IMMUNITY CHAPTER OVERVIEW: This chapter introduces the lymphatic system including diffuse lymphatic tissues. Inflammation, non-specific immunity and specific immunity are

More information

Microbiology 532 Immunology Examination KEY October 30, 2003

Microbiology 532 Immunology Examination KEY October 30, 2003 KEY October 30, 2003 All questions have equal point value. You may keep the test questions. Multiple Choice (choose the best answer) 1. Receptors associated with innate immunity recognize microbes by detecting:

More information

10/9/2014. The Immune System: Innate and Adaptive Body Defenses: Immunity. Resistance to disease Immune system. Immunity.

10/9/2014. The Immune System: Innate and Adaptive Body Defenses: Immunity. Resistance to disease Immune system. Immunity. Annie Leibovitz/Contact Press Images PowerPoint Lecture Slides prepared by Barbara Heard, Atlantic Cape Community College C H A P T E R 21 The Immune System: Innate and Adaptive Body Defenses: Immunity

More information

The Lymphatic System and Immunity

The Lymphatic System and Immunity 14 The Lymphatic System and Immunity FOCUS: The lymphatic system includes lymph, lymphocytes, lymphatic vessels, lymph nodes, tonsils, the spleen and the thymus gland. The lymphatic system helps maintain

More information

CHAPTER 35 HUMAN IMMUNE SYSTEM STANDARDS:SC.912.L.14.52 & SC.912.L.14.6

CHAPTER 35 HUMAN IMMUNE SYSTEM STANDARDS:SC.912.L.14.52 & SC.912.L.14.6 CHAPTER 35 HUMAN IMMUNE SYSTEM STANDARDS:SC.912.L.14.52 & SC.912.L.14.6 SECTION 1 - Infectious Disease 1.Identify the causes of infectious disease. 2.Explain how infectious diseases are spread. Causes

More information

Lymphatic Vessels & Circulation

Lymphatic Vessels & Circulation The Lymphatic and Immunology Systems Resistance is the ability to ward off disease lack of resistance is termed susceptibility Nonspecific resistance to disease general defensive mechanisms effective on

More information

Immunity Unit Test Z

Immunity Unit Test Z Immunity Unit Test Z Name MB Multiple Choice Identify the choice that best completes the statement or answers the question. 1. Which of the pathogens in Figure 31.1 cause disease by taking over healthy

More information

2. Surface barriers include the and of the respiratory, gastrointestinal

2. Surface barriers include the and of the respiratory, gastrointestinal The Immune System: Innate Host Defenses 1. Name the two major categories of innate (nonspecific) defenses: 2. Surface barriers include the and of the respiratory, gastrointestinal and genitourinary tracts.

More information

IMMUNOLOGY. An Overview of Immunity: Innate And Adaptive Immunity

IMMUNOLOGY. An Overview of Immunity: Innate And Adaptive Immunity IMMUNOLOGY An Overview of Immunity: Innate And Adaptive Immunity Tapasya Srivastava and Subrata Sinha Department of Biochemistry All India Institute of Medical Sciences New Delhi 110 029 CONTENTS Concept

More information

Core Topic 2. The immune system and how vaccines work

Core Topic 2. The immune system and how vaccines work Core Topic 2 The immune system and how vaccines work Learning outcome To be able to describe in outline the immune system and how vaccines work in individuals and populations Learning objectives Explain

More information

Immune system Disorders. Chapter 19

Immune system Disorders. Chapter 19 Immune system Disorders Chapter 19 I. Hypersensitivity Definition Once sensitized with an antigen (allergen) the immune system responds to a subsequent exposure by reacting with it in a way that damages

More information

Adaptive Immunity. Copyright McGraw-Hill Global Education Holdings, LLC. Permission required for reproduction or display.

Adaptive Immunity. Copyright McGraw-Hill Global Education Holdings, LLC. Permission required for reproduction or display. 34 Adaptive Immunity Copyright McGraw-Hill Global Education Holdings, LLC. Permission required for reproduction or display. 1 34.6 B-cell Biology 1. Describe the B-cell receptor structure and function

More information

Biochemistry of the immune system. Jana Novotna

Biochemistry of the immune system. Jana Novotna Biochemistry of the immune system Jana Novotna Immunity = protection The immune system integrated body system of organs, tissues, cells, and products that interact with many different pathogens. Specificity

More information

The Lymphatic System and Immunity (Chapter 22) Lecture Materials for Amy Warenda Czura, Ph.D. Suffolk County Community College

The Lymphatic System and Immunity (Chapter 22) Lecture Materials for Amy Warenda Czura, Ph.D. Suffolk County Community College The Lymphatic System and Immunity (Chapter 22) Lecture Materials for Amy Warenda Czura, Ph.D. Suffolk County Community College Primary Sources for figures and content: Eastern Campus Marieb, E. N. Human

More information

Specific Defense: Adaptive Immunity

Specific Defense: Adaptive Immunity Specific Defense: Adaptive Immunity CHAPTER SUMMARY Elements of Specific Immunity (pp. 462-472) The body augments the mechanisms of nonspecific defense with another line of defense that destroys invaders

More information

Hypersensitivity and Autoimmune disorders

Hypersensitivity and Autoimmune disorders Hypersensitivity and Autoimmune disorders Dr Udani Kiriwandeniya Consultant Histopathologist/Senior lecturer Learning utcomes At the end of this section the student should be able to 1.Briefly describe

More information

Lymphatic/Immune System Vocabulary Key

Lymphatic/Immune System Vocabulary Key Term Acquired Immunity Adenoids Antibody Antigen Axillary nodes B cell (B lymphocyte) Cervical nodes Complement system Cytokines Cytotoxic T cell Dendritic cell Helper T cell Immunity Immunoglobulins Immunotherapy

More information

Bio 20 Chapter 11 Workbook Blood and the Immune System Ms. Nyboer

Bio 20 Chapter 11 Workbook Blood and the Immune System Ms. Nyboer Bio 20 Chapter 11 Workbook Blood and the Immune System Ms. Nyboer Name: Part A: Components of Blood 1. List the 3 plasma proteins and describe the function of each Albumins osmotic balance Globulins antibodies,

More information

2) Macrophages function to engulf and present antigen to other immune cells.

2) Macrophages function to engulf and present antigen to other immune cells. Immunology The immune system has specificity and memory. It specifically recognizes different antigens and has memory for these same antigens the next time they are encountered. The Cellular Components

More information

18 The Lymphatic System (Immune System) Nonspecific Resistance, Specific Immunity. Taft College Human Physiology

18 The Lymphatic System (Immune System) Nonspecific Resistance, Specific Immunity. Taft College Human Physiology 18 The Lymphatic System (Immune System) Nonspecific Resistance, Specific Immunity Taft College Human Physiology O 2 Diagram of Lymphatic and Cardiovascular Systems Lungs Heart Arteries w/ Plasma Arterioles

More information

Immunology in pathology (immunopathology) Patology. immunology in pathology. immunologic response. lecture 3

Immunology in pathology (immunopathology) Patology. immunology in pathology. immunologic response. lecture 3 Patology Immunology in pathology (immunopathology) lecture 3 prof. dr hab. n. med. Andrzej Marszałek immunology in pathology Diseases with immunologic mechanism of tissue injury. Hypersensitivity reactions:

More information

Chapter 16: Innate Immunity

Chapter 16: Innate Immunity Chapter 16: Innate Immunity 1. Overview of Innate Immunity 2. Inflammation & Phagocytosis 3. Antimicrobial Substances 1. Overview of Innate Immunity The Body s Defenses The body has 2 types of defense

More information

Chapter 43: Immune System

Chapter 43: Immune System AP Biology Reading Guide Fred and Theresa Holtzclaw Julia Keller 12d Chapter 43: Immune System 1. Briefly explain the six steps to ingestion and destruction of a microbe by a phagocytic cell. First, pseudopodia

More information

Basics of Immunology

Basics of Immunology Basics of Immunology 2 Basics of Immunology What is the immune system? Biological mechanism for identifying and destroying pathogens within a larger organism. Pathogens: agents that cause disease Bacteria,

More information

Chapter 16 Disorders in Immunity

Chapter 16 Disorders in Immunity Chapter 16 Disorders in Immunity Immunopathology The study of disease states associated with underactivity and overactivity of the immune response Allergy (hypersensitivity) an exaggerated, misdirected

More information

THE COMPLEMENT SYSTEM

THE COMPLEMENT SYSTEM THE COMPLEMENT SYSTEM components and functions of the complement system complements (C) are heat labile proteins found in mammalian blood and make up the complement system. This complex, multi-component

More information

Chapter 21: The Immune System: Innate and Adaptive Body Defenses. M.C. Shamier BSc Shenzhou University

Chapter 21: The Immune System: Innate and Adaptive Body Defenses. M.C. Shamier BSc Shenzhou University Chapter 21: The Immune System: Innate and Adaptive Body Defenses M.C. Shamier BSc Shenzhou University Subjects Innate Defenses Innate immunity so not acquired Always prepared Responds quickly Prevents

More information