Forces of Nature: Teacher Packet

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1 Forces of Nature: Teacher Packet Compiled by: Morehead State University Star Theatre with help from Bethany DeMoss

2 Table of Contents Table of Contents 1 Corresponding Standards 2 Vocabulary 4 How Can we Protect Our Earth and its People? (Primary) 5 References 8 1

3 Corresponding Standards Next Generation Science Standards 2-ESS1-1 K-2-ETS1-1 3-ESS3-1 4-ESS3-2 5-ESS1-1 8-ESS3-2 HS-ESS2-1 Use information from several sources to provide evidence that Earth events can occur quickly or slowly. [Clarification Statement: Examples of events and timescales could include volcanic explosions and earthquakes, which happen quickly and erosion of rocks, which occurs slowly.] [Assessment Boundary: Assessment does not include quantitative measurements of timescales.] Ask questions, make observations, and gather information about a situation people want to change to define a simple problem that can be solved through the development of a new or improved object or tool. Make a claim about the merit of a design solution that reduces the impacts of a weather-related hazard.* [Clarification Statement: Examples of design solutions to weather-related hazards could include barriers to prevent flooding, wind resistant roofs, and lighting rods.] Generate and compare multiple solutions to reduce the impacts of natural Earth processes on humans.* [Clarification Statement: Examples of solutions could include designing an earthquake resistant building and improving monitoring of volcanic activity.] [Assessment Boundary: Assessment is limited to earthquakes, floods, tsunamis, and volcanic eruptions.] Support an argument that differences in the apparent brightness of the sun compared to other stars is due to their relative distances from Earth. [Assessment Boundary: Assessment is limited to relative distances, not sizes, of stars. Assessment does not include other factors that affect apparent brightness (such as stellar masses, age, stage).] Analyze and interpret data on natural hazards to forecast future catastrophic events and inform the development of technologies to mitigate their effects. [Clarification Statement: Emphasis is on how some natural hazards, such as volcanic eruptions and severe weather, are preceded by phenomena that allow for reliable predictions, but others, such as earthquakes, occur suddenly and with no notice, and thus are not yet predictable. Examples of natural hazards can be taken from interior processes (such as earthquakes and volcanic eruptions), surface processes (such as mass wasting and tsunamis), or severe weather events (such as hurricanes, tornadoes, and floods). Examples of data can include the locations, magnitudes, and frequencies of the natural hazards. Examples of technologies can be global (such as satellite systems to monitor hurricanes or forest fires) or local (such as building basements in tornadoprone regions or reservoirs to mitigate droughts) Develop a model to illustrate how Earth s internal and surface processes operate at different spatial and temporal scales to form continental and ocean-floor features. [Clarification Statement: Emphasis is on how the appearance of land features (such as mountains, valleys, and plateaus) and sea-floor features (such as trenches, ridges, and seamounts) are a result of both constructive forces (such as volcanism, tectonic uplift, and orogeny) and destructive mechanisms (such as weathering, mass wasting, 2

4 HS-ESS2-4 HS-ESS3-1 HS-ESS3-6 and coastal erosion).] [Assessment Boundary: Assessment does not include memorization of the details of the formation of specific geographic features of Earth s surface.] Use a model to describe how variations in the flow of energy into and out of Earth systems result in changes in climate. [Clarification Statement: Examples of the causes of climate change differ by timescale, over 1-10 years: large volcanic eruption, ocean circulation; s of years: changes in human activity, ocean circulation, solar output; s of thousands of years: changes to Earth's orbit and the orientation of its axis; and s of millions of years: long-term changes in atmospheric composition.] [Assessment Boundary: Assessment of the results of changes in climate is limited to changes in surface temperatures, precipitation patterns, glacial ice volumes, sea levels, and biosphere distribution.] Construct an explanation based on evidence for how the availability of natural resources, occurrence of natural hazards, and changes in climate have influenced human activity. [Clarification Statement: Examples of key natural resources include access to fresh water (such as rivers, lakes, and groundwater), regions of fertile soils such as river deltas, and high concentrations of minerals and fossil fuels. Examples of natural hazards can be from interior processes (such as volcanic eruptions and earthquakes), surface processes (such as tsunamis, mass wasting and soil erosion), and severe weather (such as hurricanes, floods, and droughts). Examples of the results of changes in climate that can affect populations or drive mass migrations include changes to sea level, regional patterns of temperature and precipitation, and the types of crops and livestock that can be raised.] Use a computational representation to illustrate the relationships among Earth systems and how those relationships are being modified due to human activity.* [Clarification Statement: Examples of Earth systems to be considered are the hydrosphere, atmosphere, cryosphere, geosphere, and/or biosphere. An example of the far-reaching impacts from a human activity is how an increase in atmospheric carbon dioxide results in an increase in photosynthetic biomass on land and an increase in ocean acidification, with resulting impacts on sea organism health and marine populations.] [Assessment Boundary: Assessment does not include running computational representations but is limited to using the published results of scientific computational models.] 3

5 Vocabulary: Forces of Nature Vocabulary Word Lava Volcano Mantle Core Crust Earthquake Tornado Crustal Plates Fault Line Volcanology Volcanic Ash Magma Crater Definition molten rock that originates in the Earth's mantle and flows from a volcano on land or in the ocean naturally occurring opening in Earth s surface from which molten, gaseous, and solid material is ejected portion of the Earth, about 1800 miles thick, that lies between the crust and core inner most part of the Earth, with a radius of 2100 miles, composed of molten iron and nickel outer layer of the Earth, about 22 miles thick sudden release of energy in the earth's crust or upper mantle, caused by movement along a fault or volcanic activity, normally destructive destructive windstorm over land characterized by a long, funnel-shaped cloud extending toward the ground section of the lithosphere that reacts to tectonic forces as a unit and moves the intersection of a fault with the surface of the earth or another plane scientific study of volcanoes or volcano phenomena powder to sand-size particles of igneous rock material that have been blown into the air by an erupting volcano molten material beneath or within the Earth s crust body marking the orifice of a volcano 4

6 How Can we Protect our Earth and its Resources? From: Bethany DeMoss 5

7 Names: Date: How can we Protect our Earth and its Resources? Answer the following questions; make sure to put one letter in each blank space. Some spaces have numbers underneath of them. Put letters with a number below them in the corresponding number space on the bottom of the page. If you answer all questions correctly you will be able to answer the riddle at the bottom of the page. 1. What are the three ways we can help our community and environment by saving money, energy, and natural resources?,, and 1 2. Which chemical is common in Green House Gasses? We can do this by turning off the lights We can collect in a bucket when it rains traps green house gases in our atmosphere When we do not of trash correctly we are littering. 10 What is the smartest renewable energy? _ Created by: Bethany DeMoss 6

8 TEACHER KEY How can we Protect our Earth and its Resources? Answer the following questions; make sure to put one letter in each blank space. Some spaces have numbers underneath of them. Put letters with a number below them in the corresponding number space on the bottom of the page. If you answer all questions correctly you will be able to answer the riddle at the bottom of the page. 1. What are the three ways we can help our community and environment by saving money, energy, and natural resources? _R E D U _C E_, _R E U S E_, and _R E C Y C L E_ 1 2. Which chemical is common in Green House Gasses? _C A R B O N D I O X I D E_ We can do this by turning off the lights. _S A V E E N E R G Y_ We can collect _W A T E R_ in a bucket when it rains _S U N L I G H T_ traps green house gases in our atmosphere When we do not _D I S P O S E_ of trash correctly we are littering. 10 What is the smartest renewable energy? _B R A I N P O W E R_ Created by: Bethany DeMoss 7

9 References for Activities How Can We Protect our Earth and Its Resources? DeMoss, Anna B. How Can we Protect our Earth and its Resources? Morehead State University Star Theatre. 1 July

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