Dr. M. Coley Department of Chemistry The University of the West Indies, Mona

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1 Dr. M. Coley Department of Chemistry The University of the West Indies, Mona

2 Biodiesel is a renewable, clean-burning diesel fuel alternative that is comprised of mono-alkyl esters of long chain fatty acids. Biodiesel can be used directly in diesel engines or may be blended with petroleum diesel in various proportions (e.g. 20% biodiesel: 80% petroleum diesel). Biodiesel is made from waste vegetable oil, plant oils (soya, coconut, Jatropha, castor bean, etc.) or from algae sources.

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4 Making fuel-grade biodiesel

5 Higher cetane number: fuel combust easier during compression engine runs more smoothly and quietly John Deere trucks can use B2, B5 and even B20 biodiesel blends in their engines.

6 Most Caribbean states rely almost exclusively on imported petroleum diesel to power heavy duty vehicles. A portion of this requirement can be supplied using locally produced fuel-grade biodiesel. Locally produced biodiesel will: Reduce dependence on foreign oil Reduce foreign exchange spent on oil Reduce noxious vehicle emissions (SO x, VOC, PM, CO, CO 2 ) Reduce vehicle maintenance frequency due to increased engine lubricity Stimulate new industry based on recycling & waste re-use

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9 Heavy reliance on imported petroleum fuels Minimal fuel diversification - especially in SIDS Completely open to shocks in oil prices Poor waste oil disposal practices Failure to embrace technology to foster fuel diversification Unrealized potential in fuel production despite available technology Poor development of waste re-use policies

10 GOAL: Establish research-driven, solutions-oriented unit that designs workable programmes for implementing industrial production of biodiesel in SIDS Objectives: Survey quality and availability of waste cooking oil from commercial food preparation services. Design ready-to-use processing unit from locally available materials based on traditional trans-esterification methods. Introduce biodiesel manufacture based on use of sonication technology and dry-wash in continuous flow processors. Develop business plans, training courses & produce training materials on biodiesel production and testing. Partner with state agencies to implement sustainable use of waste oil, plant oils & oil from algae in biodiesel production.

11 Verifiable data on waste cooking oil as a biodiesel feedstock. Hands-on training in small-scale biodiesel production. Training materials, manuals, videos and technical consultations to facilitate biodiesel manufacture. Business plans for setting-up biodiesel plants as stand-alone businesses or as adjuncts to entities that generate WVO. Creation of resource centre to support biodiesel manufacture. Production of fuel-grade biodiesel, purified glycerol and glycerol by-products. Develop design for an efficient, locally made small-scale biodiesel plant that produce biodiesel which meets ASTM quality requirements. Produce biodiesel from WVO, plant and algal oil for incorporation into national diesel fuel mix.

12 Use of biodiesel will replace a quantity of petroleum diesel & save foreign exchange. In Jamaica, 5% biodiesel will replace 5M gallons of petroleum diesel. Production of biodiesel will create employment, establish small ventures & foster recycling of waste oil. Local biodiesel research will develop expertise & foster cooperation with other Caribbean states & promote use of renewable energy resources. Biodiesel use will reduce emission of greenhouse gases & contribute to climate change mitigation. Consumers of biodiesel blends (e.g. B5), will encounter reduced engine wear and vehicle maintenance costs. Commercial production of biodiesel from plant and algal oil will significantly improve availability and foster sustainability of the industry.

13 Academics Government Sustainable Biodiesel Production Industry Players Citizens & Environmentalists

14 Use biodiesel manufacture as template for establishing a waste re-use industrial sector - plastics, electronic waste, tires, etc. Develop policy that govern waste disposal Integrate locally produced biodiesel as part of national energy mix & stimulate thrust towards production from plant & algal oils. Use biodiesel production as a teaching tool for sustainable development. Involve university students & expose primary & high school youths. Use biodiesel production as a means of implementing a fully thought through and workable solution simultaneously in several Caribbean states and collaborate to share best practices.

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18 Diesel fuel is a petroleum distillate rich in Hydrocarbons and is produced from distillation of crude oil Renewable diesel is chemically similar to petroleum diesel. It refers to diesel fuels derived from biomass but produced via a refinery hydro-treating process Biodiesel is a diesel-like fuel made by reacting vegetable oil or animal fat with alcohols.

Abstract Process Economics Program Report 251A ADVANCES IN BIODIESEL AND RENEWABLE DIESEL PRODUCTION (December 2007)

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