Excavation and Trenching Policy University of Wisconsin-Platteville Reviewed 4/2016

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1 Excavation and Trenching Policy University of Wisconsin-Platteville Reviewed 4/ Purpose The purpose of this program is to provide compliance comparable to the OSHA regulations codified as 29 CFR Subpart P- Excavations. This program applies to all excavations or trenching work that is to be performed on the UW-Platteville campus and is performed by either employees of UW-Platteville or by other parties that are selected to perform the excavation work on campus. 2.0 Procedure to Follow For Excavations and Trenching on University Grounds: 1) Obtain a work permit from the University s Physical Plant. Obtain a confined space entry permit if the conditions require it. 2) Notify City of Platteville Street Department if the excavation or trench crosses city streets or sidewalks. Should notify at least 72 hours in advance. 3) Layout the area where the work is to be performed. Mark with white paint. 4) Locate all Utilities within and surrounding the work area. Utilities will mark out the lines if they are notified at least 72 hours ahead. Know the color code for the different utilities. Digger s Hotline is ) Plan for hazards that might be encountered during the excavation or trenching activity. 6) Erect barricades around the work area to prevent traffic from entering. This includes vehicular and foot traffic. 7) Required safety equipment: a. Reflective Vests all employees must wear when exposed to vehicular traffic. b. Hard Hat all employees on all excavations. c. Protective Footwear all employees on all excavations. d. Eye Protection all employees on all excavations. e. Hearing Protection all employees when the noise level is above 85 db. 8) Job-specific safety equipment: a. Respirator all employees inside the excavation or trench where it is a hazardous atmosphere.

2 b. Safety Harnesses and tie off points - all employees when there is a fall hazard. 9) Follow all related University policies and OSHA Regulations that apply. 10) Fill out safety checklist. (See Appendix C) 3.0 Soil Classifications: The type of soil that is involved in the excavation should be identified in advance to digging the excavation. This is to be done to ensure that the right slope requirements are used or that benching will be used. Soil Classification Description Sloping Requirements Type A Type A consists of hardpan and Slope of ¾ to1 max. clays. Type B Type B consists of loam, sandy Slope of 1 to 1 max loam, silt, silty loam and angular gravel. Type C Type C consists of sands and other Slope of 1 ½ to 1 max loose materials. Stable Rock Stable Rock is rock Can be Vertical *The sloping requirements are for excavations less than 20 feet in depth. **Bench dimensions should be are based on 4 feet dimensions max. If there is more than one type of soil in the excavation: Types of Soil Sloping Requirements Type A over Type B Slope of 1 to 1 max- both types Type A over Type C Slope of 1 ½ to 1 max- both types Type B over Type A Slope of 1 to 1 for B and ¾ to 1 for A Type B over Type C Slope of 1 ½ to 1 max both types Type C over Type A Slope of 1 ½ to l for C and ¾ to 1 for A Type C over Type B Slope of 1 ½ to 1 for C and 1 to 1 for B Example of Sloping: Example of Benching: Soil Type A

3 Soil Type A Why to Use Sloping and Benching: Sloping and Benching are used in excavations and trenches because soil can be very heavy. The weight for each cubic foot of soil can weigh 100 lbs. or more. The average cave-in/collapse is about 2.5 cubic yards or about 61.5 cubic feet. This means that the average size cave-in/collapse can weigh as much as 6100 lbs. 4. OSHA Requirements for Excavations: Type of Requirement Access and Egress Material Piles and Equipment Vehicular Traffic Warning Systems Description There shall be an exit located so that an employee has no more than 25 feet of horizontal travel to the exit. The exits can consist of ramps and ladders. Ramps shall be constructed so they are stable and have a gradual slope. Ladders shall be in good condition and extend above the edge of the excavation by at least 3 feet. Shall be provided if the excavation is 4 feet in depth or more. All material piles shall be placed at least 2 feet from the edge of the excavation in a manner that it does not fall back into the excavation. Equipment shall also be kept at least 2 feet away from the excavation as to prevent the possibility of the equipment falling into the excavation. Barricades shall be erected to keep vehicular traffic away from the excavation. Employees shall also wear reflective safety vests when vehicular traffic is present in the area. Warning systems for moving equipment where the operator cannot see the edge of the excavation. The systems shall consist of hand signals, barricade and stop logs. The operator has to know what meanings of the hand signals Reference Standard (c)(2) (j)(2) (d) (f)

4 Oxygen Deficiency that he is receiving. Barricades and stop logs shall be located so that the equipment will not fall into the excavation. Where the level of oxygen is expected to be below 19.5% or where there is a hazardous atmosphere. Shall be tested before any employee enters the excavation if it is more than 4 feet in depth (g)(1)(i) Water Accumulation Stability of Adjacent Structures Falling Into The Excavation Inspections Workers shall not enter an excavation where water has accumulated. Workers can enter the excavation once water removal has started and there is no sign of a collapse. Workers can also enter the excavation once the level of the water has been controlled. Dikes or drainage ditches shall be constructed when the excavation interferes with the natural drainage its surroundings. This is done to prevent the water from entering the excavation. Support systems shall be constructed where excavations could possibly affect the stability of adjacent buildings, foundations, and sidewalks. This shall be done by support systems to prevent the underpinning of the structure adjacent to the excavation. Employees shall be protected from falling into the excavation if the excavation is more than 6 feet in depth. This shall be done by means of a fall protection system or by a guardrail type of system to keep employees away from the edge of the excavation. Inspections shall occur when there is an acceptable risk that a cave-in or collapse could occur while employees are in the excavation. This is to be performed by a competent person. This shall also be performed when there is standing water in the excavation. Inspections also shall occur after freezing and thawing cycles. Also they will occur at the beginning and throughout the day. If there is a hazardous situation present, then no employee shall enter the excavation until the necessary precautions have been taken to ensure their safety (h) (i) (h)(7) (k)

5 5.0 Shielding and Protection Systems There are different types of shielding and protection systems to protect employees working in an excavation or trench. They are typically used in trenching because sloping and benching will not work due to constraints of the work area. Trench boxes are made of steel and shoring systems can be made of wood, steel, and hydraulically operated. Trench boxes and shoring systems must be free of damage, properly maintained, and compliant with OSHA Regulation For excavations over 20 feet in depth, the protection system must be designed by a profession engineer. Protective systems could also include shoring systems that support adjacent structures from falling into the excavation. Support systems must be designed by a professional engineer to ensure that the proper requirements have been met to carry the load. 6.0 Examples of Meeting OSHA Requirements: Type of Requirement Access and Egress Vehicular Traffic Warning Systems Oxygen Deficiency Water Accumulation Stability of Adjacent Structures Example of Meeting The Requirement A 50 foot long trench would require 3 exits. One at each end and one in the middle. The ladders would stick out of the trench by at least 3 feet. Barricades would consist of barrels and flags tied between them. Could also consist of wooden barricades that would close off the whole area. Warning systems to keep equipment away from the edge of the excavation or trench could consist of stakes with flags stretched between them. Could consist of a person that signals when they are getting too close to the edge or even logs or large pieces of wood that is laid down 2 feet from the edge. Testing with a tri-gas meter would qualify to test for hazardous atmospheres that could be present in the trench or excavation. Control water accumulation in the excavation or trench be removing or controlling the level of water by a pump. If using a pump though, make sure that it does not cause a hazardous atmosphere to occur. The stability of adjacent structures can be achieved by using an engineer designed and approved shoring or support system. It is critical that the shoring or support system is installed according to the engineer s instructions. 7.0 Hazards: 1) Underground Utilities: Locate all utilities located within and surrounding the work area. Utilities can pose hazards for what they are designed to carry. Electric lines can cause electrocution and shock type of injuries when found while excavating. Gas lines can cause a gas leaks, fires and explosions. Steam lines can

6 release hot steam that can cause burn types of injuries. Communication lines can be severed by the excavating equipment. Water lines can be severed and cause the excavation to flood with water. Sewer lines can release gases when opened and also seep or flood into the excavation. Color Red Yellow Orange Blue Green White Utility Electric Lines Gas, Oil, Steam Lines Communication Lines Water Lines Sewer Lines Proposed Work Area *All utilities are located a minimum of 18 inches below ground. **Digger s Hotline: , call at least 72 hours in advance. 2) Cave-ins & Collapses: Cave-ins and collapses can occur at any time without any warning. There are many different causes for cave-ins and collapses. Those causes range from ground vibration, layered soils, fissured soils, presence of water, material and machinery to close to the edge. Each cause of a cave-in or collapse has its own characteristics and is one of several types. These types of cave-ins and collapses are the most frequent kinds of accidents that are involved in excavation or trenching. Types of Cave-ins or Collapses Spoil Pile Slide Shear Wall Collapse Belly Slough Causes of Cave-ins or Collapses Occurs when excavated material is piled too close to the edge of the excavation. Can be caused by vibration of nearby equipment or vehicular traffic. Can suddenly occur. Occurs mostly in clay and layered soils. This is when the wall of the excavation falls into the trench. Can be caused by ground vibration of nearby equipment or vehicular traffic. Can suddenly occur. Can occur from water seeping or running into the excavation. Occurs when there is water in the excavation. The water will saturate the soil causing it to be weaker and fall into the excavation. Can suddenly occur. Signs of Potential Cave-ins or Collapses Fissures or cracks in the soil of the wall. Loose material spilling over the edge into the excavation. Fissures or cracks on the surface on the pile of material. May be small or large. Fissures or cracks appear on the face of the wall. May be small or large. Small chunks of earth are peeling off of the wall. Soil will slowly fall away from the walls. Saturated soil will appear darker in color usually.

7 Lip Slide Can occur from water seeping or running into the excavation. Occurs when the top edge of the excavation falls in to the excavation. Usually caused by material or machinery too close to the edge. Can be caused by ground vibration of nearby equipment or vehicular traffic. Can suddenly occur. Fissures or cracks in the upper edge of excavation. Fissures or cracks appearing on the surface alongside of the excavation. 3) Struck By This hazard is caused most often by an employee who mistakenly enters the working area of the equipment being used. This can happen to any employee or visitor to the work area that do not realize they are in a do not enter zone. Also occurs when the operator of the equipment looses track of an employee and mistakenly goes in the direction of the employee. 4) Falling Debris This type of hazard most frequently occurs when material falls back into the excavation or when it is being piled. This occurs from soil falling out of the bucket of the excavator for example. This can also occur if large chunks of material fall down into the excavation. The larger chunks of material usually roll down to the bottom of the pile and possibly further before they stop. 5) Fall Hazard This type of hazard usually occurs when a person is walking too close to the edge of the excavation. This occurs when there are no protective barriers around the edge of the excavation. 6) Hazardous Atmosphere This type of hazard occurs when the air conditions inside of the excavation or trench is not suitable for occupancy for a person. The atmosphere can be hazardous by many different causes. These causes are low oxygen levels, presence of a poisonous or harmful gas and the presence of sewer gases. 7) Confined Spaces Excavations and trenches can be considered confined spaces. Employees shall be trained according to the UW-Platteville confined space policy and shall be compliant with OSHA Regulations concerning confined space entry. Employees shall be familiar with the hazards that occur when working in a confined space. 8.0 Emergency Response: 1) Call for emergency personnel to respond. a. Remain calm and give them as much information about the situation as you know.

8 b. If you do not know the answer for a question that is asked of you, just say I don t know. Don t make anything up. c. Do not rush into the area unless you are sure that the environment is habitable for human occupancy. 2) Notify Dean Sankey about the situation. 3) Notify Campus Police to help with the response. Either by controlling vehicular and foot traffic or by rendering assistance to the emergency response personnel. 4) For an emergency involving a utility, make sure to notify the utility company whose line has been affected. 5) Only personnel performing or assisting with the response should be in the vicinity of the emergency.

9 Appendix A Definitions According to OSHA: Excavation - any man-made cut, cavity, trench, or depression in an earth surface, formed by earth removal. Cave-in - the separation of a mass of soil or rock material from the side of an excavation and its sudden movement into the excavation, either by falling or sliding, in sufficient quantity so that it could entrap, bury, or other wise injure and immobilize a person. Benching - a method of protecting employees from cave-ins by excavating the sides of an excavation to form one or a series of horizontal levels or steps, usually with vertical or near-vertical surfaces between levels. Competent person - one who is capable of identifying existing and predictable hazards in the surroundings, or working conditions which are unsanitary, hazardous, or dangerous to employees, and who has authorization to take prompt corrective measures to eliminate them. Protective system - a method of protecting employees from cave-ins, from material that could fall or roll from an excavation face or into an excavation, or from the collapse of adjacent structures. Protective systems include support systems, sloping and benching systems, shield systems, and other systems that provide the necessary protection. Sloping - a method of protecting employees from cave-ins by excavating to form sides of an excavation that are inclined away from the excavation so as to prevent cave-ins. The angle of incline required to prevent a cave-in varies with differences in such factors as the soil type, environmental conditions of exposure, and application of surcharge loads. Trench - a narrow excavation (in relation to its length) made below the surface of the ground. In general, the depth is greater than the width, but the width of a trench (measured at the bottom) is not greater than 15 feet.

10 Appendix B References 1) Occupational Safety and Health Administration. OSHA 29 CFR 1926 Construction Industry Regulations Manual. Subpart P to and Appendix A to Appendix. Retrieved from umber=1926&v_description=construction+-+%28standards+-+29+cfr%29. Accessed February 4, ) University of Oregon Facilities Services Safety Office. (November 14, 2001) Excavation Procedure, Retrieved from Accessed February 11, ) Washington Sate University. (1992) Safety Policies and Procedures Manual, Trenching and Excavation, Retrieved from Trenching_and_Excavation.htm. Accessed February 4, ) The Catholic University of America. University Policies and Procedures, Excavation and Trenching. Retrieved from Accessed February 4, ) University of California, Irvine. (February 2004) Environmental Health and Safety, Trenching and Shoring Program. Retrieved from Accessed February 4, ) Contractor s Jobsite Checklist. Retrieved from t.htm. Accessed February 11, 2006.

11 Appendix C Excavation and Trenching Checklist UW-Platteville Site Location: Filled Out By: Soil Type: Soil Classification: Excavation Depth: Type Protection System Used: Date: Time: Excavation Width: All Fields Must Be Filled Out With YES, NO, or N/A for Not Applicable General Site Conditions 1 Has the excavation, adjacent structures, adjacent areas, and protective systems been inspected? 2 Have surface and subsurface encumbrances been supported or removed from the excavation or trench 3 Are employees protected from falling material? 4 Are spoils, materials, and equipment being kept at least 2 feet from the edge of the excavation or trench? 5 Has the proper protection equipment been provided for the employees? 6 Are all employees utilizing the PPE that has been provided? 7 Have employees been trained in confined space entry and exit? 8 Are barricades being utilized to keep vehicular and foot traffic away from the excavation or trench? 9 Are employees using reflective vests when being exposed to vehicular traffic? 10 Are barricades being utilized to keep employees from falling into the excavation or trench? 11 Is there a warning system in place to keep equipment from getting to close to the edge of the excavation or trench? 12 Are employees standing away from the vehicles being loaded or unloaded? 13 Are employees keeping clear of moving equipment that is being operated? 14 Are employees qualified in operating the equipment being used in the excavation or trench? 15 Are employees prohibited from either walking under or being under suspended loads? 16 Are employees prohibited from working directly above other employees? 17 Are the supported systems that are being used been inspected and maintained? 18 Have the damaged support systems been removed from service? Y,N,N/A

12 Utility Conditions 19 Have the Utility companies been informed? 20 Have the utilities been properly located and marked? 21 Are the shut-off valves or disconnections for the utilities been located? 22 Have the utilities that are in the excavation or trench been supported, protected, or removed? Access and Egress 23 Are the exits located so that no employee has to travel more than 25 feet? 24 If ladders are used, do they extend 3 feet or more above the edge of the excavation or trench? 25 Have the structural ramps being used by equipment been designed by a professional engineer? 26 Are the structural ramps in good condition? 27 Are employees protected from cave-ins/collapses when entering or exiting an excavation or trench? Wet Conditions 28 If water is present in the excavation or trench, has the proper steps been taken to protect employees from cave-ins or collapses? 29 If water removal equipment is being utilized, is it working properly? 30 Has surface water been diverted from entering the excavation or is it being controlled? 31 If using a gasoline engine pump, is there proper ventilation being provided? Hazardous Atmosphere Conditions 32 Has testing been done for hazardous atmospheres where there is a possibility of one occurring? 33 If it is a hazardous atmosphere, is continuous monitoring being performed for the protection of the employees located within the excavation or trench? 34 Has the proper protection been provided for employees working inside of the excavation or trench? 35 Have employees been trained on hazardous atmospheres? 36 Have employees been trained on the proper PPE and in emergency response situations? Corrective Actions and Remarks: (For any number that was answered as NO, state the number and why was it marked as that.)

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