Struck-by and Caught Between Hazards

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1 Struck-by and Caught Between Hazards 1 Presented by Larry Warkel CSP - Safety Director McGough Construction 1 Part 1: Struck-by Hazards 2 2 Struck-by Session Objectives» Identify the three main causes of struck-by fatalities» Learn how to prevent struck-by fatalities» Understand the safety requirements for nail guns and powder-actuated tools 3 3 1

2 By the Numbers- Struck-by Hazards» Struck-by hazards are the third leading cause of construction fatalities» Struck-by fatalities accounted for 8% of construction deaths nationwide in 2010» Approximately 75% of struck-by fatalities involve heavy equipment» One in four struck-by-vehicle deaths involve construction workers, more than any other occupation 4 4 Main Causes for Stuck-by Deaths» Vehicle and Roadway Hazards» Falling Objects» Flying Objects 5 5 Accident Prevention The following could prevent struck-by incidents from occurring on your site:» Keep workers out of the immediate area where heavy equipment is operating» When visual contact is lost with workers on foot, the equipment operator stops the equipment until contact is re-established» Equipment has a working back-up alarm» There is a written policy of safe practices for all hazards» Workers are adequately trained 6 6 2

3 Leading Causes of Highway Worker Fatalities» For highway workers on foot, the leading cause of fatalities is being struck by construction equipment» For highway equipment operators, the most common cause of fatalities is equipment rollover 7 7 Safety Around Moving Vehicles» Stay clear of vehicles» Know traffic control plan» Communicate with operators by radio and/or eye contact» Stay out of blind spots» Wear an ANSI approved high-visibility vest» Don t stand under loads 8 8 Planning and Precautionary Actions» Have a traffic control plan» Set up barricades and warning signs» Assign spotters and/or flaggers» Equip vehicles with rear vision cameras and radar systems to detect workers 9 9 3

4 Identify the Hazards in this Picture? Out of the Drivers Line of Sight» This worker is in the driver s blind spot» There is no spotter» Worker is not wearing an ANSI approved vest One in four "struck by vehicle" deaths involve construction workers, more than any other occupation How Can a Struck-by Occur?» Working under cranes or scaffolds» Rigging failure» Loose or shifting materials» Lack of overhead protection» Improper training» Lack of planning

5 Protection Against Falling Objects» Wear a hard hat» Secure all loads, tools, and materials» Use toe boards» Use debris nets, catch platforms, or canopies» Never walk or work below moving objects overhead, like concrete buckets Identify the Hazards in this Picture? Falling Objects and Other Hazards» Scaffold is constructed improperly» Workers could get struck by objects falling off the scaffolding because there is no toe board» No hardhats or safety glasses» Improper use of a ladder-worker not facing the ladder» Improper access and egress the step ladder is closed and not tall enough

6 What Are Flying Object Hazards?» Tools can create particles when chipping, grinding, sawing, brushing, or hammering» Particles from some tools move at amazing speed and can hit with the force of a bullet, like those from pneumatic and powder-actuated tools Protection from Flying Object Hazards» Wear eye protection.» Wear hardhats.» Inspect tools before use.» Make sure you are properly trained before using a power tool Powdered Actuated Tools What are your thoughts on the story behind this picture?

7 Using Power Actuated Tools According to OSHA:» Training is required to use the tool.» Eye or face protection should be worn (hearing protection too).» The tool should always be held perpendicular to the work surface when fastening into any material, except for applications recommended by the manufacturer.» A sign must be posted within 50 feet of the area where the tools are being used What Could Be Done Differently? Improper Use of a Nail Gun» The carpenter is firing a nail toward himself» He has no protective equipment like a hardhat and safety glasses» He doesn t seem to be using hearing protection

8 Nail Gun Regulations All pneumatically-driven nailers and staplers shall:» Have a safety device on the muzzle» Be connected to the air supply with spring loaded shut-off valve and a positive locking mechanism to prevent the tool from becoming accidentally disconnected Nail Gun Regulations Continued» Personal protective equipment shall be used» Tools shall be equipped with a fitting that will discharge all compressed air in the tool at the time the fitting or hose coupling is disconnected» Safety training shall be conducted prior to initial assignment» Training shall be conducted by a qualified person Struck-by Hazard Review» Use caution around vehicles and equipment, maintain eye contact with operators, and wear high-visibility gear» Don t stand under loads» Wear a hard hat and safety glasses to protect yourself from flying objects» Don t use powder-actuated tools unless you are trained and certified» Pneumatically-driven nailers and staplers must meet new OSHA safety regulations

9 Part 2: Caught - in/between Hazards Caught - in/between Session Objectives» Identify the three main causes of caughtin/between fatalities» Understand how to prevent caught-in/between deaths» Steps to prevent equipment roll-overs Main Causes for Caught - in/between Deaths» Being crushed by collapsing materials, such as in a trench or excavation» Being caught in, or between, machinery or equipment» Equipment rollover

10 By the Numbers Caught - in/between Hazards» Caught-in/between hazards are the fourth leading cause of construction fatalities» Caught-in/between deaths accounted for 4% of construction fatalities nationwide in Why are Trenches So Dangerous? 29» Most deaths from cave-ins occur in trenches 5 to 15 ft. deep» Cave-ins happen suddenly with no warning» Other risks: falls, electrocution, being struck by falling objects (or equipment), and bad air» Bad air can make it hard to breathe, help cause a fire, or poison you 29 Precautionary Measures Trenching» Workers should not enter trenches deeper than 5 without shoring, benching, or sloping» Place excavated soil (spoil) from trenches at least 2 from the edge of the trench» Train workers before they are assigned hazardous work in trenches

11 Think You Can Run?» If a trench collapses, why not just run out of the way?» Soil falls too fast.» Guess how fast it falls from a height of: 2 feet? 4 feet? 6 feet? From Two Feet» It takes only 0.35 seconds for soil to fall two feet» Human reaction time is about 0.50 seconds» There s no time to escape From Four Feet» It takes only 0.50 seconds for soil to fall four feet» Human reaction time is about 0.50 seconds» There s no time to escape

12 From Six Feet» It takes only 0.61 seconds for soil to fall six feet» Human reaction time is about 0.50 seconds» In this example, it would take a worker another 0.11 seconds to reach the ladder» There s no time to escape How Much Does Soil Weigh?» OK, the trench has collapsed. A little bit of soil can t weigh that much, right? Maybe you could dig out?» Wrong! Assume you re buried three feet deep a cubic yard of soil is pressing on you 35 How much do you think a cubic yard weighs? 35 Up to Two Tons!» A cubic yard of wet excavated clay weighs 3078 lbs» A cubic yard of wet sand and gravel weighs 3375 lbs» A cubic yard of sandstone weighs 3915 lbs. That s almost two tons-about the weight of a small pick up truck!

13 What Causes Trench Deaths?» No protective system (like shoring) is in place» Trenches and excavations are not properly or regularly inspected» Excessive weight, such as machinery and spoil, is close to the edge of the excavation» No safe means is available to get in and out of the trench» Water in trenches Employers Responsibility» OSHA says the employer must train workers about trench hazards and how to protect themselves» The employer must name a competent person before a trench is dug» Identify the type of trench protection depending on the type of soil (only a competent person can classify soil) What Should You Do Before Working in a Trench?» Notify all Regional Notification Centers and all underground utility owners» Notify two working days before starting the work.» Make sure the contractor has marked all utilities before digging» Make sure the competent person say it s OK to work in

14 What Should You Do Before Working in a Trench Continued» Make sure equipment, like water pumps and ventilators, are in good condition» Make sure there is a ladder within 25 so you can get in and out» If bad air is expected, make sure there is a rescue plan Four Basic Ways to Support a Trench» Sloping» Benching» Shoring» Shielding Sloping» Soil angled to increase stability

15 Benching» Steps in trench wall Shoring» A support system made of posts, wales, struts, and sheeting» Hydraulic shoring (shown here) is very common Shielding» A protective frame or box is used as a trench shield system

16 Access and Egress» There must be a stairway, ladder, or ramp in excavations 4 or more deep» It must be within 25 of the workers» Ladder should extend 3 above the top of the trench Find the Hazard in This Picture Unsafe Trench» There is no shoring» We can t see if there is a way to safely enter or leave the trench» Backhoe should not be on top of the trench» Workers should be protected from equipment that could pose a hazard by falling or rolling into excavations

17 Find the Hazard in This Picture Unsafe Spoil Pile» The spoil pile is required to be at least 2 feet from the edge of the trench and/or retained to prevent it from falling into the trench Find the Hazard in This Picture

18 Hazardous Trench This trench has:» Inadequate sloping» No shoring» No trench shield Excavation Rescue» Excavation rescue must be done carefully because rescue operations might: cause additional caveins create more soil pressure on buried victim injure the victim more severely Other Caught - in/between Hazards» Caught-in machinery or mechanical equipment» Pinned between equipment and a solid object (wall or equipment)» Equipment service and maintenance» Rollovers

19 Examples of Mechanical and Moving Parts» Saws» Presses» Conveyors» Bending, rolling, or shaping machines» Powered hand tools» Forklifts How Can Workers Be Protected from Moving Parts or Equipment? Machine Guards

20 What Precautions Should You Take When Making Repairs? Lockout/ Blockout OSHA says that employers should:» Set up a written lockout/ blockout program to make sure equipment is disconnected and locked before it is repaired» Train you to use the program Roll Over» Have you, or anyone you know, experienced a vehicle or equipment rollover?» What happened?

21 What You Can do to Prevent a Roll Over» Don t work parallel to steep grades, embankments, or unstable soil.» Use equipment with a ROPS, and fasten the seatbelt.» If rolling over, don t jump out if the vehicle has a ROPS and seatbelt.» You have a better chance to ride it out with a ROPS and your seat belt fastened Caught - in/between Hazard Summary» Trench protection is required for 5 ft. deep or more» Methods of trench protection sloping, benching, shoring, shielding» Trench inspections must be conducted by a competent person» Only those who are trained and equipped should perform trench rescues» Use lockout/blockout procedures when servicing or repairing machines» Use heavy equipment that has a ROPS and fasten the seatbelt Caught-in/between Hazards: Tips and Feedback» What tips do you have to help prevent accidents from being caught-in/ between moving equipment on the job?» What is your employer already doing to prevent these accidents?» What else do you think should be done?

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