Chapter 13 Study Questions

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1 Chapter 13 Study Questions Multiple Choice Identify the letter of the choice that best completes the statement or answers the question. 1. Which element has a full outermost energy level containing only two electrons? a. oxygen (O) c. fluorine (F) b. hydrogen (H) d. helium (He) 2. Which of the following describes what happens when an atom becomes an ion with a 2 charge? a. The atom gains 2 protons. c. The atom gains 2 electrons. b. The atom loses 2 protons. d. The atom loses 2 electrons. 3. The properties of ductility and malleability are associated with which type of bonds? a. ionic c. metallic b. covalent d. none of the above 4. In which area of the periodic table do you find elements whose atoms easily gain electrons? a. across the top two rows c. on the right side b. across the bottom row d. on the left side 5. What type of element tends to lose electrons when it forms bonds? a. metal c. nonmetal b. metalloid d. noble gas 6. Which pair of atoms can form an ionic bond? a. sodium (Na) and potassium (K) c. fluorine (F) and chlorine (Cl) b. potassium (K) and fluorine (F) d. sodium (Na) and neon (Ne) 7. The number of is most important in determining how an atom will bond. a. protons c. electrons in the innermost energy level b. neutrons d. electrons in the outermost energy level 8. Which type of element is most likely to gain electrons when it forms bonds? a. metal c. nonmetal b. metalloid d. noble gas 9. Why do atoms have no charge? a. The number of protons is equal to the number of neutrons. b. The number of electrons is equal to the number of neutrons. c. The number of protons is equal to the number of electrons. d. There is an equal number of neutrons, protons, and electrons. 10. Which of the following elements does NOT exist as a diatomic molecule? a. oxygen c. nitrogen b. argon d. iodine 11. are formed by atoms losing electrons. a. Negative ions c. Elements b. Positive ions d. Compounds 12. Which of the following is NOT a metallic property? a. a hard and brittle texture c. the ability to be flattened and shaped b. high density d. the ability to conduct electricity 13. The atoms of which of the following elements combine in different patterns to form the substances sugar, alcohol, and citric acid? a. hydrogen, helium, and oxygen c. hydrogen, nitrogen, and oxygen b. hydrogen, carbon, and oxygen d. helium, carbon, and nitrogen

2 14. The number of electrons in an atom can be determined from the of the element. a. atomic mass c. atomic number b. mass number d. bonding number 15. Atoms and the chemical bonds that connect them cannot be observed with your eyes, so it is necessary to use a a. microscope. c. model. b. theory. d. Both (b) and (c) 16. Electrons in an atom are organized a. in energy levels. c. in chains. b. in nuclei. d. None of the above 17. The levels farther from the nucleus contain electrons that have levels closer to the nucleus. a. less energy than c. the same energy as b. half the energy of d. more energy than 18. The first energy level is closest to the nucleus and can hold up to electrons. a. 2 c. 6 b. 4 d Electrons will enter the second energy level after the electron enters the first energy level. a. first c. third b. second d. fourth 20. The second energy level can hold up to electrons. a. 2 c. 6 b. 4 d Most atoms form bonds using only the electrons in their energy level. a. innermost c. outermost b. fullest d. first 22. Atoms of elements in Groups 1 and 2 have their group number. a. the same number of valence electrons as b. no general rule relating their valence electrons to c. 10 fewer valence electrons than d. None of the above 23. Atoms of elements in Groups 3 12 have their group number. a. the same number of valence electrons as b. no general rule relating their valence electrons to c. 10 fewer valence electrons than d. None of the above 24. Atoms of elements in Groups have their group number. a. the same number of valence electrons as b. no general rule relating their valence electrons to c. 10 fewer valence electrons than d. None of the above 25. Oxygen is in Group 16. How many valence electrons does oxygen have? a. 2 c. 8 b. 6 d Sodium is in Group 1. How many valence electrons does sodium have? a. 1 c. 8 b. 2 d Chlorine is in Group 17. How many valence electrons does chlorine have? a. 5 c. 17

3 b. 7 d Neon is in Group 18. How many valence electrons does helium have? a. 2 c. 10 b. 8 d Carbon is in Group 14. How many valence electrons does carbon have? a. 4 c. 12 b. 6 d Atoms of do not normally form chemical bonds. a. noble gases c. elements in Group 18 b. halogens d. Both (a) and (c) 31. Atoms to have a filled outermost energy level. a. split c. are attracted to protons in order b. bond d. None of the above 32. Atoms bond by electrons. a. gaining c. sharing b. losing d. All of the above 33. The force of attraction between oppositely charged ions is a(n) bond. a. atomic c. covalent b. ionic d. metallic 34. The force of attraction between the nuclei of atoms and the electrons shared by the atoms is a(n) bond. a. metallic c. covalent b. ionic d. atomic 35. The joining of atoms to form new substances is a. chemical bonding. c. electron bonding. b. valence electrons. d. None of the above 36. The force of attraction between a positively charged metal ion and the electrons in a metal is a(n) bond. a. ionic c. covalent b. atomic d. metallic 37. An example of electrostatic attraction in which opposite electric charges stick together is a(n) bond. a. covalent c. atomic b. ionic d. metallic 38. An atom is neutral because the number of a. electrons equals the number of neutrons. b. electrons equals the number of protons. c. protons equals the number of neutrons. d. None of the above 39. A molecule is a neutral group of atoms held together by bonds. a. atomic c. covalent b. ionic d. metallic 40. A transfer of electrons between atoms changes the number of electrons in each atom, while the number of protons a. decreases. c. increases. b. stays the same. d. None of the above 41. Atoms that form positive ions. a. lose electrons c. gain electrons b. lose protons d. gain protons 42. Atoms that form negative ions. a. gain protons c. gain electrons

4 b. lose protons d. lose electrons 43. When bond with other atoms, they tend to form positive ions. a. metal atoms c. nonmetal atoms b. metalloid atoms d. halogen atoms 44. A sodium ion has a charge of 1+ because it contains a. 1 more proton than electrons. c. 1 more electron than neutrons. b. 1 more electron than protons. d. Both (b) and (c) 45. How do a sodium atom and a sodium ion differ? a. A sodium atom has one more electron. b. A sodium ion has one fewer electron. c. A sodium atom has no charge, and a sodium ion has a 1+ charge. d. all of the above 46. During chemical changes, an aluminum atom can lose its 3 electrons in the third energy level to another atom. What is the symbol of the resulting aluminum ion? a. Al c. Al 3 b. Al-3 d. Al Removing electrons from atoms of metals requires energy. a. no c. a large amount of b. a small amount of d. None of the above 48. Removing electrons from atoms of nonmetals requires energy. a. no c. a large amount of b. a small amount of d. None of the above 49. The ending, or suffix, used for the names of the negative ions formed when atoms gain electrons is a. -ic. c. -ide. b. -ous. d. -ol. 50. When a chlorine atom becomes Cl, it in the third energy level. a. loses one electron c. loses one proton b. gains one electron d. gains one proton 51. Which of the following is the correct electron-dot diagram for a water molecule? 52. Which of the following is the correct electron-dot diagram for a diatomic molecule of hydrogen? 53. The scientific understanding of metallic bonding is that metal atoms a. form a crystal much like the ions associated with ionic bonding. b. have valence electrons that move throughout the metal from the energy level of one atom to the energy levels of the atoms nearby. c. get so close together that their outermost energy levels overlap. d. All of the above 54. Metal ions in a metal are held together because metallic bonds a. are parallel to one another.

5 b. are perpendicular to one another. c. exist between oppositely charged ions. d. extend throughout the metal in all directions. 55. Ionic compounds break when hit with a hammer because a. the outermost energy levels of the ions overlap. b. the electrons move into new positions. c. the shared electrons cannot move. d. neither the positive ions nor the negative ions are free to move. 56. Diatomic molecules consist of two atoms joined by a(n) bond. a. atomic c. covalent b. ionic d. metallic 57. What is the charge of an ion that contains 16 protons and 18 electrons? a. 2 c. 1+ b. 1 d Which of the following would most likely be a brittle solid at room temperature? a. ionic compound c. metallic compound b. covalent compound d. nonmetallic compound 59. Which of the following usually break apart when hit with a hammer? a. ionic compound c. metal b. covalent compound d. none of the above 60. are arranged in a repeating three-dimensional pattern called a crystal lattice. a. Chemical bonds c. Molecules b. Covalent bonds d. Ions 61. bonds are commonly represented with electron-dot diagrams. a. Metallic c. Covalent b. Nonmetallic d. Ionic 62. A single protein can have a chain of 7,000 atoms of carbon and nitrogen with atoms of other elements bonded to it. What type of bond joins these atoms? a. metallic bond c. covalent bond b. nonmetallic bond d. ionic bond 63. What type of bonds are present in table sugar, C 12 H 22 O 11? a. nonmetallic bonds c. covalent bonds b. metallic bonds d. ionic bonds 64. What type of bonds are present in a staple and allow it to bend with out breaking? a. nonmetallic bonds c. covalent bonds b. metallic bonds d. ionic bonds Use the periodic table below to answer the questions that follow. The Periodic Table of the Elements H Hydrogen He Helium Li Lithium Be Beryllium B Boron C Carbon N Nitrogen O Oxygen F Fluorine Ne Neon Na Sodium Mg Magnesium Al Aluminum Si Silicon P Phosphorus S Sulfur Cl Chlorine Ar Argon 39.9

6 19 K Potassium 39.1 Ca Calcium 40.1 Sc Scandium 45.0 Ti Titanium 47.9 V Vanadium 50.9 Cr Chromium 52.0 Mn Manganese 54.9 Fe Iron 55.8 Co Cobalt 58.9 Ni Nickel 58.7 Cu Copper 63.5 Zn Zinc 65.4 Ga Gallium 69.7 Ge Germanium 72.6 As Arsenic 74.9 Se Selenium 79.0 Br Bromine 79.9 Kr Krypton Rb Rubidium Sr Strontium Y Yttrium Zr Zirconium Nb Niobium Mo Molybdenum Tc Technetium (97.9) 44 Ru Ruthenium Rh Rhodium Pd Palladium Ag Silver Cd Cadmium In Indium Sn Tin Sb Antimony Te Tellurium I Iodine Xe Xenon Cs Cesium Ba Barium La Lanthanum Hf Hafnium Ta Tantalum W Tungsten Re Rhenium Os Osmium Ir Iridium Pt Platinum Au Gold Hg Mercury Tl Thallium Pb Lead Bi Bismuth Po Polonium (209.0) 85 At Astatine (210.0) 86 Rn Radon (222.0) 7 87 Fr Francium (223.0) 88 Ra Radium (226.0) 89 Ac Actinium (227.0) 104 Rf Rutherfordium (261.1) 105 Db Dubnium (262.1) 106 Sg Seaborgium (263.1) 107 Bh Bohrium (262.1) 108 Hs Hassium (265) 109 Mt Meitnerium (266) 110 Uun Ununnilium (271) 111 Uuu Unununium (272) 112 Uub Ununbium (277) 114 Uuq Ununquadium (285) 116 Uuh Ununhexium (289) 118 Uuo Ununoctium (293) 58 Ce Cerium Pr Praseodymium Nd Neodymium Pm Promethium (144.9) 62 Sm Samarium Eu Europium Gd Gadolinium Tb Terbium Dy Dysprosium Ho Holmium Er Erbium Tm Thulium Yb Ytterbium Lu Lutetium Th Thorium Pa Protactinium U Uranium Np Neptunium (237.0) 94 Pu Plutonium Am Americium (243.1) 96 Cm Curium (247.1) 97 Bk Berkelium (247.1) 98 Cf Californium (251.1) 99 Es Einsteinium (252.1) 100 Fm Fermium (257.1) 101 Md Mendelevium (258.1) 102 No Nobelium (259.1) 103 Lr Lawrencium (262.1) 65. Which of the following is the correct electron-dot diagram of a chlorine atom? 66. Which of the following is the correct electron-dot diagram of an oxygen atom? 67. Which of the following is the correct electron-dot diagram of an atom of the noble gas argon? 68. Which of the following is the correct electron-dot diagram of a helium atom? 69. Which of the following compounds has a high melting point and boiling point?

7 a. metallic compound c. covalent compound b. ionic compound d. valence compound 70. Which of the following is NOT an example of a covalent molecule? a. diatomic molecule c. table salt b. gasoline d. table sugar 71. What is the charge of an ion that contains 12 protons and 10 electrons? a. 2 c. 1+ b. 1 d The element calcium (Ca) is in Group 2. How many valence electrons does each of its atoms have? a. 1 c. 6 b. 2 d The element potassium (K) is in Group 1. How many valence electrons does each of its atoms have? a. 1 c. 6 b. 2 d The element chlorine (Cl) is in Group 17. How many valence electrons does each of its atoms have? a. 1 c. 7 b. 2 d Which of the following is the LEAST likely to form chemical bonds? a. an atom with 2 valence electrons c. an atom with 7 valence electrons b. an atom with 4 valence electrons d. an atom with 8 valence electrons 76. Which of the following atoms does NOT have a full set of electrons? a. hydrogen c. neon b. helium d. argon 77. Which of the following bonds are found in molecules? a. covalent bonds c. metallic bonds b. ionic bonds d. metalloid bonds 78. Gold can be pounded out to make a foil only a few atoms thick because of a. covalent bonds. c. ionic bonds. b. metallic bonds. d. valence bonds. 79. Static cling occurs when opposite charges are attracted to one another. This is similar to a. metallic bonding. c. ionic bonding. b. covalent bonding. d. atomic bonding. 80. A potassium ion has 19 protons and 18 electrons, so it has a charge of a. 1 c. 19+ b. 1+ d When a sodium atom and a chlorine atom bond, the atom loses an electron, and the atom gains an electron. a. sodium; chlorine b. chlorine; sodium c. A sodium atom forms a covalent bond with a chlorine atom, so neither atom loses or gains an electron. d. Not enough information is provided. Short Answer 82. Draw electron-dot diagrams for each of the following atoms, and state how many bonds it will have to make to fill its outer energy level. a. sulfur (S)

8 b. nitrogen (N) c. neon (Ne) d. iodine (I) e. silicon (Si) 83. Does the substance being hit in the picture below contain ionic or metallic bonds? Explain. Look at the picture of the wooden pencil below and answer the following questions. 84. In which part of the pencil are metallic bonds found? 85. List three materials composed of molecules with covalent bonds. 86. Identify two differences between the properties of the metallically bonded material and one of the covalently bonded materials. 87. Use this diagram of bottled water to answer the following question. Which of the labeled materials in the diagram is/are formed from covalently bonded atoms?

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