Practical 3 Worksheet

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1 Anatomical Terms Practical 3 Worksheet Head, Neck, & Spine 1. The frontal bone is rostral /caudal to the occipital bone. 2. The temporal bone is rostral/caudal to the zygomatic bone. 3. The sacrum is rostral/caudal to the occipital bone. 4. The sacrum is superior/inferior to the occipital bone. Cranial Bones 5. The coronal suture lies between which two bones? Frontal and Parietal bones. 6. The sagittal suture lies between which two bones? L & R Parietal bones 7. Is the impression of the middle meningeal artery found on the medial or lateral side of the temporal & occipital bones? Medial (internal surface) 8. What is the purpose of the external auditory meatus (in life)? Is the external ear canal: leads sounds to the tympanic membrane 9. Match the following temporal bone structures to their location in relation to the external auditory meatus (answers may be used more than once or not at all): mandibular fossa (anterior) anterior zygomatic process (anterior) mastoid process (posterior) styloid process (inferior) posterior inferior superior 10. Compare/contrast the jugular foramen and carotid canal: a. Which is larger? Jugular foramen b. Which is more anterior? Carotid canal c. Which is closer to the foramen magnum? Jugular foramen 11. What sensory structure(s) are found in the petrous portion of the temporal bone? Vestibule, Cochlea, Semicircular canals 12. The lambdoidal suture lies between which two bones? Occipital & Parietal 13. What major structure passes through the foramen magnum? Spinal cord 14. Are the occipital condyles found on the anterior or posterior region of the foramen magnum? Anterior

2 15. What is the purpose of the occipital condyles? They articulate with the atlas (C1) 16. Which sphenoid foramina are visible by looking into the eye orbit? Optic foramen & orbital fissure 17. How can you tell these apart? Optic foramen is circular and is more superior & medial. Orbital fissure is a long slit & is more lateral. 18. Which two portions of the sphenoid bone are visible without removing the skull cap? Greater wing & pterygoid processes (could also count lesser wing if you look into the eye orbit) 19. Which two portions of the sphenoid bone are visible when you look into the eye orbit? Greater & lesser wings 20. Which two foramina pass through the lateral part of the greater wing of the sphenoid? Foramen ovale & foramen spinosum 21. Which foramen passes just inferior to the lesser wing of the sphenoid? Optic foramen 22. Where is the sella turcica found on the sphenoid (superior/inferior; rostral/caudal)? On superior surface & caudal to the lesser wings 23. What gland sits in the sella turcica? Pituitary gland 24. Why can you not see the carotid canal from inside the skull? What happens to it? It makes a 90 degree turn inside of the temporal bone and emerges through foramen lacerum 25. Which portions of the ethmoid bone are visible if you remove the calvaria (skull cap)? Crista galli and cribriform plate 26. Which portions of the ethmoid bone are found in the nasal cavity? Perpendicular plate, middle and superior nasal chonchae 27. What is the purpose of the cribriform plate? Allows passage of olfactory nerve fibers to the brain from the nasal cavity 28. Why are superior nasal conchae not on the list? They are very hard to see (part of ethmoid bone) 29. Which portion of the mandible articulates with the temporal bone? Mandibular condyle. a. Which portion of the temporal bone articulates with the mandible? Mandibular fossa 30. Which muscle inserts on the coronoid process? Temporalis 31. Compare/contrast the mandibular foramen and the mental foramen: a. Which is found on the body? Mental foramen b. Which is found on the ramus? Mandibular foramen c. Which is more anterior? Mental foramen

3 32. Are the alveoli found on the body or the ramus? Body 33. Describe the location of the infraorbital foramen. Inferior to the orbit (on the maxilla) 34. Is the maxillary sinus inferior or superior to the eye orbit? Inferior 35. Which bones form the hard palate (roof of the mouth)? Palatine bones & (palatine process of) Maxillae 36. True or False: Sutural bones are found only in the lambdoidal suture. False (more common here, but can be found in almost any suture) 37. The zygomatic bone articulates with which four bones? Temporal, Sphenoid, Frontal, Maxilla 38. Which is more medial: the lacrimal or nasal bones? Nasal 39. What is a good landmark to help identify the lacrimal bones? The lacrimal canal 40. The vomer articulates with which portion of the ethmoid bone? The perpendicular plate 41. Describe the location of the inferior nasal conchae within the nasal cavity? On the lateral walls of the inferior part of the nasal cavity Sternum/Ribs 42. List the three parts of the sternum from inferior to superior. Xiphoid process, body, manubrium 43. What differentiates a true rib from a false rib? True ribs have their own (direct) cartilaginous articulation with the sternum. The False ribs have cartilage that attaches to the costal cartilage of rib 7 (ribs 8-10), or do not attach to anything (ribs 11-12). 44. Which portion of the rib is attached to the costal cartilage? body/shaft 45. The head of a rib articulates with which portion of the vertebrae? The body (costal facets) 46. The tubercle of the rib articulates with which portion of the vertebrae? Transverse process Vertebrae 47. Is the body on the anterior or posterior side? Anterior 48. Is the spinous process on the dorsal or ventral side? Dorsal 49. What is the primary structure that passes through the vertebral foramen? Spinal cord 50. What are the two parts of the vertebral arch? Lamina and pedicle a. Which portion is more dorsal? Lamina b. Which is attached to the body? Pedicle 51. How can you tell which way is superior (and inferior) on a vertebrae? Spinous process points inferiorly

4 52. What does the superior articular facet articulate with? The inferior articular facets on the vertebrae above 53. Intervertebral discs are found between which portion(s) of adjacent vertebrae? Between the bodies 54. Is the transverse process found on the lateral or medial side of the vertebrae? 55. How can you tell that the bone you are looking at is: a. a cervical vertebrae? Has transverse foramina b. a thoracic vertebrae? Has articular facets for ribs on body and transverse process. c. the axis? Has an odontoid process (dens) extending superiorly d. the atlas? Has no body; ring of bone 56. Which is more superior: the axis or the atlas? Atlas 57. Which portion of the axis sits inside the vertebral foramen of the atlas? The dens/odontoid process 58. Which skull structure(s) does the atlas articulate with? Occipital condyles 59. Why is C7 also called vertebrae prominens? Its long spinous process is easily palpated at base of neck because it protrudes further than the other cervical vertebrae. a. What do the spinous processes on the other cervical vertebrae look like? Shorter (and usually bifid) 60. What is the purpose of the transverse foramen? Passageway for the vertebral artery 61. Which portion of the rib articulates with the facet on the transverse process? Tubercle 62. Why do most thoracic vertebrae have two costal facets on the body? Because the rib head articulates on two adjacent bodies 63. Describe the shape of the spinous process of a lumbar vertebrae. Short and stubby compared to the thoracic vertebrae; hatchet- shaped 64. Which portion/features of the sacrum are most similar to: a. intervertebral foramen? Sacral foramina b. vertebral foramen? Sacral canal 65. The auricular surface of the sacrum articulates with which portion of the os coxae? Auricular surface (of the os coxae) 66. Is the coccyx superior or inferior to the sacrum? Inferior

5 Muscles 67. Which of the three muscles of the erector spinae group is: a. most lateral? Iliocostalis b. most medial? Spinalis c. attaches to the ribs? Iliocostalis 68. Is the platysma a superficial or deep muscle? superficial 69. For sternocleidomastoid, what does each root word mean? a. Sterno-? Sternum b. Cleido-? Clavicle c. Mastoid? Mastoid process d. Which of these is the insertion for sternocleidomastoid? Mastoid process i. Why is this the insertion and not the origin? Insertion (head) moves more than origin (clavicle/sternum) 70. Why can the trapezius both elevate and depress the scapula? Different fiber angles: the superior fibers elevate the scapula and inferior fibers depress the scapula. 71. List three muscles that attach (origin or insertion) to the mastoid process. sternocleidomastoid, splenius capitis, posterior belly of digastric 72. List these muscles of the neck from anterior to posterior : splenius capitis, scalenes, levator scapulae, semispinalis capitis Scalenes, levator scapulae, splenius capitis, semispinalis capitis 73. Give the Origin & Insertion of these bones (try to do it without looking at the list): ORIGIN INSERTION a. Omohyoid superior border of scapula hyoid bone b. Sternohyoid sternum hyoid bone c. Thyrohyoid thyroid cartilage hyoid bone d. Stylohyoid styloid process of temporal bone hyoid bone 74. Of these muscles (above), a. Which is the only one that elevates the hyoid? Stylohyoid b. How does the name help you determine its action? Styloid process is superior to hyoid 75. Compare/contrast splenius capitis and semispinalis capitis: a. Which is deeper? Semispinalis capitis b. Which has vertical muscle fibers? Semispinalis capitis c. Which has oblique (angled) fibers? Splenius capitis 76. Why is the digastric muscle called digastric? It has two muscle bellies

6 77. What is the action of the masseter? Elevates the madible a. Which other muscle on your list has this same action? Temporalis 78. What does the orbicularis in orbicularis oris and orbicularis oculi mean? The muscles orbit the mouth and eye; form a ring around 79. What is similar about the names and origins of frontalis, occipitalis, temporalis, and zygomaticus major? They all originate from the bone in their name (i.e., frontal, occipital, temporal and zygomatic bones)

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