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1 6 N08/4/PHYSI/SP2/ENG/TZ0/XX+ A2. This question is about ideal gases. (a) State what is meant by an ideal gas For an ideal gas define internal energy. state and explain how the internal energy and the absolute (kelvin) temperature are related.

2 23 N08/4/PHYSI/SP2/ENG/TZ0/XX+ b3. Part 1 Calorimetry (a) Define heat capacity of a body

3 24 N08/4/PHYSI/SP2/ENG/TZ0/XX+ The diagram below shows an experiment to measure the heat capacity of a block of copper. thermometer string boiling water copper block Bunsen burner calorimeter and water The block of copper is first placed in a container of boiling water. The block is then transferred to an insulated calorimeter containing water. The following data are available. Temperature of boiling water 100 C Initial temperature of water in calorimeter 22 C Final temperature of water in calorimeter 28 C Heat capacity of calorimeter and water 950 JK 1 Determine the total thermal energy absorbed by the calorimeter and the water. heat capacity of the copper block.

4 25 N08/4/PHYSI/SP2/ENG/TZ0/XX+ (c) (d) State a further measurement that must be made in order to determine the specific heat capacity of copper.... State two sources of error in this experiment

5 14 M08/4/PHYSI/SP2/ENG/TZ2XX+ b2. Part 1 Latent heat and specific heat (a) Define specific latent heat of vaporization. Energy is supplied to a boiling liquid at a constant rate. Describe, in terms of molecular behaviour, why the temperature of the liquid remains constant. [3]

6 15 M08/4/PHYSI/SP2/ENG/TZ2XX+ A student determines the latent heat of vaporization of water by an electrical method. An electrical heater is used to boil water. When the water is boiling at a steady rate, the mass of water evaporated per minute is determined. The mass is determined for two different powers of the heater and the results are shown in the table below. power of heater / W mass of water evaporated per minute / g The power of the heater is determined using an ammeter and a voltmeter. The heater is labelled 9.0 V, 80.0 W. In the space below, draw an electrical circuit to show how the heater may be used correctly with a constant 12 V supply to provide different powers to the heater. Include the ammeter and voltmeter in your circuit. 12 V Calculate the current in the heater for a power output of 80.0 W. (iii) Use the data in the table above to determine a value for the specific latent heat of vaporization of water. [4]

7 16 M08/4/PHYSI/SP2/ENG/TZ2XX+ (c) In one particular make of electric kettle, the heater must always be immersed in water when the kettle is in use. The minimum volume of water that can be heated is 650 cm 3. The kettle is used six times each day to boil water for a single cup of tea. The cup has a volume of 350 cm 3. The mass of 1.0 cm 3 of water is 1.0 g. Calculate the mass of water that is heated, but not used, during one day. The initial temperature of the water in the kettle before heating is 18 C. The specific heat capacity of water is J kg 1 K 1. Deduce that the electrical energy wasted each day is J. (iii) The cost of 1.0 MJ of electrical energy is 3.5 cents. Estimate the cost of the energy that is used each year to heat water that is not used to make tea.

8 17 N07/4/PHYSI/SP2/ENG/TZ0/XX+ (c) Define specific heat capacity. The table below gives data for water and ice. specific heat capacity of water specific latent heat of fusion of ice 4.2 kj kg 1 K kj kg 1 A beaker contains 450 g of water at a temperature of 24 C. The thermal (heat) capacity of the beaker is negligible and no heat is gained by, or lost to, the atmosphere. Calculate the mass of ice, initially at 0 C, that must be mixed with the water so that the final temperature of the contents of the beaker is 8.0 C. [4] (d) Distinguish between evaporation and boiling. Explain, in terms of molecular behaviour, why boiling involves a transfer of thermal energy with no change in temperature. [3]

9 17 M07/4/PHYSI/SP2/ENG/TZ1/XX+ Part 2 Specific latent heat (a) Define specific latent heat of fusion Solar radiation is incident on a pond of area 12 m 2. The pond is covered by a layer of ice of thickness 3.0 cm. The temperature of the ice is 0.0 C. The density of ice is 900 kg m 3. Deduce that the mass of ice on the pond is approximately 320 kg. The average power per unit area incident on the ice over a period of 6.0 hours is 340 W m 2. Deduce that the energy incident on the pond in this time is J. (iii) The specific latent heat of fusion of ice is 330 kj kg 1. Determine whether all the ice on the pond will melt in the 6.0 hour time period. (iv) State one assumption you made in reaching your answer to (iii). (c) During the night, the air temperature drops to 5 C. The ice that melted during the day freezes again. Outline one mechanism by which thermal energy is lost by the ice

10 21 M07/4/PHYSI/SP2/ENG/TZ2/XX+ b3. part 1 Gases and liquids (a) (c) Describe two differences, in terms of molecular structure, between a gas and a liquid The temperature of an ideal gas is a measure of the average kinetic energy of the molecules of the gas. Explain why the average kinetic energy is specified Define heat (thermal) capacity

11 22 M07/4/PHYSI/SP2/ENG/TZ2/XX+ (d) Water is heated at a constant rate in a container that has negligible heat capacity. The container is thermally insulated from the surroundings. The sketch-graph below shows the variation with time of the temperature of the water. temperature / C A B time / s The following data are available: initial mass of water = 0.40 kg initial temp of water = 20 C rate at which water is heated = 300 W specific heat capacity of water = J kg 1 C 1 State the reason why the temperature is constant in the region A B. Calculate the temperature at which the water starts to boil. [5]

12 23 M07/4/PHYSI/SP2/ENG/TZ2/XX+ (e) All the water is boiled away s after it first starts to boil. Determine a value for the specific latent heat L of vaporisation of water

13 17 M09/4/PHYSI/SP2/ENG/TZ1/XX+ b3. Part 1 Internal energy, heat and ideal gases (a) The internal energy of a piece of copper is increased by heating. Explain what is meant, in this context, by internal energy and heating. Internal energy: Heating: The piece of copper has mass 0.25 kg. The increase in internal energy of the copper is J and its increase in temperature is 20 K. Estimate the specific heat capacity of copper. [3] An ideal gas is kept in a cylinder by a piston that is free to move. The gas is heated such that its internal energy increases and the pressure remains constant. Use the molecular model of ideal gases to explain the increase in internal energy. how the pressure remains constant. [3]

14 A2. This question is about thermal energy transfer. 6 N09/4/PHYSI/SP2/ENG/TZ0/XX+ (a) A piece of copper is held in a flame until it reaches thermal equilibrium. The time it takes to reach thermal equilibrium will depend on the thermal capacity of the piece of copper. Define thermal capacity. Outline what is meant by thermal equilibrium in this context. The piece of copper is transferred quickly to a plastic cup containing water. The thermal capacity of the cup is negligible. The following data are available. Mass of copper = 0.12 kg Mass of water = 0.45 kg Rise in temperature of water = 30 K Final temperature of copper = 308 K Specific heat capacity of copper = 390 J kg K 1 Specific heat capacity of water = 4200 J kg K 1 Use the data to calculate the temperature of the flame. Explain whether the temperature of the flame is likely to be greater or less than your answer to. [3]

15 18 M10/4/PHYSI/SP2/ENG/TZ1/XX+ B3 Part 2 Heating a liquid (a) Suggest why, in terms of the molecular model, the energy associated with melting is less than that associated with boiling Milk in a cup is heated to boiling point by passing steam through it. Whilst cooling subsequently, some milk evaporates. Distinguish between evaporation and boiling. The cup contains 0.30 kg of milk at an initial temperature of 18 C. Estimate the minimum mass of steam at 100 C that is required to heat the milk to 80 C Specific latent heat of vaporization of water = Jkg 1 Specific heat capacity of water = 4200Jkg K Specific heat capacity of milk = 3800Jkg K [4]

16 19 M10/4/PHYSI/SP2/ENG/TZ1/XX+ (iii) State two reasons, other than evaporation, why the answer to is likely to be different from the actual mass of condensed steam. 1: :......

17 5 M10/4/PHYSI/SP2/ENG/TZ2/XX+ A3. This question is about change of phase of a liquid and latent heat of vaporization. (a) State the difference between evaporation and boiling with reference to temperature. surface area of a liquid. A liquid in a calorimeter is heated at its boiling point for a measured period of time. The following data are available. Power rating of heater = 15 W Time for which liquid is heated at boiling point = s Mass of liquid boiled away = kg Use the data to determine the specific latent heat of vaporization of the liquid. [3] (c) State and explain one reason why the calculation in will give a value of the specific latent heat of vaporization of the liquid that is greater than the true value

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