Volcano Vocabulary ROCK CYCLE. Igneous REMELTED REMELTED BURIED BURIED HEAT ERODED DEPOSITED. Metamorphic Sedimentary ERODED, TRANSPORTED DEPOSITED

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1 Volcano Vocabulary VOLCANISM VENT CRATER CALDERA QUIET ERUPTION EXPLOSIVE ERUPTION PYROCLASTIC DEBRIS CINDER CONE SHIELD VOLCANO COMPOSITE VOLCANO STRATO VOLCANO ACTIVE DORMANT EXTINCT INTRUSION DIKE SILL LACCOLITH PLUTON BATHOLITH STOCK ROCK CYCLE Igneous REMELTED REMELTED BURIED BURIED HEAT ERODED PRESSURE TRANSPORTED DEPOSITED Metamorphic Sedimentary ERODED, TRANSPORTED DEPOSITED HEAT PRESSURE

2 I. Heat within the Earth A. For every kilometer we go beneath the surface the temperature increases 30 degrees Celsius. B. Sources of heat: 1. Radioactive decay- like a thermonuclear reactor is partly responsible for heat within the Earth. Atoms are splitting apart or decaying. 2. Original heat- Crust has insulated the heat trapped within since the Earth's formation about 5 billion years ago. 3. Friction- Tremendous heat created from the convection currents within the Mantle. II. Magma (molten rock beneath the surface that is mostly silica) A. Formation 1. Molten rock within the Earth is called Magma. Molten rock extruded onto the surface is called lava. Magma forms at a depth of about 40 to 60 kilometers. Magma chambers have a temperature of 650 to 1500 degrees Celsius- or about 1,200 to 3,000 degrees Fahrenheit. B. Types/ Chemical Composition of Magma 1. Basaltic- Also known as Pahoehoe, Mafic and Oceanic. Contains less percentages of silica (SiO 2 ) and more Magnesium oxide (MgO). It has a very thin, runny texture or low viscosity. Temperature of Mafic lava ranges between 1000 and 1500

3 degrees Celsius. High relative density. 2. Granitic- Also known as aa, Felsic and Continental. Contains more silica (SiO 2 ) and Aluminum oxide (Al 2 O 3 ). It has a thick and pasty texture or high viscosity. Temperature of Felsic lava is about 650 to 950 degrees Celsius. Low relative density. Magma Type: FELSIC INTERMEDIATE MAFIC 75% SiO< < < < % SiO2 increasing percentage of silica < < < < increasing Na2O & K2O > > > > increasing CaO, FeO, & MgO Common Rock: RHYOLITE ANDESITE BASALT GRANITE GABBRO III. Anatomy of a Volcano A. Common Features 1. Magma Chamber- as magma rises to the surface it forms a large pocket beneath the surface that holds the magma. AKA: Pluton, Batholith, Stock 2. Pipe- is a narrow crack in the crust or bedrock through which magma flows. 3. Vent- central opening that allows the magma to flow to surface. It is where magma leaves the pipe.

4 4. Crater- the basin or bowl-like depression over the vent at the summit of the cone. IV. Kinds of Eruptions A. Quiet Eruption 1. Typical of the Basaltic/Mafic/Oceanic lava flow. A "fissure flow" describes lava running out onto the surface in wide, thin sheets. Often these sheets form a ropy surface called Pahoehoe- which means "satin-like". These flows can lead to a topography called a Basalt Plateau. Mauna Loa (Hawaii) is a good example of a series of quietly erupting lava. B. Explosive Eruption 1. Typical of the Granitic/Felsic/Continental lava flow. When lava of this type erupts, a great deal of gas and ash erupt with it. The appearance of this kind of lava is sharp and jagged which led to its name- aa. The particulate matter that explodes from the volcano is called Pyroclastic Debris. a. Pyroclastic Debris (AKA: Tephra) is categorized by size: ~Smallest is called Tuff or Dust ~Sand-sized particles are called Ash ~Pebble-sized particles are called Cinders ~Cobble to truck-sized debris called Volcanic Bombs.

5 V. Types of Volcanoes A. Classification Volcanic classification is determined by composition and shape. The Magma Chamber determines chemistry of magma/lava and consequently the type of eruption as well. The material ejected from the volcano and deposited around the vent produces the shape. B. Types 1. Cinder Cone- is a small, steep-sided volcano made mostly of cinders & tuff (tephra), often with lava flows intermixed. The height is usually less than 600 feet (200 meters). The Cinder Cone tends to erode quickly and may bleed from the bottom or sides- called a "flank eruption". These volcanoes do not often cause damage in that they are small, intermittent explosions of Felsic lava. Examples are Wizard Island (Crater Lake) and Paricutin (1943, Mexico). 2. Shield Volcano- is usually wider than it is tall, much like a shield. It is almost entirely made of mafic lava (Pahoehoe). The Shield has a 2 to 10 degree slope and most often found near oceans or on oceanic crust. The lava flow itself can cause significant damage though its eruptions are tectonically quiet. An example is Mauna Loa (Hawaii)

6 a. Sheet Volcano- is similar in structure and composition to Shield Volcanoes. In this type of structure, huge quantities of lava exude onto the surface from fissures in the crust. These volcanoes are very difficult to identify yet are very common. Sheet Volcanoes are the largest volcanoes in area, often covering thousands of square kilometers. An example is the Columbia Plateau (Washington & Oregon). 3. Composite or Strato Volcano- is a large, steep-sided volcano made of alternating layers of lava flow and pyroclastic debris. Its structure and behavior is highly complex. Strato Volcanoes are considered to be extremely dangerous due to their inconsistent behavior. These volcanoes are extremely explosive at times, while at other times the eruptions are quiet. The nature of the eruption is determined by the feeder location. Examples of Composite Volcanoes are Mount St. Helens (Washington), Mount Vesuvius (Mediterranean), and Mount Pinatubu (Philippines) which exploded in June of a. The Glowing Cloud, or nuees ardentes, is the main killer in explosive eruptions. The superheated gas rushes down the cone in excess of 300 miles per hour and often exceeds temperatures of 800 degrees Celsius or 1,500 degrees Farenheit. On May 8, 1902 Mont Pele e erupted on the Caribbean island of Martinique. A nuees ardentes blew down the slope at over 700 degrees Celsius killing 30,000 people in the city of St. Pierre within only two minutes. Only two

7 people are known to have survived. b. Caldera- a volcanic depression much larger than the original crater. It is either an exploded volcano or a collapsed volcano. Examples are Krakatoa (Indonesia) Crater Lake (Oregon), and Mount St. Helens after 1980 (Washington). VI. Life Cycle of Volcanoes 1. Active Volcano- is a volcano that is erupting now, has erupted in the recent past, or shows signs of erupting in the near future. 2. Dormant Volcano- is a volcano that has not erupted recently, but has during recorded history. It is expected to erupt again in the future. 3. Extinct Volcano- is one that has not erupted in recorded history. It is unlikely to erupt again. VII. Volcanism Underground A. Intrusions- are flows of magma that cool and harden before they reach the surface. Intrusive igneous rocks have a large grain, or crystal, size. The deeper the intrusion, the larger the grain size 1. Volcanic Neck- is an intrusive structure composed of cooled magma trapped in the throat or vent of a volcano. 2. Dike- is a tabular, typically vertical intrusion (discordant).

8 Dikes formed at shallow depths can have small grained texture, while those at greater depths may have a coarse grained texture. Often dikes will be more resistant to erosion and leave a wall-like protrusion on the surface. An example is Ship Rock (New Mexico). There are ancient dikes in Wisconsin. 3. Sill- is a relatively horizontal structure that is parallel (cordant) to the layers of country rock. Magma squeezes in between sedimentary rock and solidifies into a sill. Like dikes, the grain texture of a sill is dependant upon depth. 4. Laccolith- is a close relative of the sill which often leaves a bulge at the surface. It has a slight dome or mushroom shape, with the middle of the structure being thicker than the sides. These can form smaller dome mountains. 5. Pluton- is an igneous body that has cooled and crystallized at great depths. Plutons have irregular shapes and often cause doming of bedrock at the surface. a. Stock- is a small discordant (nearly vertical) pluton with an outcrop area of less than 100 square kilometers. b. Batholith- is a large discordant pluton with an outcrop area of more than 100 square kilometers. Most batholiths are felsic in composition, being mostly granite.

9 Written and compiled by Peter Watts Riverside Middle School 131 Hall Street Watertown, WI

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