# UNIX Load Average Part 2:

Save this PDF as:

Size: px
Start display at page:

## Transcription

1 UNIX Load Average Part 2: Not Your Average Average This is the second in a two part-series where we explore the use of averages in performance analysis and capacity planning. Part 1 described some simple experiments that revealed how the load averages (the LA Triplets) are calculated in the UNIX kernel. In Part 2, I ll compare the UNIX load averaging approach with other averaging methods as they apply to capacity planning and performance analysis. About the Author Neil J. Gunther, M.Sc., Ph.D., is an internationally known computer performance and IT researcher who founded Performance Dynamics in Dr. Gunther was awarded Best Technical Paper at CMG 96 and received the prestigious A.A. Michelson Award at CMG 08. In 2009 he was elected Senior Member of both ACM and IEEE. His latest thinking can be read on his blog at perfdynamics. blogspot.com

3 3 of 9 UNIX Load Average Part 2 where X(t) is the input raw data, Y(t - 1) is the value due to the previous smoothing iteration and Y(t) is the new smoothed value. If it looks a little incestuous, it s supposed to be. 2.1 Smooth Loads Expressing the UNIX load average method (see equation (1)) in the same format produces: load(t) = load(t-1) + EXP_R [ n(t) - load(t-1) ] (3) Eqn.(3) is equivalent to (2) if we chose EXP_R = 1 - a. The constant a is called the smoothing constant and can range between 0.0 and 1.0 (in other words, you can think of it as a percentage). EXCEL uses the terminology damping factor for the quantity (1 - a). The value of a determines the percentage by which the current smoothing iteration should for changes in the data that produced the previous smoothing iteration. Larger values of a yield a more rapid response to changes in the data but produce coarser rather than smoother resultant curves (less damped). Conversely, smaller values of a produce very smoother curves but take much longer to compensate for fluctuations in the data (more damped). So, what value of a should be used? 2.2 Critical Damping EXCEL documentation suggests 0.20 to 0.30 are ``reasonable values to choose for a. This is a patently misleading statement because it does not take into account how much variation in the data (e.g., error) you are prepared to tolerate. From the analysis in Section 1 we can now see that EXP_R plays the role of a damping factor in the UNIX load average. The UNIX load average is therefore equivalent to an exponentiallydamped moving average. The more usual moving average (of the type often used by financial analysts) is just a simple arithmetic average with over some number of data points. The following Table 1 shows the respective smoothing and damping factors that are based on the magic numbers described in Part 1.

5 5 of 9 UNIX Load Average Part Example Application To determine the steady-state average for the above time series we would first need to break up the area under the plot into set of uniform columns of equal width. The width of each column corresponds to uniform time step t. The height of each column corresponds to Q( t) the instantaneous queue length. The area of each column is given by Q( t) * t (length * height). The total area under the curve is Q( t) * t The time-averaged queue length Q (the steady-state value) is then approximated by the fraction: The longer the observation period, the more accurate the steady-state value. Fig. 2 makes this idea more explicit. It shows a time period where six request become enqueued (the black curve representing approximate columns). Figure 2: Toy model with exponential smoothing for the 1-minute load average. Superimposed over the top is the curve that corresponds to the 1-minute load average.

6 6 of 9 UNIX Load Average Part 2 Figure 3: All three load average curves. Fig. 3 shows all three load average metrics superimposed as well as the 5-second sample average. 3.3 Little s Law Consider the UNIX Timeshare scheduler. Figure 4: Simple model of UNIX scheduler. The schematic in Fig. 4 depicts the scheduler states according to the usual UNIX conventions: N: processes in the system R: running or runable processes D: uninterruptible processes S: processes in a sleep state

7 7 of 9 UNIX Load Average Part 2 Applying steady-state averages of the type defined in Section 3.1 to other well-known performance metrics, such as: Z: average time spent in sleep state X: average process completion rate S: average execution quantum (in CPU ticks) W: total time spent in both running and runable state allows us to express some very powerful relationships between them and Q (the steady-state queue length). One such relationship is Little s Law Q = X W which relates the average queue length (Q) to the average throughput (X) and the time (W): In some sense, Q is the average of the load average. These same kind of averages are used in performance analyzer tools like Pretty Damn Quick and TeamQuest Model. Note, that such insightful relationships are virtually impossible to recognize without taking steady-state averages. Little s law is a case in point. It had existed as a piece of performance folklore many years prior to 1961 when J. D. Little published his now famous proof of the relationship. 4. Summary So, what have we learnt from all this? Those three little numbers tucked away innocently in certain UNIX commands are not so trivial after all. The first point is that load in this context refers to run-queue length (i.e., the sum of the number of processes waiting in the run-queue plus the number currently executing). Therefore, the number is absolute (not relative) and thus it can be unbounded; unlike utilization (AKA ``load in queueing theory parlence). Moreover, they have to be calculated in the kernel and therefore they must be calculated efficiently. Hence, the use of fixed-point arithmetic and that gives rise to those very strange looking constants in the kernel code. At the end of Part 1 I showed you that the magic number are really just exponential decay and rise constants expressed in fixed-point notation.

8 8 of 9 UNIX Load Average Part 2 In Part 2 we found out that these constants are actually there to provide exponential smoothing of the raw instantaneous load values. More formally, the UNIX load average is an exponentially smoothed moving average function. In this way sudden changes can be damped so that they don t contribute significantly to the longer term picture. Finally, we compared the exponentially damped average with the more common type of averages that appear as metrics in benchmarks and performance models. On average, the UNIX load average metrics are certainly not your average average.

### How to Manage IT Resource Consumption

How to Manage IT Resource Consumption At an Application Level with TeamQuest Workloads In this paper, John Miecielica of Metavante, provides a step-by-step example showing how he uses TeamQuest software

### Capacity Management Reporting at Merrill Lynch

Capacity Management Reporting at Merrill Lynch A Global Perspective Using TeamQuest Software Alla Piltser, manager of the capacity planning and performance management group at Merrill Lynch, explains capacity

### Analyzing End-to-End Performance

Analyzing End-to-End Performance with TeamQuest Performance Software Measuring the performance applications deployed across a network and the components that comprise them is essential to maintaining service

### How to Do Capacity Planning

How to Do Capacity Planning It is very common for an IT organization to manage system performance in a reactionary fashion, analyzing and correcting performance problems as users report them. When problems

### Managing a Virtual Computing Environment

Managing a Virtual Computing Environment How TeamQuest Supports VMware s Virtual Machines Mainframes were once supposed to go the way of the dinosaurs, replaced by smaller, more nimble servers, but something

### MEASURING PRE-PRODUCTION APPLICATION, SYSTEM AND PERFORMANCE VOLUME STRESS TESTING WITH TEAMQUEST

WHITE PAPER IT Knowledge Exchange Series MEASURING PRE-PRODUCTION APPLICATION, SYSTEM AND PERFORMANCE VOLUME STRESS TESTING WITH TEAMQUEST A white paper on how to enhance your testing discipline Contents

### How to Measure an Elephant

How to Measure an Elephant This paper shows how to apply some of the scalability concepts introduced in the previous paper to the performance analysis of real computer systems. About the Author Neil J.

### TeamQuest Performance Software

WHITE PAPER TeamQuest Performance Software Release 10 and ITIL Version 3 TeamQuest is no stranger to service lifecycles. Our IT Service Optimization (ITSO) five-step lifecycle approach to capacity management

### Introducing a Capacity Management Maturity Model

Introducing a Capacity Management Maturity Model Business units are demanding more services and greater reliability from IT, while also trying to constrain, or even reduce, budgets. In those rare cases

### Capacity Management Is Crucial in Virtualized Environments

Capacity Management Is Crucial in Virtualized Environments Without the Right Tools, IT Service Optimization Is Tricky Server virtualization for commodity servers is one of the most rapidly adopted technologies

### IT SERVICE OPTIMIZATION AN INTRODUCTION. WHITE PAPER TeamQuest Business Intelligence Series

IT SERVICE OPTIMIZATION AN INTRODUCTION WHITE PAPER TeamQuest Business Intelligence Series Contents Summary... 2 What is ITSO... 3 ITSO Five-step Iterative Process... 3 Step One: Understand Business Objectives...

### VocaLink Mitigates Risks Associated with Application Development

CLIENT INFO AT A GLANCE VocaLink Mitigates Risks Associated with Application Development Case Study TeamQuest specializes in IT Service Optimization Client Info at a Glance Company: VocaLink Location:

### TEAMQUEST AND ITIL A SERIES OF WHITE PAPERS ON ENTERPRISE IT BEST PRACTICES

WHITE PAPER IT Knowledge Exchange Series TEAMQUEST AND ITIL A SERIES OF WHITE PAPERS ON ENTERPRISE IT BEST PRACTICES Part 2 Service Delivery The cornerstone of the ITIL framework Contents Introduction...

### VISA EUROPE USES TEAMQUEST MODEL TO MAKE BEST USE OF INVESTMENTS

CLIENT INFO AT A GLANCE CASE STUDY VISA EUROPE USES TEAMQUEST MODEL TO MAKE BEST USE OF INVESTMENTS TeamQuest specializes in IT Service Optimization CLIENT INFO AT A GLANCE Company: Visa Europe Inc. Location:

### A Leading International Clearing House Achieves Cost Avoidance Of More Than 1,000,000 In Just Six Months

CLIENT INFO AT A GLANCE A Leading International Clearing House Achieves Cost Avoidance Of More Than 1,000,000 In Just Six Months Case Study TeamQuest specializes in IT Service Optimization Client Info

### How to Get Unbelievable Load Test Results

How to Get Unbelievable Load Test Results Like the fantastic characters in a Ripley s museum, this article examines some fantastic results produced by performance experts. Come inside and see how to keep

### Linking Millions of Volunteers Over the Web

CLIENT INFO AT A GLANCE Linking Millions of Volunteers Over the Web Case Study TeamQuest specializes in IT Service Optimization Client Info at a Glance Company: Nonprofit Organization Location: Washington,

### Capacity Management Ensures Success for Enterprise Cloud Consumers

Capacity Management Ensures Success for Enterprise Cloud Consumers At one time or another in our lives, we have all looked up at the clouds; watching a neverending parade of different forms and faces that

### TeamQuest and ITIL Version 2

TeamQuest and ITIL Version 2 Part 2 Service Delivery The Cornerstone of the ITIL V2 Framework Widely adopted or considered, IT Infrastructure Library (ITIL) Version 2 is still relevant today. Yes, a refreshed

### High Performance for a High-Profile Testing Center

CLIENT INFO AT A GLANCE High Performance for a High-Profile Testing Center Case Study TeamQuest specializes in IT Service Optimization Client Info at a Glance Company: Communications Company Location:

### Alarming and Event Notification Using TeamQuest Performance Software Release 9.1

Alarming and Event Notification Using TeamQuest Performance Software Release 9.1 White Paper TQ-WP21 Rev. B Summary IT departments today are facing tough times by trying to do more with less. The IT Operations

### TELECOM FIRM ELIMINATES BOTTLENECKS AND GUARANTEES HIGH AVAILABILITY

CLIENT INFO AT A GLANCE CASE STUDY TELECOM FIRM ELIMINATES BOTTLENECKS AND GUARANTEES HIGH AVAILABILITY TeamQuest specializes in IT Service Optimization CLIENT INFO AT A GLANCE Company: Business Services

### FORTUNE 200 INSURANCE COMPANY REDUCES I.T. COSTS BY 25%

CLIENT INFO AT A GLANCE CASE STUDY FORTUNE 200 INSURANCE COMPANY REDUCES I.T. COSTS BY 25% TeamQuest specializes in IT Service Optimization CLIENT INFO AT A GLANCE Company: Fortune 200 insurance company

### USING IT ANALYTICS TO ACHIEVE BETTER BUSINESS PERFORMANCE TOP ISSUES TO CONSIDER WHEN DEPLOYING IT ANALYTICS

Using IT analytics to achieve better business performance Analytics are playing an increasingly important role in utilizing IT resources for maximum return Lisa Kelly looks at how IT analytics is rapidly

### Telecom Companies Profit as Cloud Providers

Telecom Companies Profit as Cloud Providers Most telecom providers rely on a large computing infrastructure running a diverse set of applications to deliver, manage and bill services. Transforming this

### Legislature Uses Capacity Planning Software to Optimize IT Services

CLIENT INFO AT A GLANCE Legislature Uses Capacity Planning Software to Optimize IT Services Case Study TeamQuest specializes in IT Service Optimization Client Info at a Glance Company: Legislature Location:

### How an International Domain Name Registry Stays Ahead of the Curve

CLIENT INFO AT A GLANCE How an International Domain Name Registry Stays Ahead of the Curve Case Study TeamQuest specializes in IT Service Optimization Client Info at a Glance Company: Domain Name Registry

### Fortune 200 Insurance Company Reduces IT Costs by 25%

CLIENT INFO AT A GLANCE Fortune 200 Insurance Company Reduces IT Costs by 25% Case Study TeamQuest specializes in IT Service Optimization Client Info at a Glance Company: Fortune 200 insurance company

### Commercial Clusters and Scalability

Commercial Clusters and Scalability In this paper we present an introductory analysis of throughput scalability for updateintensive workloads (such as measured by the TPC-C or TPC-W benchmarks) and how

### New Software Release: Advanced Features for IT Service Optimization

New Software Release: Advanced Features for IT Service Optimization Scott Adams Senior Software Engineer and Product Manager TeamQuest and the TeamQuest logo are registered trademarks in the US, EU and

### Financial Services Giant Optimizes, Virtualizes, and Saves Big Money

CLIENT INFO AT A GLANCE Financial Services Giant Optimizes, Virtualizes, and Saves Big Money Case Study TeamQuest specializes in IT Service Optimization Client Info at a Glance Company: Fortune 500 Financial

### Quartz Legal Terms and Conditions

Quartz Legal Terms and Conditions 1. USE OF THIS WEBSITE: This website is owned and operated by Domaine Pinnacle Inc. (collectively hereafter "Site Owner"). Your use of this website is subject to the following

### RED HAT ENTERPRISE VIRTUALIZATION PERFORMANCE: SPECVIRT BENCHMARK

RED HAT ENTERPRISE VIRTUALIZATION PERFORMANCE: SPECVIRT BENCHMARK AT A GLANCE The performance of Red Hat Enterprise Virtualization can be compared to other virtualization platforms using the SPECvirt_sc2010

### SmoothWall Virtual Appliance

SmoothWall Virtual Appliance Quick Start Guide Quick Deployment Guide Quick Start Guide Winfrasoft SmoothWall Appliance Quick Start Guide Published: May 2013 Applies to: Winfrasoft Gateway Appliance Web

### G M G. Terms and Conditions. Business Consulting

G M G Terms and Conditions Business Consulting Overview Third Party Fair Use of t. + 44 ( 0 ) 1892 739 197 e. contact@ gmgbusiness.com www.gmgbusiness.com GMG Business Consulting is the trading name of

### October 2014. Four Best Practices for Passing Privileged Account Audits

Four Best Practices for Passing Privileged Account Audits October 2014 1 Table of Contents... 4 1. Discover All Privileged Accounts in Your Environment... 4 2. Remove Privileged Access / Implement Least

### TPCalc : a throughput calculator for computer architecture studies

TPCalc : a throughput calculator for computer architecture studies Pierre Michaud Stijn Eyerman Wouter Rogiest IRISA/INRIA Ghent University Ghent University pierre.michaud@inria.fr Stijn.Eyerman@elis.UGent.be

### A Guide to IT Service Optimization Maturity

IT OPTIMIZATION INSIGHTS White Paper BY PER BAUER TeamQuest specializes in IT Service Optimization Businesses are constantly putting pressure on price, performance and reliability of IT services and infrastructure.

FME SOFTWARE LICENSE AGREEMENT IMPORTANT READ CAREFULLY: This FME Software License Agreement ("Agreement") is a legal agreement between You (either an individual or a single legal entity) and Safe Software

### Pipeliner CRM Phaenomena Guide Opportunity Management. 2015 Pipelinersales Inc. www.pipelinersales.com

Opportunity Management 205 Pipelinersales Inc. www.pipelinersales.com Opportunity Management Learn how to manage sales opportunities with Pipeliner Sales CRM Application. CONTENT. Creating and sharing

### TIBCO MFT BusinessWorks MFT Palette

TIBCO MFT BusinessWorks MFT Palette This is a TIBCO document from Proginet Sales & Presales Group. Consulting Services This document provides a general overview of using the MFT palette. It assumes that

### Performance Analysis and Software Optimization on Systems Using the LAN91C111

AN 10.12 Performance Analysis and Software Optimization on Systems Using the LAN91C111 1 Introduction This application note describes one approach to analyzing the performance of a LAN91C111 implementation

### 9.2 Summation Notation

9. Summation Notation 66 9. Summation Notation In the previous section, we introduced sequences and now we shall present notation and theorems concerning the sum of terms of a sequence. We begin with a

End-User Software License Agreement This End-User Software License Agreement (the Agreement ) is a license agreement between you (the Licensee ) and IMSWorkX, Inc. ( IMSWorkX ), a Delaware corporation

### TeamQuest and ITIL Version 2

TeamQuest and ITIL Version 2 Part 1 Introducing ITIL Version 2 With the advent of ITIL Version 3, is ITIL Version 2 still relevant? is one of the most commonly asked ITIL questions. The answer is a resounding

### Overview of Microsoft Office 365 Development

Overview of Microsoft Office 365 Development Office 365 Hands-on lab In this lab, you will work with existing Office 365 apps. This document is provided for informational purposes only and Microsoft makes

### Pipeliner CRM Phaenomena Guide Sales Target Tracking. 2015 Pipelinersales Inc. www.pipelinersales.com

Sales Target Tracking 05 Pipelinersales Inc. www.pipelinersales.com Sales Target Tracking Learn how to set up Sales Target with Pipeliner Sales CRM Application. CONTENT. Setting up Sales Dynamic Target

### AN2604 Application note

AN2604 Application note STM32F101xx and STM32F103xx RTC calibration Introduction The real-time clock (RTC) precision is a requirement in most embedded applications, but due to external environment temperature

### How to Do Capacity Planning

IT OPTIMIZATION INSIGHTS How to Do Capacity Planning White Paper BY JON HILL TeamQuest specializes in IT Service Optimization How to Do Capacity Planning This paper explores both scenario-based capacity

### WEBSITE TERMS & CONDITIONS. Last updated March 27, 2015

WEBSITE TERMS & CONDITIONS Last updated March 27, 2015 1. Introduction and Acceptance of Terms & Conditions Running Away Enterprises, LLC, a Delaware limited liability company d/b/a Enmotive ( us, we,

VMWARE PERFORMANCE STUDY VMware ESX Server 3 Ready Time Observations VMware ESX Server is a thin software layer designed to multiplex hardware resources efficiently among virtual machines running unmodified

### BLUETOOTH SPECIAL INTEREST GROUP SMART STARTER KIT (NO OBJECT CODE SAMPLE SOURCE CODE AND DOCUMENTATION ONLY) END USER LICENSE AGREEMENT

BLUETOOTH SPECIAL INTEREST GROUP SMART STARTER KIT (NO OBJECT CODE SAMPLE SOURCE CODE AND DOCUMENTATION ONLY) END USER LICENSE AGREEMENT PLEASE READ THIS END USER LICENSE AGREEMENT ( EULA ) CAREFULLY.

### Pipeliner CRM Phaenomena Guide Lead Management. 2015 Pipelinersales Inc. www.pipelinersales.com

Lead Management 205 Pipelinersales Inc. www.pipelinersales.com Lead Management Learn how to use sales lead management with Pipeliner Sales CRM Application. CONTENT. Creating and sharing the Sales Lead

### Bond Price Arithmetic

1 Bond Price Arithmetic The purpose of this chapter is: To review the basics of the time value of money. This involves reviewing discounting guaranteed future cash flows at annual, semiannual and continuously

### End User License Agreement. For countries in Americas see Agreement with Bosch Security Systems, Inc.

End User License Agreement For countries in Americas see Agreement with Bosch Security Systems, Inc. For all other countries see Agreement with Bosch Sicherheitssysteme GmbH You accept the Agreement valid

### Server Access for Ex Libris Support. August 2015

Server Access for Ex Libris Support August 2015 CONFIDENTIAL INFORMATION The information herein is the property of Ex Libris Ltd. or its affiliates and any misuse or abuse will result in economic loss.

### The Association of System Performance Professionals

The Association of System Performance Professionals The Computer Measurement Group, commonly called CMG, is a not for profit, worldwide organization of data processing professionals committed to the measurement

### Multiserver Capacity Equation

Multiserver Capacity Equation Done Right Dr. Neil J. Gunther Performance Dynamics August 10, 2009 SM c 2009 Performance Dynamics Multiserver Capacity Equation August 10, 2009 1 / 13 Alistair s Capacity

### Pipeliner CRM Phaenomena Guide Sales Pipeline Management. 2015 Pipelinersales Inc. www.pipelinersales.com

Sales Pipeline Management 2015 Pipelinersales Inc. www.pipelinersales.com Sales Pipeline Management Learn how to manage sales opportunities with Pipeliner Sales CRM Application. CONTENT 1. Configuring

### PC-WARE realises a consistent backup system for 70 international locations with CA ARCserve

CUSTOMER SUCCESS STORY PC-WARE realises a consistent backup system for 70 international locations with CA ARCserve CUSTOMER PROFILE Company: PC-Ware Information Technologies AG Industry: ICT services Employees:

### Getting Started. A Manager s Guide to Implementing Capacity Management

Getting Started A Manager s Guide to Implementing Capacity Management You have just been tasked by senior management to develop capacity management capabilities for your organization. You are very familiar

### MICROSOFT SOFTWARE LICENSE TERMS MICROSOFT VISUAL STUDIO 2008 PROFESSIONAL EDITION AND TRIAL EDITION

MICROSOFT SOFTWARE LICENSE TERMS MICROSOFT VISUAL STUDIO 2008 PROFESSIONAL EDITION AND TRIAL EDITION These license terms are an agreement between Microsoft Corporation (or based on where you live, one

### AP Physics 1 and 2 Lab Investigations

AP Physics 1 and 2 Lab Investigations Student Guide to Data Analysis New York, NY. College Board, Advanced Placement, Advanced Placement Program, AP, AP Central, and the acorn logo are registered trademarks

### The program also provides supplemental modules on topics in geometry and probability and statistics.

Algebra 1 Course Overview Students develop algebraic fluency by learning the skills needed to solve equations and perform important manipulations with numbers, variables, equations, and inequalities. Students

MICROSOFT SOFTWARE LICENSE TERMS MICROSOFT DYNAMICS CRM 2011 BUSINESS READY LICENSING These license terms are an agreement between Microsoft Corporation (or based on where you live, one of its affiliates)

### CA Cloud Service Delivery Platform

CA Cloud Service Delivery Platform Business Relationship Manager Version 01.0.00 This Documentation, which includes embedded help systems and electronically distributed materials, (hereinafter referred

### IBM TRIRIGA Application Platform Version 3.3.2. Reporting: Creating Cross-Tab Reports in BIRT

IBM TRIRIGA Application Platform Version 3.3.2 Reporting: Creating Cross-Tab Reports in BIRT Cheng Yang Application Developer IBM TRIRIGA Copyright International Business Machines Corporation 2013. US

### GIGAMON STANDARD SOFTWARE SUPPORT AND MAINTENANCE AGREEMENT

GIGAMON STANDARD SOFTWARE SUPPORT AND MAINTENANCE AGREEMENT This Standard Software Support and Maintenance Agreement ( Agreement ) is between Gigamon Inc. (GIGAMON) and ( Customer ) for the support and

### Use Familiar Tools with Visual Studio Team System 2008

Use Familiar Tools with Visual Studio Team System 2008 White Paper May 2008 For the latest information, please see www.microsoft.com/teamsystem This is a preliminary document and may be changed substantially

SOFTWARE LICENSE AGREEMENT READ THE TERMS OF THIS AGREEMENT AND ANY PROVIDED SUPPLEMENTAL LICENCE TERMS (COLLECTIVELY "AGREEMENT") CAREFULLY BEFORE USING THE STMICROELECTRONICS SOFTWARE COMPONENTS SUPPLIED

### STEVAL-ILL032V1. Multicolor LED matrix demonstration board based on the STP24DP05BTR. Features. Description

STEVAL-ILL032V1 Multicolor LED matrix demonstration board based on the STP24DP05BTR Data brief Features 4 STP24DP05BTR drivers for each display panel 8 panels can be cascaded in series using a flat ribbon

### EULER S THEOREM. 1. Introduction Fermat s little theorem is an important property of integers to a prime modulus. a p 1 1 mod p.

EULER S THEOREM KEITH CONRAD. Introduction Fermat s little theorem is an important property of integers to a prime modulus. Theorem. (Fermat). For prime p and any a Z such that a 0 mod p, a p mod p. If

### Forecasting in supply chains

1 Forecasting in supply chains Role of demand forecasting Effective transportation system or supply chain design is predicated on the availability of accurate inputs to the modeling process. One of the

### Rhea Help Desk Software End User License Agreement

Rhea Help Desk Software End User License Agreement THIS "END USER LICENSE AGREEMENT" (THE "EULA") IS A LEGAL AGREEMENT BETWEEN THE INDIVIDUAL OR LEGAL ENTITY OR ASSOCIATION INTENDING TO USE THE SOFTWARE

### App Terms and Conditions!

1. INTRODUCTION App Terms and Conditions Thank you for purchasing the App or Apps herein now referred to collectively or individually as (the App ). The App is published by or on behalf of Complexus (Pty)

### Agile Aspects of Performance Testing. March 1, 2013. Page 1

Agile Aspects of Performance Testing Alexander Podelko alex.podelko@oracle.com www.alexanderpodelko.com @apodelko March 1, 2013 1 About Me Specialize in performance last 16 years Currently performance

### Terms and Conditions. 3012436v2 12285.01010

Terms and Conditions ACCEPTANCE. Except as otherwise agreed in a written agreement signed by both parties, these Terms and Conditions will govern Buyer s purchase order. BI Technologies acceptance of Buyer

### Microsoft SQL Server 2008 R2 Standard Edition, Runtime-Restricted Use Software

Microsoft SQL Server 2008 R2 Standard Edition, Runtime-Restricted Use Software These license terms are an agreement between the licensor of the software application or suite of applications with which

### SUBSCRIPTION SERVICES.

SUSE Manager Server SUSE Manager Server with Database SUSE Software License Agreement PLEASE READ THIS AGREEMENT CAREFULLY. BY PURCHASING, INSTALLING AND/OR USING THE SOFTWARE (INCLUDING ITS COMPONENTS),

### A capacity planning / queueing theory primer or How far can you go on the back of an envelope? Elementary Tutorial CMG 87

A capacity planning / queueing theory primer or How far can you go on the back of an envelope? Elementary Tutorial CMG 87 Ethan D. Bolker Departments of Mathematics and Computer Science University of Massachusetts

### Big Data and Natural Language: Extracting Insight From Text

An Oracle White Paper October 2012 Big Data and Natural Language: Extracting Insight From Text Table of Contents Executive Overview... 3 Introduction... 3 Oracle Big Data Appliance... 4 Synthesys... 5

### Monitoring Nginx Server

Monitoring Nginx Server eg Enterprise v6 Restricted Rights Legend The information contained in this document is confidential and subject to change without notice. No part of this document may be reproduced

### i2 Virtual Office T&Cs

i2 Virtual Office T&Cs Terms of Service This Agreement, which governs the terms and conditions of your use of i2 Virtual Office services ( hereinafter referred to as the "Service" or" Services") provided

### Many algorithms, particularly divide and conquer algorithms, have time complexities which are naturally

Recurrence Relations Many algorithms, particularly divide and conquer algorithms, have time complexities which are naturally modeled by recurrence relations. A recurrence relation is an equation which

### Oracle Cloud E66330-01

Oracle Cloud Known Issues for Oracle Data Visualization Cloud Service E66330-01 November 2015 Describes information about known software issues and their workarounds for this release of Oracle Data Visualization

### Specific Program Document ( License SPD )

Specific Program Document ( License SPD ) 1. CA Europe s.a.r.l. ( CA ) licenses to Customer the CA software program(s) listed below under the following terms and conditions. By using the CA Software, Customer

### GSK Vaccines: Easing Compliance with SAP Process Control

2014 SAP AG or an SAP affiliate company. All rights reserved. GSK Vaccines: Easing Compliance with SAP Process Control GlaxoSmithKline Vaccines Industry Life sciences pharmaceuticals Products and Services

### Pipeliner CRM Phaenomena Guide Administration & Setup. 2015 Pipelinersales Inc. www.pipelinersales.com

Administration & Setup 05 Pipelinersales Inc. www.pipelinersales.com Administration & Setup Learn how to manage your sales team with Pipeliner Sales CRM Application. CONTENT. Managing Pipeliner s Users

### Requirements for Upgrading from MetaLib 3.13 to MetaLib 4. Version 4

Requirements for Upgrading from MetaLib 3.13 to MetaLib 4 Version 4 CONFIDENTIAL INFORMATION DISCLAIMER The information herein is the property of Ex Libris Ltd. or its affiliates and any misuse or abuse

### DYNAMIC PLANNER RISK PROFILER

DYNAMIC PLANNER RISK PROFILER 10 QUESTIONS Winter 2013 Distribution Technology Ltd 2011 onwards Copyright Distribution Technology Ltd 2011 onwards. All rights reserved. Information in this document is