3.06 Metals, Nonmetals and Metalloids

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1 3.06 Metals, Nonmetals and Metalloids

2 Metals Approximately three-fourths of all the elements on the periodic table are metals 3 different major groups of metals on the periodic table: alkali metals, alkaline earth metals, and transition metals

3 Metals Share Certain Characteristics Shiny and silver in color Most are solids under normal conditions Metals share the property of malleability - can be pounded into shapes Ex: Gold, copper, and aluminum Most metals are also ductile - can be pulled into a long wire Most metals are good conductors - they will transmit heat and electricity easily

4 1. Metal wires form the core of most power cords. Which physical qualities of metals make them good materials to put inside power cords?

5 2. Most types of jewelry incorporate metals. Which physical qualities of metals make them good materials for making jewelry?

6 3. Use your periodic table to identify the metal in the following list: krypton, sulfur, phosphorus, tellurium, gallium, selenium. Explain your answer.

7 4. The properties of a metal depend largely on the way the metal atoms interact with one another. Which of the following elements probably has atomic interactions that are most similar to those of gold: potassium, helium, or nitrogen? Explain your answer.

8 Nonmetals Right side of the periodic table Poor conductors Not shiny brittle or dull when in solid form Lower densities, boiling points, and melting points than metals

9

10 1. Xenon (Xe), an element found in some kinds of light bulbs, is an odorless, colorless gas at room temperature. It is inert, so it doesn t react easily with other elements. Is xenon a metal or a nonmetal? Answer without looking at a periodic table. Explain your answer.

11 2. Use the periodic table at the back of the book to identify the three nonmetals in the following list: ytrium, iodine, manganese, uranium, helium, hydrogen, ruthenium, strontium.

12 3. Challenge A scientist is studying a sample of an unknown element. The element is a dull, black solid at room temperature. It does not conduct heat well, and it is very brittle. Is it a metal or nonmetal? Why?

13 Metalloids A group of elements that share some properties of metals and some properties of certain nonmetals Situated between the metals and the nonmetals on the periodic table occur in a stair-shaped arrangement on the periodic table

14

15 Metalloids may have properties similar to those of metals or to those of certain nonmetals. Under some conditions - show properties similar to those of a metal Under different conditions - more similar to one of the nonmetals Ex: Silicon (Si) Used in computer chips and other high-tech applications

16 Properties of metalloids Fall in between the Properties of Metals and Nonmetals Metalloids are better conductors than nonmetals, worse conductors than metals Most metalloids are solids like metals. These solids tend to be brittle and not very shiny like nonmetals Metalloids are malleable and ductile but not quite as malleable and ductile as metals

17 1. Use the periodic table at the back of the book to put the following elements in order from the best conductor of electricity to the poorest conductor of electricity: selenium (Se), tin (Sn), antimony (Sb).

18 2. Which element is probably a better conductor of heat, silicon (Si) or phosphorous (P)? Explain your answer. (Hint: Examine a periodic table.)

19 3. Use the periodic table to put the following elements in order from least malleable to most malleable: nickel (Ni), germanium (Ge), iodine (I). Explain your answer.

20 4. Challenge A scientist is studying a sample of an unknown substance. The scientist determines that the substance is a metalloid with four valence electrons. Which two elements could the unknown substance be? Explain your answer. (Hint: Use a periodic table. Remember that the group number of an element indicates the number of valence electrons it has.)

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