Chapter 7: Skeletal System. I. Introduction (Outcome 7.1.1) 1. Bones include active, living tissues:

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1 Shier, Butler, and Lewis: Hole s Human Anatomy and Physiology, 13 th ed. Chapter 7: Skeletal System Chapter 7: Skeletal System I. Introduction (Outcome 7.1.1) 1. Bones include active, living tissues: (Outcome 7.1.2) 2. Bones: support and protect, provide points of, house, and store. (Outcome 7.1.3) 1. The four classes of bone according to shape are (Outcome 7.1.3) 2. Examples of long bones are (Outcome 7.1.3) 3. Short bones are shaped like. (Outcome 7.1.3) 4. Examples of short bones are. (Outcome 7.1.3) 5. Flat bones are structures. (Outcome 7.1.3) 6. Examples of flat bones are. (Outcome 7.1.3) 7. Irregular bones have a variety of. (Outcome 7.1.3) 8. Examples of irregular bones are. (Outcome 7.1.3) 9. Round bones are also called. (Outcome 7.1.3) 10. Sesamoid bones are and and embedded within. (Outcome 7.1.3) 11. An example of a sesamoid bone is the. II. Bone Structure A. Parts of a Long Bone (Outcome 7.2.4) 1. An expanded end of a long bone is called an. (Outcome 7.2.4) 2. An epiphysis articulates with. (Outcome 7.2.4) 3. Articular cartilage is located. (Outcome 7.2.4) 4. The shaft of a long bone is called a. 7-1

2 (Outcome 7.2.4) 5. The is the widening part of the bone between the diaphysis and the epiphysis. (Outcome 7.2.4) 6. Periosteum is. (Outcome 7.2.4) 7. Periosteum functions to. (Outcome 7.2.4) 8. Processes provide sites for. (Outcome 7.2.4) 9. The wall of the diaphysis is composed of bone. (Outcome 7.2.4) 10. Compact bone has. (Outcome 7.2.4) 11. The epiphyses are largely composed of bone. (Outcome 7.2.4) 12. Spongy bone consists of bony plates called. (Outcome 7.2.4) 13. A bone usually has. (Outcome 7.2.4) 14. A semi-rigid tube with a hollow chamber called runs through the diaphysis. (Outcome 7.2.4) 15. Endosteum lines. (Outcome 7.2.4) 16. Endosteum contains cells. (Outcome 7.2.4) 17. The tissue that fills the spaces of bone is called. (Outcome 7.2.4) 18. The two forms of marrow are. B. Microscopic Structure 1. Introduction (Outcome 7.2.4) a. Bone cells are called. (Outcome 7.2.4) b. Lacunae are. (Outcome 7.2.4) c. Lacunae form around. (Outcome 7.2.4) d. Osteoctyes transport. (Outcome 7.2.4) e. Cellular processes of osteocytes pass through. (Outcome 7.2.4) f. The extracellular matrix of bone is composed of. 2. Compact Bones (Outcome 7.2.4) a. An osteon is. (Outcome 7.2.4) b. The substance of compact bone is formed from. (Outcome 7.2.4) c. Each central canal contains. 7-2

3 (Outcome 7.2.4) d. Perforating canals connect. (Outcome 7.2.4) e. Perforating canals contain. 3. Spongy Bone (Outcome 7.2.4) a. Spongy bone is also composed of and. (Outcome 7.2.4) b. Unlike compact bone, the bone cells do not. (Outcome 7.2.4) c. Instead the cells lie within. (Outcome 7.2.4) d. Osteocytes get nutrients from. III. Bone Development and Growth A. Introduction (Outcome 7.3.5) 1. Parts of the skeleton begin to form. (Outcome 7.3.5) 2. Bony structures continue to grow until. (Outcome 7.3.5) 3. Bones form by replacing. (Outcome 7.3.5) 4. Intramembranous bones originate within. (Outcome 7.3.5) 5. Endochondral bones originate. B. Intramembranous Bones (Outcome 7.3.5) 1. Examples of intramembranous bones are. (Outcome 7.3.5) 2. Osteogenesis is. (Outcome 7.3.5) 3. During their development, appear at the sites of their future bones. (Outcome 7.3.5) 4. supply the connective tissue layers. (Outcome 7.3.5) 5. Osteoblasts are. (Outcome 7.3.5) 6. Osteoblasts deposit. (Outcome 7.3.5) 7. Spongy bone can become. (Outcome 7.3.5) 8. As development continues, osteoblasts may become surrounded by. (Outcome 7.3.5) 9. Extracellular matrix enclosing the processes of osteoblasts gives rise to. (Outcome 7.3.5) 10. Once isolated, osteoblasts become. 7-3

4 (Outcome 7.3.5) 11. Periosteum comes from. (Outcome 7.3.5) 12. Compact bone is formed by. (Outcome 7.3.5) 13. Intramembranous ossification is. C. Endochondral Bones (Outcome 7.3.5) 1. Most of the bones of the skeleton are. (Outcome 7.3.5) 2. Endochondral bones develop as. (Outcome 7.3.5) 3. Eventually the cartilage. (Outcome 7.3.5) 4. As the cartilage decomposes, forms from. (Outcome 7.3.5) 5. invade the disintegrating tissue. (Outcome 7.3.5) 6. Some of the cells differentiate into. (Outcome 7.3.5) 7. Osteoblasts form. (Outcome 7.3.5) 8. Endochondral ossification is. (Outcome 7.3.5) 9. The primary ossification center is. (Outcome 7.3.5) 10. Secondary ossification centers appear. (Outcome 7.3.5) 11. The epiphyseal plate is. D. Growth at the Epiphyseal Plate (Outcome 7.3.5) 1. In a long bone, the diaphysis is separated from the epiphysis by (Outcome 7.3.5) 2. The cartilaginous cells form layers. (Outcome 7.3.5) 3. The first layer is composed of. (Outcome 7.3.5) 4. The first layer anchors. (Outcome 7.3.5) 5. The second layer includes. (Outcome 7.3.5) 6. As new cells appear, the cartilaginous plate. (Outcome 7.3.5) 7. The third layer is formed by. (Outcome 7.3.5) 8. The cells of the third layer the epiphyseal plate. (Outcome 7.3.5) 9. The fourth layer is composed of. (Outcome 7.3.5) 10. Osteoclasts break down. (Outcome 7.3.5) 11. Osteoclasts originate from. (Outcome 7.3.5) 12. Osteoclasts secrete. (Outcome 7.3.5) 13. Osteoclasts phagocytize. 7-4

5 (Outcome 7.3.5) 14. After osteoclasts remove the extracellular matrix, invade the region and (Outcome 7.3.5) 15. A long bone continues to lengthen while. (Outcome 7.3.5) 16. Lengthening of the bone is no longer possible once (Outcome7.3.5) 17. The medullary cavity forms when. (Outcome 7.3.5) 18. The bone in the remains spongy. (Outcome 7.3.5) 19. Hyaline cartilage on the ends persists as. E. Homeostasis of Bone Tissue (Outcome 7.3.5) 1. Throughout life, osteoclasts and osteoblasts. (Outcome 7.3.5) 2. About of bone calcium is exchanged each year. F. Factors Affecting Bone Development, Growth, and Repair (Outcome 7.3.6) 1. Factors that affect bone development, growth, and repair include (Outcome 7.3.6) 2. Vitamin D is necessary for. (Outcome 7.3.6) 3. Lack of vitamin D can lead to the diseases. (Outcome 7.3.6) 4. Vitamin A is necessary for. (Outcome 7.3.6) 5. Vitamin C is required for. (Outcome 7.3.6) 6. Growth hormone stimulates. (Outcome 7.3.6) 7. In children, the absence of growth hormone leads to. (Outcome 7.3.6) 8. An excess of growth hormone before the epiphyseal plates ossify leads to (Outcome 7.3.6) 9. In adults, an excess of growth hormone leads to. (Outcome 7.3.6) 10. Thyroxine can halt by causing (Outcome 7.3.6) 11. Parathyroid hormone stimulates. (Outcome 7.3.6) 12. Sex hormones promote. (Outcome 7.3.6) 13. Sex hormones also stimulate. 7-5

6 (Outcome 7.3.6) 14. Females typically reach their maximum heights earlier than males because (Outcome 7.3.6) 15. Physical stress stimulates. IV. Bone Function A. Support and Protection (Outcome 7.4.7) 1. Bones give shape to. (Outcome 7.4.7) 2. The bones of support the body s weight. (Outcome 7.4.7) 3. The bones of the skull protect. (Outcome 7.4.7) 4. The bones of the protect the heart and lungs. (Outcome 7.4.7) 5. Bones of the pelvic girdle protect. B. Blood Cell Formation (Outcome 7.4.7) 1. Hematopoiesis is. (Outcome 7.4.7) 2. Blood cell formation begins. (Outcome 7.4.7) 3. Later in development, blood cells are made (Outcome 7.4.7) 4. Marrow is within (Outcome 7.4.7) 5. Red marrow functions in. (Outcome 7.4.7) 6. Red marrow occupies. (Outcome 7.4.7) 7. With increasing age, replaces red marrow. (Outcome 7.4.7) 8. Yellow marrow stores. (Outcome 7.4.7) 9. In an adult, red marrow is primarily found C. Inorganic Salt Storage (Outcome 7.4.7) 1. Extracellular matrix of bone tissue includes (Outcome 7.4.7) 2. The salts account for by weight. (Outcome 7.4.7) 3. Hydroxyapatites are. (Outcome 7.4.7) 4. The body requires calcium for 7-6

7 (Outcome 7.4.7) 5. When blood calcium is, parathyroid hormone stimulates (Outcome 7.4.7) 6. Very high blood calcium levels inhibit. (Outcome 7.4.7) 7. Calcitonin stimulates. (Outcome 7.4.7) 8. Bone tissue contains lesser amounts of V. Skeletal Organization A. Number of Bones (Outcome 7.5.8) 1. The number of bones in a human skeleton is around. (Outcome 7.5.8) 2. Flat bones of the skull are tightly joined by. B. Divisions of the Skeleton (Outcome 7.5.8) 1. Two major portions of the skeleton are. (Outcome 7.5.8) 2. The axial skeleton contains. (Outcome 7.5.8) 3. The skull is composed of. (Outcome 7.5.8) 4. The hyoid bone supports. (Outcome 7.5.8) 5. The hyoid bone is located. (Outcome 7.5.8) 6. The vertebral column consists of. (Outcome 7.5.8) 7. The distal end of the column is formed by the and the. (Outcome 7.5.8) 8. The coccyx is also called the. (Outcome 7.5.8) 9. The thoracic cage is composed of (Outcome 7.5.8) 10. The appendicular skeleton consists of (Outcome 7.5.8) 11. The pectoral girdle is formed by. (Outcome 7.5.8) 12. The pectoral girdle connects. (Outcome 7.5.8) 13. The pectoral girdle aids in. (Outcome 7.5.8) 14. Each upper limb consists of 7-7

8 (Outcome 7.5.8) 15. The humerus, radius, and ulna articulate. (Outcome 7.5.8) 16. The wrist bones are called. (Outcome 7.5.8) 17. The bones of the palm are called. (Outcome 7.5.8) 18. Bones in the fingers are called. (Outcome 7.5.8) 19. The pelvic girdle is formed by. (Outcome 7.5.8) 20. The pelvic girdle connects. (Outcome 7.5.8) 21. The pelvic girdle, sacrum, and coccyx form the. (Outcome 7.5.8) 22. Each lower limb consists of. (Outcome 7.5.8) 23. The femur and tibia articulate with each other at. (Outcome 7.5.8) 24. The kneecap is called the. (Outcome 7.5.8) 25. The ankle bones are. (Outcome 7.5.8) 26. The bones of the instep of the foot are called. (Outcome 7.5.8) 27. Bones of the toes are called. VI. Skull XII. Lower Limb A. Introduction (Outcome 7.6.9) 1. A human skull usually consists of. (Outcome 7.6.9) 2. The moveable bone in the skull is the. (Outcome 7.6.9) 3. Some cranial and skull bones together form the of the eye. B. Cranium (Outcome 7.6.9) 1. The cranium encloses and protects. (Outcome 7.6.9) 2. The surface of the cranium provides attachments for (Outcome 7.6.9) 3. Sinuses are. (Outcome 7.6.9) 4. Sinuses reduce and increase. (Outcome 7.6.9) 5. The eight bones of the cranium are (Outcome 7.6.9) 6. The frontal bone forms (Outcome 7.6.9) 7. The supraorbital foramen is and allows to pass to tissues of the head. 7-8

9 (Outcome 7.6.9) 8. The sinuses of the frontal bone are called. (Outcome 7.6.9) 9. The two halves of the frontal bone fuse together by (Outcome 7.6.9) 10. One parietal bone is located. (Outcome 7.6.9) 11. Together the parietal bones form. (Outcome 7.6.9) 12. The sagittal suture fuses. (Outcome 7.6.9) 13. The coronal suture fuses. (Outcome 7.6.9) 14. The occipital bone joins the parietal bones along the. (Outcome 7.6.9) 15. The occipital bone forms the. (Outcome 7.6.9) 16. The foramen magnum is. (Outcome 7.6.9) 17. Occipital condyles are located. (Outcome 7.6.9) 18. Occipital condyles articulate with. (Outcome 7.6.9) 19. A temporal bone on each side of the skull joins the parietal bone along a (Outcome 7.6.9) 20. The temporal bones form. (Outcome 7.6.9) 21. The opening leading inward to parts of the ear is called (Outcome 7.6.9) 22. Mandibular fossae articulate with. (Outcome 7.6.9) 23. The mastoid process is a site of attachment for. (Outcome 7.6.9) 24. The styloid process is a site of attachment for. (Outcome 7.6.9) 25. The carotid canal is near the and transmits. (Outcome 7.6.9) 26. The jugular foramen is and accommodates the (Outcome 7.6.9) 27. The zygomatic process projects and joins the. (Outcome 7.6.9) 28. The sphenoid bone helps form the (Outcome 7.6.9) 29. The sella turcica is and holds the. 7-9

10 (Outcome 7.6.9) 30. The sinuses of the sphenoid bone are called. (Outcome 7.6.9) 31. The ethmoid bone is located. (Outcome 7.6.9) 32. It consists of two masses joined by. (Outcome 7.6.9) 33. The cribriform plates form. (Outcome 7.6.9) 34. pass through olfactory foramina. (Outcome 7.6.9) 35. Portions of the ethmoid bone also form (Outcome 7.6.9) 36. A projects downward from the to form most of the nasal septum. (Outcome 7.6.9) 37. Scroll-shaped plates called project inward from the lateral portions of the ethmoid bone. (Outcome 7.6.9) 38. The lateral portions of the ethmoid bone contain many small air spaces called. (Outcome 7.6.9) 39. The crista galli is. (Outcome 7.6.9) 40. The crista galli is attached to membranes that C. Facial Skeleton (Outcome 7.6.9) 1. The facial skeleton consists ofimmovable bones and a movable (Outcome 7.6.9) 2. The facial bones provide sites of attachment for (Outcome 7.6.9) 3. The forms the upper jaw. (Outcome 7.6.9) 4. Portions of the maxillary bones also comprise (Outcome 7.6.9) 5. The maxillary bones also contain for the upper teeth. (Outcome 7.6.9) 6. Inside the maxillae, lateral to the nasal cavity are. (Outcome 7.6.9) 7. The maxillary sinuses extend from to. (Outcome 7.6.9) 8. During development, portions of the maxillary bones called grow together and form. (Outcome 7.6.9) 9. The alveolar arch is. 7-10

11 (Outcome 7.6.9) 10. occupy cavities in this arch. (Outcome 7.6.9) 11. The palatine bones are shaped. (Outcome 7.6.9) 12. The palatine bones are located. (Outcome 7.6.9) 13. The horizontal portions of the palatine bones form (Outcome 7.6.9) 14. The perpendicular portions of the palatine bones help form the (Outcome 7.6.9) 15. Zygomatic bones are responsible for. (Outcome 7.6.9) 16. Each zygomatic bone has a process which extends posteriorly to join. (Outcome 7.6.9) 17. Lacrimal bones are located. (Outcome 7.6.9) 18. The nasal bones form the bridge of. (Outcome 7.6.9) 19. The nasal bones are attachments for. (Outcome 7.6.9) 20. The vomer is located. (Outcome 7.6.9) 21. Posteriorly the vomer joins. (Outcome 7.6.9) 22. The nasal septum is formed from (Outcome 7.6.9) 23. The inferior nasal conchae are attached to (Outcome 7.6.9) 24. Like the ethmoidal conchae, the inferior conchae support (Outcome 7.6.9) 25. The mandible is shaped like. (Outcome 7.6.9) 26. The flat projections at the ends of a mandible are. (Outcome 7.6.9) 27. The rami are divided into (Outcome 7.6.9) 28. The mandibular condyles articulate with. (Outcome 7.6.9) 29. The coronoid processes provide. (Outcome 7.6.9) 30. The alveolar border is and it contains. (Outcome 7.6.9) 31. Mandibular foramens are located. (Outcome 7.6.9) 32. run through mandibular foramens. 7-11

12 The mental foramen is. D. Infantile Skull (Outcome 7.6.9) 1. At birth, the skull is developed with connecting the cranial bones. (Outcome 7.6.9) 2. Fontanels are. (Outcome 7.6.9) 3. Fontanels permit. (Outcome 7.6.9) 4. Eventually fontanels and cranial bones E. Vertebral Column (Outcome 7.6.9) 1. The vertebral column extends from to and forms. (Outcome 7.6.9) 2. The vertebral column is composed of that are separated by (Outcome 7.6.9) 3. The vertebral column supports the. (Outcome 7.6.9) 4. The vertebral column protects. (Outcome 7.6.9) 5. The spinal cord passes through. (Outcome 7.6.9) 6. An infant has separate bones in the vertebral column. (Outcome 7.6.9) 7. The sacrum is formed by. (Outcome 7.6.9) 8. The coccyx is formed by. (Outcome 7.6.9) 9. An adult vertebral column has bones. (Outcome 7.6.9) 10. The four curvatures of the vertebral column are (Outcome 7.6.9) 11. The cervical curvature develops when. (Outcome 7.6.9) 12. The lumbar curvature develops when. F. A Typical Vertebra (Outcome 7.6.9) 1. The body of a vertebra forms. (Outcome 7.6.9) 2. The intervertebral discs are fastened to (Outcome 7.6.9) 3. The discs cushion and soften (Outcome 7.6.9) 4. Anterior longitudinal ligaments join. 7-12

13 (Outcome 7.6.9) 5. Posterior longitudinal ligaments join. (Outcome 7.6.9) 6. Pedicles are. (Outcome 7.6.9) 7. Laminae are. (Outcome 7.6.9) 8. A vertebral arch formed by. (Outcome 7.6.9) 9. Spinous processes are. (Outcome 7.6.9) 10. A transverse process projects. (Outcome 7.6.9) 11. Superior and inferior articulating processes project and. (Outcome 7.6.9) 12. Intervertebral foramina provide passageways for G. Cervical Vertebra (Outcome 7.6.9) 1. There are cervical vertebrae. (Outcome 7.6.9) 2. The transverse processes of cervical vertebrae are distinctive because (Outcome 7.6.9) 3. The spinous processes of the second through the sixth cervical vertebrae are (Outcome 7.6.9) 4. The vertebra prominens is. (Outcome 7.6.9) 5. The atlas is. (Outcome 7.6.9) 6. The atlas supports. (Outcome 7.6.9) 7. The facets of the atlas articulate with. (Outcome 7.6.9) 8. The axis is. (Outcome 7.6.9) 9. The dens is a process that projects and lies in the ring of (Outcome 7.6.9) 10. As the head is turned from side to side, pivots around H. Thoracic Vertebra (Outcome 7.6.9) 1. There are thoracic vertebrae. (Outcome 7.6.9) 2. The facets of thoracic vertebrae articulate with. (Outcome 7.6.9) 3. The bodies of thoracic vertebrae are adapted to. 7-13

14 I. Lumbar Vertebra (Outcome 7.6.9) 1. There are lumbar vertebrae and they are located (Outcome 7.6.9) 2. The bodies of lumbar vertebrae are than the superior vertebrae. (Outcome 7.6.9) 3. The transverse processes of lumbar vertebrae project and the spinous processes are. J. Sacrum (Outcome 7.6.9) 1. The sacrum is in shape. (Outcome 7.6.9) 2. The median sacral crest is. (Outcome 7.6.9) 3. Posterior sacral foramina are. (Outcome 7.6.9) 4. The sacrum is wedged between and is united to them at its. (Outcome 7.6.9) 5. The sacrum forms the wall of the pelvis. (Outcome 7.6.9) 6. The sacral promontory is. (Outcome 7.6.9) 7. Anterior sacral foramina provide passageways for. K. Coccyx (Outcome 7.6.9) 1. The coccyx is the lowest part of. (Outcome 7.6.9) 2. Sitting presses on the coccyx, and it moves, acting like a. L.. Thoracic Cage (Outcome 7.6.9) 1. The thoracic cage includes (Outcome 7.6.9) 2. The thoracic cage supports and protects. M. Ribs (Outcome 7.6.9) 1. The usual number of ribs is. (Outcome 7.6.9) 2. The true ribs are. (Outcome 7.6.9) 3. The false ribs are. (Outcome 7.6.9) 4. Floating ribs are. (Outcome 7.6.9) 5. A typical rib has a long, slender. 7-14

15 (Outcome 7.6.9) 6. The head of a rib is. (Outcome 7.6.9) 7. The head of a rib articulates with (Outcome 7.6.9) 8. A tubercle of a rib articulates with. (Outcome 7.6.9) 9. Costal cartilages are composed of. (Outcome 7.6.9) 10. Costal cartilages are attached to the ends of a rib. N. Sternum (Outcome 7.6.9) 1. The sternum is located. (Outcome 7.6.9) 2. The three parts of the sternum are. (Outcome 7.6.9) 3. The process projects downward. (Outcome 7.6.9) 4. The manubrium articulates with. (Outcome 7.6.9) 5. The manubrium and body articulate with. O. Pectoral Girdle (Outcome 7.6.9) 1. The four parts of the pectoral girdle are. (Outcome 7.6.9) 2. The pectoral girdle supports and is an attachment for P. Clavicles (Outcome ) 1. A clavicle has an shape. (Outcome 7.6.9) 2. Clavicles run between. (Outcome 7.6.9) 3. The sternal ends of the clavicles articulate with. (Outcome 7.6.9) 4. The acromial ends of the clavicles articulate with. (Outcome 7.6.9) 5. The clavicles brace and are attachment sites for. Q. Scapulae (Outcome 7.6.9) 1. The scapulae are shaped like. (Outcome 7.6.9) 2. The spine of a scapula divides. (Outcome 7.6.9) 3. The acromion process forms. (Outcome 7.6.9) 4. The acromion process articulates with. (Outcome 7.6.9) 5. The coracoid process curves. (Outcome 7.6.9) 6. The glenoid cavity is. (Outcome 7.6.9) 7. The glenoid cavity articulates with. 7-15

16 (Outcome 7.6.9) 8. The three borders of the scapulae are R. Upper Limb (Outcome 7.6.9) 1. The bones of the upper limb form (Outcome 7.6.9) 2. The bones of the upper limb are. S. Humerus (Outcome 7.6.9) 1. The humerus extends from. (Outcome 7.6.9) 2. The head of the humerus fits into. (Outcome 7.6.9) 3. Two processes just below the head are (Outcome 7.6.9) 4. The intertubercular groove is. (Outcome 7.6.9) 5. The anatomical neck is. (Outcome 7.6.9) 6. The surgical neck is. (Outcome 7.6.9) 7. The deltoid tuberosity is. (Outcome 7.6.9) 8. Two condyles at the lower end of the humerus are (Outcome 7.6.9) 9. The capitulum is on the side and articulates with (Outcome 7.6.9) 10. The trochlea is on the side and articulates with (Outcome 7.6.9) 11. Epicondyles are located and provide attachments for. (Outcome 7.6.9) 12. The coronoid fossa is that receives when the arm bends at the elbow. (Outcome 7.6.9) 13. The olecranon fossa is that receives when the arm bends at the elbow. T. Radius (Outcome 7.6.9) 1. The radius is located on the side of the forearm. (Outcome 7.6.9) 2. The radius extends from to 7-16

17 and crosses over when. (Outcome 7.6.9) 3. The head of the radius articulates with. (Outcome 7.6.9) 4. The radial tuberosity is an attachment site for. (Outcome 7.6.9) 5. The styloid process is located. U. Ulna (Outcome 7.6.9) 1. The trochlear notch of the ulna is. (Outcome 7.6.9) 2. The trochlear notch articulates with. (Outcome 7.6.9) 3. The olecranon process is located. (Outcome 7.6.9) 4. The head of the humerus articulates laterally with (Outcome 7.6.9) 5. The styloid process of the ulna is located. V. Hand (Outcome 7.6.9) 1. The hand is made of. (Outcome 7.6.9) 2. The bones of the wrist are called. (Outcome 7.6.9) 3. The individual names of the 8 carpals are (Outcome7.6.9) 4. The anterior surface of the wrist is concave to allow for (Outcome 7.6.9) 5. The metacarpals form the framework of. (Outcome 7.6.9) 6. The distal ends of metacarpals form. (Outcome 7.6.9) 7. Proximally, the metacarpals articulate with. (Outcome 7.6.9) 8. Distally, the metacarpals articulate with. (Outcome 7.6.9) 9. The metacarpal of the thumb is numbered. (Outcome 7.6.9) 10. The finger bones are. (Outcome 7.6.9) 11. Each finger has phalanges and the thumb has phalanges. W. Pelvic Girdle (Outcome 7.6.9) 1. The pelvic girdle consists of (Outcome 7.6.9) 2. The pelvis is formed by. (Outcome 7.6.9) 3. The pelvic girdle supports. 7-17

18 (Outcome 7.6.9) 4. The pelvic girdle provides attachments for and protects. (Outcome 7.6.9) 5. The body s weight is transmitted through the pelvic girdle to and then onto. X. Hip Bones (Outcome 7.6.9) 1. Each coxa develops from the following three parts (Outcome 7.6.9) 2. The acetabulum is. (Outcome 7.6.9) 3. The acetabulum receives. (Outcome 7.6.9) 4. The is the largest and most superior portion of the coxa. (Outcome 7.6.9) 5. The ilium forms the prominence of. (Outcome 7.6.9) 6. The iliac crest is. (Outcome 7.6.9) 7. The iliac fossa is. (Outcome 7.6.9) 8. Posteriorly the ilium joins the sacrum at. (Outcome 7.6.9) 9. The anterior superior iliac spine can be felt and is an important landmark. (Outcome 7.6.9) 10. On the posterior border of the ilium is a. (Outcome 7.6.9) 11. Below the posterior superior iliac spine is a deep indentation called., through which pass. (Outcome 7.6.9) 12. The lowest portion of the coxa is. (Outcome 7.6.9) 13. The ischium is shaped. (Outcome 7.6.9) 14. The ischial tuberosity points. (Outcome 7.6.9) 15. The ischial tuberosity supports the body during. (Outcome 7.6.9) 16. The ischial spine is. (Outcome 7.6.9) 17. The distance between the ischial spines is (Outcome 7.6.9) 18. The pubis constitutes. (Outcome 7.6.9) 19. The symphisis pubis is. 7-18

19 (Outcome 7.6.9) 20. The pubic arch is. (Outcome 7.6.9) 21. The obturator foramen is. Y. True and False Pelves (Outcome 7.6.9) 1. The pelvic brim would be marked if (Outcome 7.6.9) 2. The pelvic brim separates (Outcome 7.6.9) 3. The false pelvis is bounded posteriorly by, laterally by, and anteriorly by. (Outcome 7.6.9) 4. The false pelvis supports. (Outcome 7.6.9) 5. The true pelvis is bounded posteriorly by and laterally and anteriorly by. Z. Differences Between Male and Female Pelves (Outcome ) 1. Usually the female iliac bones are than those of the male. (Outcome ) 2. The female hips are usually than those of the male. (Outcome ) 3. The angle of the female pubic arch may be. (Outcome ) 4. The female pelvic cavity is usually than that of the male. (Outcome ) 5. The bones of the female pelvis are and show less evidence of. AA. Lower Limb (Outcome 7.6.9) 1. The bones of the lower limb form the framework of (Outcome 7.6.9) 2. The bones of the lower limb are BB. Femur (Outcome 7.6.9) 1. The femur extends from. (Outcome 7.6.9) 2. The head of the femur projects. (Outcome 7.6.9) 3. The fovea capitis is and marks the attachment of. (Outcome 7.6.9) 4. The neck of the femur is. 7-19

20 (Outcome 7.6.9) 5. Two large processes below the neck of the femur are (Outcome 7.6.9) 6. The linea aspera is. (Outcome 7.6.9) 7. The lateral and medial condyles articulate with (Outcome 7.6.9) 8. The patella articulates with the femur on its. (Outcome 7.6.9) 9. The medial and lateral epicondyles provide attachments for CC. Patella (Outcome 7.6.9) 1. The patella is a bone located in (Outcome 7.6.9) 2. The patella controls. DD. Tibia (Outcome 7.6.9) 1. The shinbone is. (Outcome 7.6.9) 2. The tibia is located on side. (Outcome 7.6.9) 3. The medial and lateral condyles of the tibia articulate with (Outcome 7.6.9) 4. The tibial tuberosity is located. (Outcome 7.6.9) 5. The tibial tuberosity provides an attachment for. (Outcome 7.6.9) 6. The anterior crest of the tibia is. (Outcome 7.6.9) 7. The medial malleolus is. (Outcome 7.6.9) 8. On the tibia s lateral side is a depression that articulates with _ (Outcome 7.6.9) 9. The inferior surface of the tibia s distal end articulates with EE. Fibula (Outcome 7.6.9) 1. The fibula is on the side of the tibia. (Outcome 7.6.9) 2. The head of the fibula articulates with. (Outcome 7.6.9) 3. The lateral malleolus articulates with. FF. Foot (Outcome 7.6.9) 1. The foot is made of. 7-20

21 (Outcome 7.6.9) 2. The ankle or tarsus is composed of. (Outcome 7.6.9) 3. The talus articulates with and can move. (Outcome 7.6.9) 4. The seven tarsal bones are (Outcome 7.6.9) 5. The largest tarsal is the. (Outcome 7.6.9) 6. The calcaneus helps support. (Outcome 7.6.9) 7. The metatarsus consists of. (Outcome 7.6.9) 8. The heads at the distal ends of the metatarsals form. (Outcome 7.6.9) 9. The arch of the foot is formed by. (Outcome 7.6.9) 10. The bones of the toes are called. (Outcome 7.6.9) 11. Each toe has phalanges except the great toe because it lacks XIII. Life-Span Changes (Outcome ) 1. An incremental decrease in height begins at about. (Outcome ) 2. of the vertebrae may contribute to loss of height. (Outcome ) 3. As calcium levels fall, bones become and prone to. (Outcome ) 4. Gradually, come to outnumber. (Outcome ) 5. By age all adults start to lose bone mass. (Outcome ) 6. bone shows signs of aging first. (Outcome ) 7. Compact bone loss begins around the age of. (Outcome ) 8. In the first decade following menopause, of trabecular bone is lost and of compact bone is lost in women. (Outcome ) 9. The most common fractures in the elderly are (Outcome ) 10. To preserve skeletal health 7-21

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