# SECTION A MANDATORY EXPERIMENTS...1

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1 CONTENTS Introduction...iv How to revise most effectively...iv How to be prepared on the day of the exam...v Time yourself as follows...v Things not to do...vi The layout of the exam paper...vi How the questions are marked...vi s...vi SECTION A MANDATORY EXPERIMENTS.... Mechanics Experiments: Exam paper question.... Light and Sound Experiments: Exam paper questions / Heat Experiments: Exam paper questions / Electrical Experiments: Exam paper question... SECTION B THEORY...9. Mechanics Light and Sound Heat Electricity Static, Electric Fields and Capacitance Simple Electric Circuits Effects of Electric Current...7. The Force on a Current-carrying Conductor in a Magnetic Field Electromagnetic Induction Semiconductors...9. Electrons, Photoelectric Effect and X-rays Radioactivity and Nuclear Energy Option Particle Physics Option Applied Electricity...38

2 LSMS_87007_ch0 /0/ : PM Page Mechanics Experiments Exam paper question To learn: How to describe the mandatory mechanics experiments in points How to gain maximum marks from the short FAQs that appear towards the end of many mechanics questions in Section A How to decide what to graph against what There are no extra marks for heavy, overwritten descriptions of an experiment. There is no need to list the equipment. This will be clear from the labelled diagram. Pay attention to the FAQs, as many marks are lost here. Be aware of the importance of percentage error. If you are measuring something 0 cm long and you make an error of cm, the percentage error is 0%, but if you are measuring something 00 cm long the percentage error would be only %. If a question involves a formula, ignore the constants and you will see what to graph. For example, the following experiment involves the formula πl g, so eliminate π and graph l (Y axis) T against T (X axis). Aim: To investigate the relationship between period and length for a simple pendulum (and hence to calculate g). Attach the pendulum bob to one end of a light thread and clamp the other end of the thread between two pieces of cork.. Set the pendulum swinging through a small angle and take the time for 0 oscillations.

3 MECHANICS EXPERIMENTS 3 3. Find the periodic time T for one oscillation.. Carefully measure l, the distance from the cork to the centre of the pendulum bob.. Repeat for different values of l. 6. Plot a graph of l against T. A straight line through the origin implies that l T. The slope of this graph gives the value of l. 7. g can now be calculated from the formula g FAQs Why is a light thread used? So that practically all the mass is concentrated in the bob. Why must the angle be kept small? The pendulum formula is only valid for small angles. Why is the time for one oscillation not measured directly? It might be too small to register on the timer and there could be a large percentage error. Why could the number of oscillations be reduced if the length of the pendulum were increased? Because the time for each oscillation would be increased so the overall time would be about the same. How would you ensure that the length of the pendulum remained constant? Use inextensible string. Aim: To measure g by free fall T π l T. With the switch K in position, the ball bearing is attached to the electromagnet with a small piece of paper between them.. When the switch is thrown to position, the ball bearing is released and the timer T starts. 3. When the ball bearing hits the trapdoor, the timer stops. The time for the free fall is now known.. Repeat a number of times and take the minimum time, t.. Measure s carefully. s ut at. In this case u 0 so that s gt s g. t g can now be calculated. electromagnet paper ball bearing timer s trapdoor T K Note: s should be at least m.

4 LESS STRESS MORE SUCCESS FAQs In an experiment to measure g by free fall, give two precautions that should be taken to ensure a more accurate result. Measure from the bottom of the ball bearing. Use large values of s (smaller percentage error). Set the trapdoor as sensitively as possible. Take the shortest time not the average time. What is the piece of paper for? To make sure that the ball bearing does not become magnetised. Give two ways of minimising the effect of air resistance in the experiment. Make sure the object is small, spherical, dense, smooth and that there are no draughts. Using a tickertape timer A tickertape timer puts a dot on a tape every 0.0 of a second. If the tape is moving with uniform velocity, the dots are equally spaced. However, if the tape is accelerating, the distance between the dots is increasing. In this case the acceleration can be calculated as follows.. Measure s, the distance over two spaces at the start of the tape. (Taking two spaces also reduces percentage error.) Now calculate u as above.. Measure s, the distance over two spaces towards the end of the tape. 3. Calculate v as above. The time t is the time taken to go from A to B. a (v u) t Aim: To show that acceleration is proportional to force. Set up the apparatus as shown in the diagram.. Raise one end of the plank until, with a slight push, the trolley moves with constant speed. 3. Place a weight in the pan and let the trolley accelerate down the slope. Note the force F and calculate the acceleration from the tickertape. A s s u = s 0.0 ticker tape ticker tape timer trolley B v = s 0.0

5 0 LESS STRESS MORE SUCCESS Aim: To find the specific latent heat of vaporisation of water wet steam. Weigh the calorimeter. Weigh the calorimeter and water. Take water trap the temperature of the water.. Set up the apparatus as shown in the diagram. dry steam 3. Allow steam to pass into the water in the calorimeter until lagging the temperature has risen by about 0 C to C.. Finally, re-weigh the calorimeter and contents to find the mass of steam condensed.. The latent heat of vaporisation of water can be calculated from the equation: Heat lost by steam heat lost by resulting water heat gained by calorimeter heat gained by water FAQs In an experiment to measure the specific latent heat of vaporisation of water: (a) Why was dry steam used? To make sure that only dry steam, and not condensed steam (water), is added to the calorimeter. (b) How was the steam dried? By using a water trap to trap the condensed steam. It also helps to insulate the delivery tube and have it sloping backwards towards the steam generator. thermometer copper calorimeter Remember, most people believe that if you are familiar with one method of doing an experiment that is sufficient. This is generally true but not always! For example, most people would use the electrical method given above to find the specific heat capacity of water but take a look at Question, 007 Higher Level where it is found by adding hot copper to water in a copper calorimeter. (c) Why is the rise in temperature often the least accurate value? Standard thermometers only read to. (d) Give two ways of improving the accuracy of this value. Use a thermometer that reads to 0. degrees. Reduce percentage error by using more steam and less water. Increase insulation.

6 HEAT EXPERIMENTS (e) Why would a thermometer with low heat capacity increase accuracy? It would absorb less heat from the water in the calorimeter. ( f ) Why should the calorimeter be polished? To reduce heat loss by radiation. (g) How would you find the mass of the steam added? Subtract mass of calorimeter plus water from the final mass of calorimeter plus water plus condensed steam. Exam questions Q : The specific heat capacity of water was found by adding hot copper to water in a copper calorimeter. (a) Describe how the copper was heated and how its temperature was measured. A: The copper was heated as shown in the diagram and the temperature was read from the thermometer. (b) Give two precautions which were taken to minimise heat loss to the surroundings. A: Polish the calorimeter, insulate the calorimeter, transfer the copper quickly, use a low heat capacity thermometer. Q : In an experiment to find the specific latent heat of fusion of ice the following readings were obtained. mass of copper calorimeter 0 g mass of calorimeter water g initial temperature of water C final temperature C mass of calorimeter water melted ice 70 g Find the specific latent heat of fusion of ice. A: Specific heat capacity of water,00 J kg K Specific heat capacity of copper 00 J Kg K Heat gained by ice in melting Heat to raise resulting water by C 0.0l 00 7, l 8,380 7,8 7,8 l 3,00 J 3. kj kg g of copper turnings Heat lost by calorimeter thermometer loose cotton wool Heat lost by warm water 0.0 l (0.0,00 ) ( ) (0.09,00 0)

7 LSMS_87007_ch0_LSMS_87007_ch0.qxd /0/ :0 PM Page Electrical Experiments Exam paper question To learn: How to describe mandatory electrical experiments in points How to answer FAQs on the above How to get maximum marks from graphs Aim: To investigate how the current flowing through various conductors varies with potential difference applied. Set up the apparatus as shown in the diagram.. Set the variable resistor to give a small potential difference (voltage). Note the voltage and the current. 3. Adjust the variable resistor to give a slightly larger voltage. Note voltage and current again.. Repeat or more times.. Draw a graph of voltage (Y axis) against current (X axis). switch I (ma) variable resistor A ammeter tungsten filament bulb 6 V, 0.3 A resistor 00 V voltmeter 0 I (A) I (A) V (V) copper sulphate with copper electrodes Ohmic conductor V (V) V (V)

8 ELECTRICAL EXPERIMENTS 3 I (ma) silicon diode IN V (V) At constant temperature the current flowing through a metallic conductor is directly proportional to the potential difference across it. This is Ohm s law. Not all conductors are Ohmic (obey Ohm s law). FAQs On a graph showing the relationship between current and voltage for a metal at constant temperature, how would the graph change if the temperature was increasing? At constant temperature the graph would be linear (Ohm s law) but as the temperature increased the resistance would increase I and the slope of the graph would decrease to give a curved graph. In the case of a similar experiment using a filament bulb, why would the resistance of the bulb change during the experiment? As the current increases, the temperature of the filament increases making it more difficult for electrons to pass through. How would the graph for an ionic solution be altered if the concentration of the solution was reduced? Reducing the concentration would mean fewer ions, fewer charge carriers, greater resistance leading to a reduction in the slope of the graph. In an experiment to investigate the variation of current with I potential difference for a copper sulphate solution, draw a sketch of the graph that would be obtained if inactive electrodes were used. In an experiment to investigate the variation of current with potential difference for a semiconductor diode, if the student changed the diode to reverse bias what changes should be made to the original circuit? Replace the milliammeter with a microammeter and make sure the voltmeter is in parallel with a series combination of the diode and microammeter. V V

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