RICHARD M. NIXON: APUSH - Cornwell

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1 RICHARD M. NIXON: APUSH - Cornwell Nixon Fact Sheet Richard M. Nixon (37 th President) Background Republican from southern California House of Representatives and Senate HUAC 1940s-1950s Checkers Speech Vice President Presidential Election of 1960 o television debates o close election Presidential Election of 1968 o Law and Order o Peace With Honor out of Vietnam Identified the great silent majority of law abiding American citizens Vietnam de-escalation Cambodian invasion 1970 More student protests Kent State, Jackson State Election of 1972 landslide victory (60% of popular vote) Watergate June 1972-August 1974, Impeached, not convicted b/c resigned Resignation - August 9, 1974 Domestic Policy New Federalism - $ distributed to states Opposed Federal Busing Increased funding for domestic legislation Appointed William Rehnquist to Supreme Court Foreign Policy Détente - Relaxation Vietnam Vietnamization and Peace with honor. China Soviet Union = 1972 Henry Kissinger National Security Advisor realpolitik

2 Nixon Notes APUSH Cornwell I. 1968: The Politics of Strife The Tet Offensive in Vietnam = doubt in American minds LBJ decided to not seek re-election amid antiwar sentiment April 4, 1968, Martin Luther King, Jr. assassinated = set of numerous riots June 5, 1968, Robert Kennedy assassinated in LA Democrats nominated Hubert H. Humphrey at '68 convention in Chicago Major protest in Chicago gave Democrats a poor national image Republican candidate Richard M. Nixon promised to end civil strife achieve peace with honor in Vietnam crack down on radicals uphold law and order George Wallace appealed to people fed up with counterculture and radicalism Together Nixon and Wallace garnered 57% of the vote, Nixon won with 43% Liberal ideals had been repudiated Identification of the great Silent Majority of law abiding American citizens II. Nixon and World Politics Nixon and Henry Kissinger = realpolitik. -Deal with world in terms of national interest, no reference to morality or ideology 1969 Nixon Doctrine = US aid in $ but the countries would do their own fighting Vietnam became Nixon's war as he stepped up bombing of N. Vietnam Widened it to Cambodia and Laos Jan Paris Accords Vietnam by the numbers: 58,000 dead (US) 300,000 wounded (US) $150 billion (US) 2 million casualties (VN) Communists in Cambodia killed 40% of its people between (The Killing Fields) Détente with China and USSR Nixon visited Beijing in 1972 and USSR Signed SALT 1 Treaty with Russians October 1973, Israel attacked by Egypt and Syria (Yom Kippur War) US aided Israel Middle Eastern oil producers placed embargo on US causing shortages, skyrocketing prices and rampant inflation in USA Kissinger began "shuttle diplomacy" to get a cease-fire

3 US continued to offer aid to any country key to US financial and strategic interests Shah in Iran Ferdinand Marcos in Philippines overthrew Salvador Allende (Marxist) in Chile III. Domestic Problems and Divisions Nixon was intelligent, energetic, focused and possessed keen concentration capabilities Also paranoid and secretive Moderate domestically Inherited deficit and inflation from LBJ years Nixon admin. purposely harassed "enemies" to ensure law and order Used IRS, FBI, CIA and established "plumbers" to stop leaks of information deemed harmful to admin. Swung conservatively as he appointed Chief Justice Warren Burger and 3 other conservatives (William Rehnquist - Chief Justice until 2005) 1972, Nixon portrayed Democrats as the party of the New Left, hippies, drug culture, abortion and disorder IV. The Election of 1972 Democrats = George McGovern Nixon wanted to ensure victory so he established CREEP to destroy the opposition plumbers broke into DNC headquarters at the Watergate complex to install wiretaps burglars were caught and Nixon admin. began cover-up Nixon was easily re-elected V. The Crisis of the Presidency Watergate cover-up began to unravel in 1973 one of the convicted burglars confessed White House aides were involved Carl Bernstein and Bob Woodward (Washington Post) wrote series of articles exposing "dirty tricks" Feb. 1973, special committee in Senate to probe the matter Learned that conversations in the oval office had been taped and demanded they be turned over Nixon appointed a new attorney general, Elliot Richardson who selected special Watergate prosecutor, Archibald Cox (Democrat) Cox requested the tapes and was fired. Richardson resigned. "Saturday Night Massacre" Prompted impeachment proceedings against the president Unrelated to Watergate, VP Spiro Agnew resigned due to bribe taking and tax evasion while governor of Maryland

4 Gerald Ford replaced Agnew July 1974, Supreme Court ruled Nixon must turn over unedited tapes Nixon released them and they revealed he had personally ordered the cover-up and had lied about his role for 2 years Impeachment was a certainty along with a conviction August 9, 1974 Nixon resigned Conclusion: Nixon's resignation ended an era of tumult and polarization Americans had lost faith in Washington due to: Vietnam rebellious youth energy shortages declining economy failure of Democrats to deliver on JFK's and LBJ's promises Nixon was successful in capitalizing to create a new majority coalition for Republicans however, Nixon's legacy left it difficult for his successors to lead effectively in the ensuing years

5 APUSH- Cornwell Richard Nixon: Nixon Presidency January 1969 August 1973 Election of 1968 Nixon (R) defeats Humphrey (D) and Wallace (I) Minority candidate 43% Law and Order & Peace with Honor Spiro T. Agnew Vice President Results reveal shift toward conservatism Democrats control Congress Domestic Policy New Federalism slow growth of federal government by transferring responsibility for social programs (Great Society) to states and local government. revenue sharing (block grants) impoundment bypass Congress (rejected by the courts) Economy recession 1970 stagflation economic slowdown and inflation wage and price freeze (Aug 71) monetary policy took the dollar off of the gold standard (improve balance of trade) COLAs for Social Security benefits Southern Strategy Silent Majority political realignment (southern Democrats, blue-collar workers, Catholic ethnics) delay integration and busing rejected by courts Burger Court (four new justices, conservative tilt) Warren Burger chief justice, 1969 Blackman, Powell, Rehnquist associate justices Roe v. Wade (1973) U.S. v. Nixon (1974) Election of 1972 Nixon v. McGovern (and Wallace*) Nixon wins 60.8% popular votes, every state except Massachusetts McGovern liberal, anti-establishment, anti-war Sen. S. Dakota Democrats retain control of Congress (split government) Watergate break in and illegal cover-up CREEP Committee to Reelect the President (John Mitchell) break in of DNC headquarters other illegal activities wire taps, dirty tricks Plumbers stop news leaks enemies list government investigations (IRS, FBI) Senate & House Committees John Dean, Ehrlichman & Haldeman secret tapes executive privilege v. obstruction of justice Saturday Night Massacre Archibald Cox (special prosecutor) and Elliott Richardson (Attorney General) Resignation August 9, 1974 (House Judiciary Committee three articles of impeachment Miscellaneous October (Yom Kippur) War U.S. support for Israel OPEC oil embargo

6 War Powers Act November 1973 Foreign Policy Vietnam, Soviet Union, and China Vietnam Peace with Honor Vietnamization of the war disengagement 540,000 troops in 1969, under 30,000 by 1972 Nixon Doctrine invasion of Cambodia Kent State (May 4, 1970) & Jackson State (June 1970) secret peace talks Kissinger and Le Duc Tho B-52s N. Vietnam, Ho Chi Minh Trail (Laos & Cambodia) Paris Peace Accord January 1973 o U.S. withdraws o NVA can remain in the South o N. Vietnam returns 500 POWs Détente China o Nixon to Beijing, February 1972; meets with Mao o diplomatic recognition, 1979 (30 years after revolution) Soviet Union o Strategic Arms Limitation Treaty (SALT) ABM freeze on missile platforms

7 NAME CLASS DATE Themed Collection: CHECKS AND BALANCES The War Powers Resolution, 1973 Largely in response to the Vietnam Wa r, which was never officially declared by Congress but cost billions of dollars and thousands of lives, many lawmakers in the 1970s wanted to ensure a congressional role in decisions to use military force. Many members of Congress felt that during the Vietnam War, Presidents Johnson and Nixon had denied Congress its proper role in issues of defense and foreign policy. The result was the War Powers Resolution (excerpted below). Critics of the legislation believed it unconstitutionally invaded the President s foreign policy and war powers. Supporters believed it restored some of the balance that was originally intended in the Constitution. SEC. 2. (a) It is the purpose of this joint resolution to fulfill the intent of the framers of the Constitution of the United States and insure that the collective judgment of both the Congress and the President will apply to the introduction of United States Armed Forces into hostilities, or into situations where imminent involvement in hostilities is clearly indicated by the circumstances, and to the continued use of such forces in hostilities or in such situations. SEC. 3. The President in every possible instance shall consult with Congress before introducing United States Armed Forces into hostilities or into a situation where imminent involvement in hostilities is clearly indicated by the circumstances, and after every such introduction shall consult regularly with the Congress until United States Armed Forces are no longer engaged in hostilities or have been removed from such situations. SEC. 4. (a) In the absence of a declaration of w a r, in any case in which the United States Armed Forces are introduced (1) into hostilities or into situations where imminent involvement in hostilities is clearly indicated by the circumstances; (2) into the territory, airspace or waters of a foreign nation, while equipped for combat, except for deployments which relate solely to s u p p l y, replacement, repair, or training of such forces; or (3) in numbers which substantially enlarge United States Armed Forces equipped for combat already located in a foreign nation; the President shall submit within 48 hours to the Speaker of the House of Representatives and to the President pro tempore of the Senate a report, in writing (b) Within sixty calendar days after a report is submitted pursuant to section 4(a)(1), whichever is earlier, the President shall terminate any use of United States Armed Forces with respect to which such report was submitted (or required to be submitted), unless Congress (1) has declared war or has enacted a specific authorization for such use of United States Armed Forces, (2) has extended by law such sixty-day period, or (3) is physically unable to meet as a result of an armed attack upon the United States. Questions for Discussion 1. According to the Resolution, what must the President do in every possible instance? 2. Whose power is checked by the application of the resolution? How and by whom is it checked? 62 Close Up on Primary Sources Themed Collection

8 NAME CLASS DATE any The new ntion emphasis on ericans made factories dur t of radio age wildly productive. ions across Comsumers reveling in nd the world modern lifestyle, floc altered the to buy many differ histor products from mixer to autom Many who w GUIDED READING AND REVIEW The Watergate Scandal SECTION 3 A. AS YOU READ As you read Section 3, fill in the boxes in the sequence chain below to show how the Watergate scandal unfolded, ending with Nixon s resignation. 1. With Nixon s approval, a special White House unit is organized, which breaks into the office of Daniel Ellsberg s psychiatrist B. REVIEWING KEY TERMS Explain the significance of each of the following terms to Nixon s presidency. 10. Watergate scandal 11. special prosecutor 12. impeach Pearson Education, Inc., publishing as Prentice Hall. 130 Guided Reading and Review Chapter 32 Survey Edition Chapter 25 Modern American History Edition

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