# Ray Casting. Simplest shading approach is to perform independent lighting calculation for every pixel

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1 Ray Casting Simplest shading approach is to perform independent lighting calculation for every pixel ) ) ( ) ( ( = i i n i S i i D AL A E I R V K I L N K I K I I

2 Polygon Rendering Methods Given a freeform surface, one usually approximates the surface as a polyhedra. How do we calculate in practice the illumination at each point on the surface? Applying the illumination model at each surface point is computationally expensive.

3 Polygon Shading Can take advantage of spatial coherence Illumination calculations for pixels covered by same primitive are related to each other ) ) ( ) ( ( = i i n i S i i D AL A E I R V K I L N K I K I I

4 Piecewise linear approximation

5 Polygonal Approximation

7 Polygon Shading Algorithms Wireframe Flat Gouraud Phong Watt Plate 7

8 Flat Shading What if a faceted object is illuminated only by directional light sources and is either diffuse or viewed from infinitely far away One illumination calculation per polygon Assign all pixels inside each polygon the same color

9 Flat Shading A fast and simple method. Gives reasonable result only if all of the following assumptions are valid: The object is really a polyhedron. Light source is far away from the surface so that N L is constant over each polygon. Viewing position is far away from the surface so that V R is constant over each polygon. L V

10 Flat Shading Objects look like they are composed of polygons OK for polyhedral objects Not so good for ones with smooth surfaces

11 Gouraud Shading Produces smoothly shaded polygonal mesh Piecewise linear approximation Need fine mesh to capture subtle lighting effects Flat Shading Gouraud Shading

13 Gouraud Shading What if smooth surface is represented by polygonal mesh with a normal at each vertex? ) ) ( ) ( ( = i i n i S i i D AL A E I R V K I L N K I K I I Watt Plate 7

14 Gouraud Shading Smooth shading over adjacent polygons Curved surfaces Renders the polygon surface by linearly interpolating intensity values across the surface. Mesh with shared normals at vertices Watt Plate 7

15 Gouraud Shading One lighting calculation per vertex Assign pixels inside polygon by interpolating colors computed at vertices

16 Gouraud Shading 1. Determine the average unit normal at each polygon vertex. 2. Apply an illumination model to each vertex to calculate the vertex intensity. 3. Linearly interpolate the vertex intensities over the surface polygon.

17 The normal vector at a vertex The normal N v of a vertex is an average of all neighboring normals: N v = k k N N k k Which is simply the following normalized vector: N v = k Nk

18 Bilinear by three linear interpolations y I 3 I 1 I P scan line I 2 x Two linear interpolations along the y-axis, and one along the x-axis.

19 Linear Interpolation w 2 I b w 1 I I a I b I = w2 Ia + w1 I b I = w ) 2I a + ( 1 w2 I b I = w I I ) + 2 ( a b I b I a w1 w2

20 Bilinear Interpolation Bilinearly interpolate colors at vertices down and across scan lines

21 Bilinear Interpolation Ia = (Ys - Y2) / (Y1 - Y2) * I1 + (Y1 - Ys) / (Y1 - Y2) * I2 Ib = (Ys - Y3) / (Y1 - Y3) * I1 + (Y1 - Ys) / (Y1 - Y3) * I3 Ip = (Xb - Xp) / (Xb - Xa) * Ia + (Xp - Xa) / (Xb - Xa) * Ib

22 Gouraud Shading of a sphere

23 Phong Shading A more accurate method for rendering a polygon surface is to interpolate normal vectors, and then apply the illumination model to each surface point.

24 Flat Gouraud Phong

25 Phong Shading 1. Determine the average unit normal at each polygon vertex. 2. Linearly interpolate the vertex normals over the surface polygon. 3. Apply the illumination model along each scan line to calculate pixel intensities for each surface point.

26 Phong Shading What if polygonal mesh is too coarse to capture illumination effects in polygon interiors? ) ) ( ) ( ( = i i n i S i i D AL A E I R V K I L N K I K I I

27 Phong Shading One lighting calculation per pixel; Approximate surface normals for points inside polygons by bilinear interpolation of normals from vertices

28 Phong Shading Bilinearly interpolate surface normals at vertices down and across scan lines

30 Diffuse surface With additional specular component

31 Polygon Shading Algorithms Wireframe Flat Gouraud Phong Watt Plate 7

32 Shading Issues Problems with interpolated shading: Polygonal silhouettes Perspective distortion Orientation dependence (due to bilinear interpolation) Problems at T-vertices Problems computing shared vertex normals

33 One shade or color for the entire object, e.g., there really is no shading being done A Pixar Shutterbug example image with faceted shading.

34 A Pixar Shutterbug example image with faceted shading. A Pixar Shutterbug example image with Gouraud shading and no specular highlights.

35 A Pixar Shutterbug example image with Gouraud shading and no specular highlights. A Pixar Shutterbug example image with Gouraud shading and specular highlights.

36 Summary 2D polygon scan conversion with a sweep-line algorithm Flat Gouraud Phong Less expensive More accurate

37 Global Illumination In the real world light is everywhere. Reflects in every direction from every surface onto every surface. Anywhere in the world, light comes from infinite directions around. In the lighting equation we used the Ambient intensity to approximate this.

38 Ambient Occlusion Full GI still too expensive for full feature film. Ambient Occlusion is used in most modern films to simulate indirect lighting in an overcast day. Usually, rendered separately and baked as texture or 3D data that modifies values of direct lighting.

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41 AO - advantages Much cheaper than GI. Usually does not depend on lighting, looks ok with most light settings. Can be computed once for each scene and reused for every frame.

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50 Three Point Lighting Basic and commonly used lighting technique 1. Key light 2. Fill light 3. Back light

51 Key light Creates the subject's main illumination, and defines the most visible lighting and shadows. Simulates main source of illumination

52 Fill light Softens and extends the illumination, simulates secondary light sources At most, half as bright as your key light, usually, casts no shadow

53 Back light creates a "defining edge" to help visually separate the subject from the background

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