Population Genetics INTRODUCT ION:

Size: px
Start display at page:

Download "Population Genetics INTRODUCT ION:"

Transcription

1 Population Genetics INTRODUCT ION: An understanding of evolution depends upon knowledge of population genetics. If you have ever asked questions such as the ones that follow, you begin to see why studying population genetics might be useful:. How can O be the most common of the blood types if it is a recessive trait?. If Huntington's disease is a dominant trait, shouldn't three-fourths of the population have Huntington's while one-fourth have the normal phenotype?. Shouldn't recessive traits be gradually swapped out' so they disappear from the population? These questions reflect the common misconception that the dominant allele of a trait will always have the highest frequency in a population and the recessive allele will always have the lowest frequency. On the contrary, there is not the slightest foundation for the idea that a dominant trait should show a tendency to spread over a whole population, or that a recessive trait should die out. How often a gene is present in a population (gene frequency) can be high or low no matter how the allele is expressed, and can change, depending on the conditions that exist. It is the changes in gene frequencies over time that result in evolution. In the year 908 mathematician G. H. Hardy in England and geneticist W. Weinberg in Germany each independently formulated the central theorem of population genetics. This central theorem is now known as the Hardy-Weinberg Principle. The Hardy-Weinberg Principle provides a baseline to determine whether or not gene frequencies have changed in a population and thus whether evolution has occurred. Recall, it is at the population level that evolution occurs. A population is a group of individuals of the same species in a given area whose members can interbreed. Because the individuals of a population can interbreed, they share a common group of genes known as the gene pool. Each gene pool contains all the alleles for all the traits of all the population. For evolution to occur in real populations, some of the gene frequencies must change with time. The gene frequency of an allele is the number of times an allele for a particular trait occurs compared to the total number of alleles for that trait. Gene frequency = the number of a specific type of allele / the total number of alleles in the gene pool An important way of discovering why real populations change with time is to construct a model of a population that does not change. This is just what Hardy and Weinberg did. Their principle describes a hypothetical situation in which there is no change in the gene pool (frequencies of alleles), hence no evolution. This hypothetical situation makes five assumptions that must hold true in order for equilibrium in the population (no evolution).. No mutation. The alleles must not change.. Random mating. There is no mating preference. For example an AA male does not prefer an aa female.. No genetic drift. Changes in gene pool due to chance.. No gene flow. Exchange of genes between the population and another population must not occur.. No natural selection. Natural selection must not favor any particular individual.

2 Consider a population whose gene pool contains the alleles A and a. Hardy and Weinberg assigned the letter p to the frequency of the dominant allele A and the letter q to the frequency of the recessive allele a. Since the sum of all the alleles must equal 00%, then p + q = (allele frequency) So far we have been describing only the occurrence of the alleles in a population. As you know, in individuals, alleles occur in pairs. Thus, every individual in the population has two genes per trait. These alleles can be arranged in one of the following ways: homozygous dominant heterozygous homozygous recessive According to the product rule of probability learned previously, the chance of obtaining a combination of two individual alleles is the product of the chances of receiving each individually. This leads to the second equation of Hardy-Weinberg: p + pq + q =.0 (genotype frequency) Here, p = the frequency of individuals in the population having two dominant alleles; pq = the frequency of those having one dominant and one recessive allele; and q = the frequency of those having two recessive alleles. Using these equations and some information about a given population, you can determine the frequencies of individual genes as well as the frequencies of genotypes in a population. If frequencies of alleles remain at equilibrium over time..no evolution. If the frequencies of alleles change.evolution! Pre-Lab. The cross pq x pq describes the mating of what two kinds of individuals?. Match each of the following symbols with the phrase that defines it. p a. The frequency of homozygous dominant individuals in the population. q b. The frequency of the dominant allele. p c. The frequency of heterozygous individuals in the population. pq d. The frequency of the recessive allele. q e. The frequency of homozygous recessive individuals in the population.. Write the two Hardy-Weinberg equations.. In order for a population to be in Hardy-Weinberg equilibrium, we assume certain conditions must hold true. What are those conditions?

3 Fishy F req uencies: A st ud y of Pop ulati on Gen etic s Group I Fact s a bout t he 'Fish'. These little fish are the natural prey of the terrible fish-eating sharks - YOU!. Fish come with two phenotypes, gold and brown: gold: this is a recessive trait (f). brown: this is a dominant trait (F).. You, the terrible fish-eating sharks, like both fish the same and eat whichever ones you happen to catch.. New fish are born every 'year'; the birth rate equals the death rate. You simulate births by reaching into the container of 'spare fish' and selecting random fish.. Since the gold trait is recessive, the gold fish are homozygous recessive (ff). Because the brown trait is dominant, the brown fish are either homozygous or heterozygous dominant (FF or Ff). 6. The fish are living in an ocean (in the middle of your table). Procedure. Get a random population of 0 fish from the 'ocean.'. Count gold and brown fish and record in your chart; you can calculate frequencies later.. Eat random fish (no peaking).. Add fish from the 'ocean.' (One fish for each one that died.) Be random. Do NOT use artificial selection.. Record the number of gold and brown fish. 6. Again eat fish. 7. Add randomly selected fish, one for each death. 8. Count and record. 9. Repeat steps 6, 7, and 8 two more times. 0. Fill in the class results on your chart and calculate gene frequency and genotype frequency. Group I: Class Data Generation Gold Brown q q p p pq Group I: Individual Data Generation Gold Brown

4 Fishy F req uencies: A st ud y of Pop ulati on Gen etic s Group II Fact s a bout t he 'Fish'. These little fish are the natural prey of the terrible fish-eating sharks - YOU!. Fish come with two phenotypes, gold and brown: gold: this is a recessive trait (f); these fish taste yummy and are easy to catch. brown: this is a dominant trait (F); these fish taste salty, are sneaky and hard to catch.. You, the terrible fish-eating sharks, much prefer to eat the yummy gold fish; you eat ONLY gold fish unless none are available in which case you resort to eating brown fish in order to stay alive.. New fish are born every 'year'; the birth rate equals the death rate. You simulate births by reaching into the container of 'spare fish' and selecting randomly.. Since the gold trait is recessive, the gold fish are homozygous recessive (ff). Because the brown trait is dominant, the brown fish are either homozygous or heterozygous dominant (FF or Ff). 6. The fish are living in an ocean (in the middle of your table). Procedure. Get a random population of 0 fish from the 'ocean.'. Count gold and brown fish and record in your chart.. Eat gold fish; if you do not have gold fish, fill in the missing number by eating brown fish.. Add fish from the 'ocean.' (One fish for each one that died.) Be random. Do NOT use artificial selection.. Record the number of gold and brown fish. 6. Again eat fish, all gold if possible. 7. Add randomly selected fish, one for each death. 8. Count and record. 9. Repeat steps 6, 7, and 8 two more times. 0. Fill in the class results on your chart and calculate gene frequency and genotype frequency. Group II: Class Data Generation Gold Brown q q p p pq Group II: Individual Data Generation Gold Brown

5 ANALYSIS & DISCUSSION: Make sure you have class data from both Group I and Group II before you continue.. What is the basic difference between how Group I did the lab and how Group II did the lab?. According to Hardy-Weinberg, what conditions would have to exist for the gene frequencies to stay the same over time?. In Group I, what was the allele frequency (%) in the population? Homozygous Recessive: Generation Generation Heterozygous: Homozygous Dominant:. In Group II, what was the allele frequency (%) in the population? Homozygous Recessive: Generation Generation Heterozygous: Homozygous Dominant:. What happens to each of the genotypic frequencies from generation to generation in Group I? 6. What happens to each of the genotypic frequencies from generation to generation in Group II? 7. If Group I is experiencing any evolution, what do you think is the cause? 8. If Group II is experiencing any evolution, what do you think is the cause?

6 9. What happens to the recessive allele over successive generations? Would the recessive allele disappear from the population? Explain your answer. For the remaining questions, SHOW YOUR WORK and put a BOX around your answer. 0. What is the frequency of heterozygotes in a randomly mating population if the frequency of recessive phenotypes (aa) is 0.09? HINT: Start by figuring out the q, q & p.. A wild population of butterfly species consists of 99% orange butterflies and % yellow. Genetic tests proved the yellow form to be due to an Autosomal recessive gene. Estimate the percentage of heterozygotes in this population.. The frequency of the human recessive disorder cystic fibrosis is about in every 000 births in North American Caucasians. What proportion of American Caucasians would be expected to be carriers of the CF allele?. In cats, black fur is dominant to white. If 0% of all alleles for fur color in cats in a small town are white (b), and the town has 000 cats, how many of those cats would be expected to be black?

Population Genetics (Outline)

Population Genetics (Outline) Population Genetics (Outline) Definition of terms of population genetics: population, species, gene, pool, gene flow Calculation of genotypic of homozygous dominant, recessive, or heterozygous individuals,

More information

For a particular allele N, its frequency in a population is calculated using the formula:

For a particular allele N, its frequency in a population is calculated using the formula: Date: Calculating Allele Frequency Definitions: Allele frequency is a measure of the relative frequency of an allele in a population. Microevolution is defined as the change in the frequency of alleles

More information

Molecular Biology Chapter 13: Evolution Hardy-Weinberg Practice Problems

Molecular Biology Chapter 13: Evolution Hardy-Weinberg Practice Problems Molecular Biology Chapter 13: Evolution Hardy-Weinberg Practice Problems When Allele Frequencies Are Given 1. Given a population in Hardy-Weinberg equilibrium with allele frequencies A = 0.9 and a = 0.1,

More information

Population and Community Dynamics

Population and Community Dynamics Population and Community Dynamics Part 1. Genetic Diversity in Populations Pages 676 to 701 Part 2. Population Growth and Interactions Pages 702 to 745 Review Evolution by Natural Selection new variants

More information

Population Genetics. Macrophage

Population Genetics. Macrophage Population Genetics CCR5 CCR5-Δ32 Macrophage 1 What accounts for this variation? Random? Past epidemics (plague, smallpox)? What will happen to this variation in the future? Will Δ32 allele increase in

More information

Hardy-Weinberg Equilibrium Problems

Hardy-Weinberg Equilibrium Problems Hardy-Weinberg Equilibrium Problems 1. The frequency of two alleles in a gene pool is 0.19 (A) and 0.81(a). Assume that the population is in Hardy-Weinberg equilibrium. (a) Calculate the percentage of

More information

Applications in population genetics. Hanan Hamamy Department of Genetic Medicine and Development Geneva University

Applications in population genetics. Hanan Hamamy Department of Genetic Medicine and Development Geneva University Applications in population genetics Hanan Hamamy Department of Genetic Medicine and Development Geneva University Training Course in Sexual and Reproductive Health Research Geneva 2013 Population genetics

More information

Chapter 16 How Populations Evolve

Chapter 16 How Populations Evolve Title Chapter 16 How Populations Evolve Copyright The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. Permission required for reproduction or display. Population Genetics A population is all of the members of a single species

More information

Chapter 25: Population Genetics

Chapter 25: Population Genetics Chapter 25: Population Genetics Student Learning Objectives Upon completion of this chapter you should be able to: 1. Understand the concept of a population and polymorphism in populations. 2. Apply the

More information

CAMPBELL BIOLOGY. Chapter 13

CAMPBELL BIOLOGY. Chapter 13 Lecture 10 Population Genetics CAMPBELL BIOLOGY Chapter 13 Hox Genes Control development Hox genes need to be highly regulated to get expressed at the right time and correct level to orchestrate mammalian

More information

Chapter 8 Population Genetics: How do Genes Move through Time and Space?

Chapter 8 Population Genetics: How do Genes Move through Time and Space? Chapter 8 Population Genetics: How do Genes Move through Time and Space? 4/29/2009 Chun-Yu Chuang How Do We Characterize Variation? Variation can be smooth or discontinuous. Two views of biology Naturalists

More information

Chapter 23. (Mendelian) Population. Gene Pool. Genetic Variation. Population Genetics

Chapter 23. (Mendelian) Population. Gene Pool. Genetic Variation. Population Genetics 30 25 Chapter 23 Population Genetics Frequency 20 15 10 5 0 A B C D F Grade = 57 Avg = 79.5 % (Mendelian) Population A group of interbreeding, sexually reproducing organisms that share a common set of

More information

Beaming in your answers

Beaming in your answers Bio 112 Handout for Evolution 4 This handout contains: Today s iclicker Question Figures for today s lecture iclicker Question #1 - after lecture Which of the following statements are false: A. If the

More information

Allele Frequencies: Changing. Chapter 15

Allele Frequencies: Changing. Chapter 15 Allele Frequencies: Changing Chapter 15 Changing Allele Frequencies 1. Mutation introduces new alleles into population 2. Natural Selection specific alleles are more likely to be passed down because they

More information

MORE HARDY-WEINBERG PROBLEMS THAN YOU CAN SHAKE A STICK AT!

MORE HARDY-WEINBERG PROBLEMS THAN YOU CAN SHAKE A STICK AT! MORE HARDY-WEINBERG PROBLEMS THAN YOU CAN SHAKE A STICK AT! 1. In a certain flock of sheep, 4% of the population has black wool and 96% has white wool. If black wool is a recessive trait, what percent

More information

LS4 Problem Set 2, Population Genetics. Corresponding Quiz: November (Along with positional cloning)

LS4 Problem Set 2, Population Genetics. Corresponding Quiz: November (Along with positional cloning) LS4 Problem Set 2, 2010 Population Genetics Corresponding Lectures: November 5, 8 and 10 Corresponding Reading: Hartwell et al., 757-773 Corresponding Quiz: November 15-19 (Along with positional cloning)

More information

Ninja Sea Turtles Lab A simulation of population genetics

Ninja Sea Turtles Lab A simulation of population genetics Name Date I. Introduction Ninja Sea Turtles Lab A simulation of population genetics Created by Amanda Tsoi Somerville High School, MA Which type of population will survive better: a group that has a lot

More information

Prof. Arjumand S. Warsy Department of Biochemistry College of Science, King Saud University, Riyadh

Prof. Arjumand S. Warsy Department of Biochemistry College of Science, King Saud University, Riyadh GENOTYPE, PHENOTYPE AND GENE FREQUENCIES Prof. Arjumand S. Warsy Department of Biochemistry College of Science, King Saud University, Riyadh Introduction Genotype is the genetic makeup of an individual

More information

Population Genetics and Evolution

Population Genetics and Evolution ADVANCED PLACEMENT BIOLOGY Laboratory 8 Population Genetics and Evolution 7-650 TEACHER S MANUAL World-Class Support for Science & Math This protocol has been adapted from the Advanced Placement Biology

More information

Punnett Square: Monohybird Crosses

Punnett Square: Monohybird Crosses Punnett Squares A Punnett square is a mathematical device used by geneticists to show combinations of gametes and to predict offspring ratios. There are a few fundamental concepts of Punnett squares that

More information

Population Genetics page 1

Population Genetics page 1 Population Genetics page 1 Objectives Learn basic principles of population genetics and microevolution through the use of a computer model. Pre-lab assignment Before lab, read the introductory material

More information

AP BIOLOGY 2010 SCORING GUIDELINES

AP BIOLOGY 2010 SCORING GUIDELINES AP BIOLOGY 2010 SCORING GUIDELINES Question 3 A new species of fly was discovered on an island in the South Pacific. Several different crosses were performed, each using 100 females and 100 males. The

More information

NATURAL SELECTION AND GENE FREQUENCY

NATURAL SELECTION AND GENE FREQUENCY NATURAL SELECTION AND GENE FREQUENCY BY WOLFGANG RUBI CATALAN, MARNELLE MAC DULA, LIANNE UMALI, ERICA WILEY, & CHRIS YOUNG Student ID # s: WHAT IS THAT? Natural selection is a key mechanism of evolution.

More information

Ch.12 Reading and Concept Review Packet /20

Ch.12 Reading and Concept Review Packet /20 Name: Period: Date: Ch.12 Reading and Concept Review Packet /20 Term Chapter 12 Reading and Concept Review: page 308-333. Directions: Link the various terms into coherent sentence or two that connects

More information

Pre-Lab #5: Inheritance

Pre-Lab #5: Inheritance Pre-Lab #5: Inheritance Name 1. Define the following terms: Monohybrid Cross (see Part I) Allele Frequency (see Part II) 2. Describe how you will mate in Part 1 of this lab. 3. What is the allele frequency

More information

CCR Biology - Chapter 7 Practice Test - Summer 2012

CCR Biology - Chapter 7 Practice Test - Summer 2012 Name: Class: Date: CCR Biology - Chapter 7 Practice Test - Summer 2012 Multiple Choice Identify the choice that best completes the statement or answers the question. 1. A person who has a disorder caused

More information

Population Genetics: Changes in the Gene Pool and Gene Frequency

Population Genetics: Changes in the Gene Pool and Gene Frequency Biology 11 Name: Population Genetics: Changes in the Gene Pool and Gene Frequency Evolution through natural selection describes how populations change over time but it is not the only way that populations

More information

Evolution of Populations

Evolution of Populations Evolution of Populations Evolution Q: How can populations evolve to form new species? 17.1 How do genes make evolution possible? WHAT I KNOW SAMPLE ANSWER: There are different variations of the same gene.

More information

Our understanding of Mendelian inheritance in humans is based on the analysis of family pedigrees or the results of mating that have already occurred.

Our understanding of Mendelian inheritance in humans is based on the analysis of family pedigrees or the results of mating that have already occurred. Advanced Biology Notes: Human Disorder Pedigree analysis: Our understanding of Mendelian inheritance in humans is based on the analysis of family pedigrees or the results of mating that have already occurred.

More information

C1. A gene pool is all of the genes present in a particular population. Each type of gene within a gene pool may exist in one or more alleles.

C1. A gene pool is all of the genes present in a particular population. Each type of gene within a gene pool may exist in one or more alleles. C1. A gene pool is all of the genes present in a particular population. Each type of gene within a gene pool may exist in one or more alleles. The prevalence of an allele within the gene pool is described

More information

Explore INVESTIGATION. How can a pedigree be used to trace a genetic disorder over generations? Using models. Name Date

Explore INVESTIGATION. How can a pedigree be used to trace a genetic disorder over generations? Using models. Name Date Name Date How can a pedigree be used to trace a genetic disorder over generations? A pedigree is a tool used by geneticists to study traits and genetic disorders in generations of families. A genetic disorder

More information

Natural Selection, Chi-square & Hardy-Weinberg Calculations

Natural Selection, Chi-square & Hardy-Weinberg Calculations BIOL 0 LAB 5 Natural Selection, Chi-square & Hardy-Weinberg Calculations Variability exists in all natural populations. For a wide variety of reasons, some phenotypes (visible characters) or genotypes

More information

Genetics and Natural Selection

Genetics and Natural Selection Genetics and Natural Selection Darwin did not have an understanding of the mechanisms of inheritance and thus did not understand how natural selection would alter the patterns of inheritance in a population.

More information

How do populations evolve?... Are there any trends?...

How do populations evolve?... Are there any trends?... How do populations evolve?... Are there any trends?... Gene pool: all of the genes of a population Allele frequency: the percentage of any particular allele in a gene pool A population in which an allele

More information

BIOL 202 LAB 3 Genetics

BIOL 202 LAB 3 Genetics BIOL 202 LAB 3 Genetics Introduction Human genetic traits can be used to illustrate a number of genetic examples. Such examples include complete dominance, incomplete dominance, codominance, and sexlinkage.

More information

11.1. A population shares a common gene pool. The Evolution of Populations CHAPTER 11. Fill in the concept map below.

11.1. A population shares a common gene pool. The Evolution of Populations CHAPTER 11. Fill in the concept map below. 11.1 GENETIC VARIATION WITHIN POPULATIONS Study Guide KEY CONCEPT A population shares a common gene pool. VOCABULARY gene pool allele frequency MAIN IDEA: Genetic variation in a population increases the

More information

Lab #4: Genetics & Inheritance Pre-Lab Exercise

Lab #4: Genetics & Inheritance Pre-Lab Exercise Lab #4: Genetics & Inheritance Pre-Lab Exercise Name 1. Define the following terms: a. Genetic trait: b. Gene: c. Allele: d. Genotype: e. Phenotype: f. Homozygous g. Heterozygous h. Dominant: i. Recessive:

More information

Biology 32: Evolutionary Biology Computer simulations of evolutionary forces, 2010 KEY

Biology 32: Evolutionary Biology Computer simulations of evolutionary forces, 2010 KEY Biology 32: Evolutionary Biology Computer simulations of evolutionary forces, 2010 KEY 1. The default settings in Allele A 1 demonstrate Hardy-Weinberg equilibrium. These settings include initial frequencies

More information

Multiple Choice Review - Heredity

Multiple Choice Review - Heredity Questions #1-3 refer to the following situation: Multiple Choice Review - Heredity In humans, detached earlobes (D) is dominant to attached earlobes (d). Alison and her father have attached earlobes. Her

More information

Genetics & Inheritance Lab Pre-Lab Exercise

Genetics & Inheritance Lab Pre-Lab Exercise Genetics & Inheritance Lab Pre-Lab Exercise Name 1. Define the following terms: a. Genetic trait: b. Gene: c. Allele: d. Genotype: e. Phenotype: f. Homozygous g. Heterozygous h. Dominant: i. Recessive:

More information

Workshop on Microevolution

Workshop on Microevolution Workshop on Microevolution by Dana Krempels I. Discuss the meaning of: a. species f. heritable traits (consider "nature vs. nurture") b. population g. lethal alleles c. gene pool h. adaptive, maladaptive,

More information

Notes: Types of Inheritance

Notes: Types of Inheritance Notes: Types of Inheritance Think about it You have a purple flower, you know purple is the dominate allele, but you do not know the genotype of the plant. How could you figure out it s genotype? Assume

More information

Population Genetics -- Evolutionary Stasis and the Hardy-Weinberg Principles 1

Population Genetics -- Evolutionary Stasis and the Hardy-Weinberg Principles 1 Population Genetics -- Evolutionary Stasis and the Hardy-Weinberg Principles 1 Review and Introduction Mendel presented the first successful theory of the inheritance of biological variation. He viewed

More information

2. In humans, brown eye color (B) is dominant over blue eye color (b). What are the phenotypes of the following genotypes? A. BB B. bb C.

2. In humans, brown eye color (B) is dominant over blue eye color (b). What are the phenotypes of the following genotypes? A. BB B. bb C. Name: Period: Genetics Packet The Basics 1. The following pairs of letters represent alleles of different genotypes. Indicate which pairs are Heterozygous and which are Homozygous. Also indicate whether

More information

Teacher Notes. Biology 30 Unit 4 Population Genetics

Teacher Notes. Biology 30 Unit 4 Population Genetics Biology 30 Unit 4 Population Genetics General Outcome D1: Students will describe a community as a composite of populations in which individuals contribute to a gene pool that can change over time. A. Genetic

More information

Mendel & the Gene Idea, Part II

Mendel & the Gene Idea, Part II Mendel & the Gene Idea, Part II Chapter 4, pp. 262-285 Lecture Outline Laws of probabilities govern Mendelian inheritance Beyond Mendel complex inheritance patterns Incomplete dominance Codominance and

More information

Collated questions Demonstrate understanding of biological ideas relating to genetic variation DNA STRUCTURE

Collated questions Demonstrate understanding of biological ideas relating to genetic variation DNA STRUCTURE Collated questions Demonstrate understanding of biological ideas relating to genetic variation DNA STRUCTURE THE ROLE OF DNA IN INHERITANCE (2013:2) (a) Use the diagram above to help you explain the relationship

More information

Mendelian Genetics and Inheritance Problems

Mendelian Genetics and Inheritance Problems Biology 211 Mendelian Genetics and Inheritance Problems Mendel discovered and described many of the basic rules of genetics after studying the pattern of how inheritable traits were passed from generation

More information

205. POPULATION GENETICS

205. POPULATION GENETICS 205. POPULATION GENETICS Evolution can be defined as the change in allele frequencies in a population. For this definition to be useful, we must also define the terms "allele frequency" and "population".

More information

MCB142/IB163 Mendelian and Population Genetics 9/19/02

MCB142/IB163 Mendelian and Population Genetics 9/19/02 MCB142/IB163 Mendelian and Population Genetics 9/19/02 Practice questions lectures 5-12 (Hardy Weinberg, chi-square test, Mendel s second law, gene interactions, linkage maps, mapping human diseases, non-random

More information

BISC403 Genetic and Evolutionary Biology Spring 2011

BISC403 Genetic and Evolutionary Biology Spring 2011 BISC403 Genetic and Evolutionary Biology Spring 2011 February 22, 2011 Summary of requirements for Exam 1 (to be given on March 1) plus first exam from fall of 2010 The primary responsibility is for any

More information

Biological Sciences Initiative

Biological Sciences Initiative Biological Sciences Initiative HHMI This activity is an adaptation of an exercise originally published by L. A. Welch. 1993. A model of microevolution in action. The American Biology Teacher. 55(6), 362-365.

More information

Chapter 2: Traits and How They Change

Chapter 2: Traits and How They Change Table of Contents Chapter 2: Traits and How They Change Section 2: Genetics Heredity x Genetics Mendel s experiments Punnett Square REVIEW: Genes are sections of DNA Genes have different Alleles A gene

More information

LAB : PAPER PET GENETICS. male (hat) female (hair bow) Skin color green or orange Eyes round or square Nose triangle or oval Teeth pointed or square

LAB : PAPER PET GENETICS. male (hat) female (hair bow) Skin color green or orange Eyes round or square Nose triangle or oval Teeth pointed or square Period Date LAB : PAPER PET GENETICS 1. Given the list of characteristics below, you will create an imaginary pet and then breed it to review the concepts of genetics. Your pet will have the following

More information

INHERITANCE & VARIATION 22 APRIL 2015 Section A: Summary Content Notes

INHERITANCE & VARIATION 22 APRIL 2015 Section A: Summary Content Notes INHERITANCE & VARIATION 22 APRIL 2015 Section A: Summary Content Notes Monohybrid Crosses Incomplete Dominance and Co-dominance Incomplete dominance: when the dominant gene allele is not able to completely

More information

TEST NAME: Genetics unit test TEST ID: GRADE:07 SUBJECT:Life and Physical Sciences TEST CATEGORY: School Assessment

TEST NAME: Genetics unit test TEST ID: GRADE:07 SUBJECT:Life and Physical Sciences TEST CATEGORY: School Assessment TEST NAME: Genetics unit test TEST ID: 437885 GRADE:07 SUBJECT:Life and Physical Sciences TEST CATEGORY: School Assessment Genetics unit test Page 1 of 12 Student: Class: Date: 1. There are four blood

More information

Dr. Young. Genetics Problems Set #1 Answer Key

Dr. Young. Genetics Problems Set #1 Answer Key BIOL276 Dr. Young Name Due Genetics Problems Set #1 Answer Key For problems in genetics, if no particular order is specified, you can assume that a specific order is not required. 1. What is the probability

More information

Basic Principles of Forensic Molecular Biology and Genetics. Population Genetics

Basic Principles of Forensic Molecular Biology and Genetics. Population Genetics Basic Principles of Forensic Molecular Biology and Genetics Population Genetics Significance of a Match What is the significance of: a fiber match? a hair match? a glass match? a DNA match? Meaning of

More information

Foundations of Genetics. Copyright The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. Permission required for reproduction or display

Foundations of Genetics. Copyright The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. Permission required for reproduction or display Foundations of Genetics 8.1 Mendel and the Garden Pea The tendency for traits to be passed from parent to offspring is called heredity Gregor Mendel (1822-1884) The first person to systematically study

More information

Chapter 21 Active Reading Guide The Evolution of Populations

Chapter 21 Active Reading Guide The Evolution of Populations Name: Roksana Korbi AP Biology Chapter 21 Active Reading Guide The Evolution of Populations This chapter begins with the idea that we focused on as we closed Chapter 19: Individuals do not evolve! Populations

More information

Genetics. The study of heredity. discovered the. Gregor Mendel (1860 s) garden peas.

Genetics. The study of heredity. discovered the. Gregor Mendel (1860 s) garden peas. GENETICS Genetics The study of heredity. Gregor Mendel (1860 s) discovered the fundamental principles of genetics by breeding garden peas. Genetics Alleles 1. Alternative forms of genes. 2. Units that

More information

Furry Family Pre-Test Questions

Furry Family Pre-Test Questions Furry Family Pre-Test Questions Name: Period: Date: 1) When will a recessive trait show its effect? a. Even if no recessive genes for that trait are present b. In the presence of one recessive gene c.

More information

Biology 1406 - Notes for exam 5 - Population genetics Ch 13, 14, 15

Biology 1406 - Notes for exam 5 - Population genetics Ch 13, 14, 15 Biology 1406 - Notes for exam 5 - Population genetics Ch 13, 14, 15 Species - group of individuals that are capable of interbreeding and producing fertile offspring; genetically similar 13.7, 14.2 Population

More information

PRACTICE PROBLEMS - PEDIGREES AND PROBABILITIES

PRACTICE PROBLEMS - PEDIGREES AND PROBABILITIES PRACTICE PROBLEMS - PEDIGREES AND PROBABILITIES 1. Margaret has just learned that she has adult polycystic kidney disease. Her mother also has the disease, as did her maternal grandfather and his younger

More information

LAB 11 Natural Selection (version 2)

LAB 11 Natural Selection (version 2) LAB 11 Natural Selection (version 2) Overview In this laboratory you will demonstrate the process of evolution by natural selection by carrying out a predator/prey simulation. Through this exercise you

More information

Chapter 16 Evolution of Populations. 16.1 Genes and Variation Biology Mr. Hines

Chapter 16 Evolution of Populations. 16.1 Genes and Variation Biology Mr. Hines Chapter 16 Evolution of Populations 16.1 Genes and Variation Biology Mr. Hines Figure 1-21 Levels of Organization Section 1-3 Levels of organization Biosphere Ecosystem The part of Earth that contains

More information

Name: Period: Genetics Problems

Name: Period: Genetics Problems Name: Period: Genetics Problems Basics 1. The following pairs of letters represent alleles of different genotypes. Indicate which pairs are Heterozygous and which are Homozygous. Also indicate whether

More information

Chapter 24 Genetics and Genomics

Chapter 24 Genetics and Genomics Chapter 24 Genetics and Genomics Genetics study of inheritance of characteristics Genome complete set of genetic instructions Genomics field in which the body is studied in terms of multiple, interacting

More information

The activity. (a) none (b) 100% /all of them (c) none

The activity. (a) none (b) 100% /all of them (c) none Teacher Notes Introduction This activity is based on an article explaining the genetics. Several activities are included on the student sheet to focus their engagement with the text. You may not wish to

More information

Lecture 6 Mendelian Genetics in Populations: Selection and Mutation

Lecture 6 Mendelian Genetics in Populations: Selection and Mutation Lecture 6 Mendelian Genetics in Populations: Selection and Mutation 1 Population: a group of interbreeding organisms and their offspring. Gene pool: the collection of alleles present within a population.

More information

Appendix A. Examples of homework, quiz and exam questions that address Learning Goal 1. A. Examples of homework questions (Learning Goal 1)

Appendix A. Examples of homework, quiz and exam questions that address Learning Goal 1. A. Examples of homework questions (Learning Goal 1) Appendix A. Examples of homework, quiz and exam questions that address Learning Goal 1. A. Examples of homework questions (Learning Goal 1) 1. Shared questions on homeworks for both majors and non majors.

More information

Pedigree Studies. Opening Activity: Latin Root Word: Review of Old Information: Guinea pigs can have curly or straight hair, where the curly gene is

Pedigree Studies. Opening Activity: Latin Root Word: Review of Old Information: Guinea pigs can have curly or straight hair, where the curly gene is Section: 3.7 Opening Activity: Latin Root Word: Name: Review of Old Information: Guinea pigs can have curly or straight hair, where the curly gene is recessive. Guinea pigs can also have a condition called

More information

c. Law of Independent Assortment: Alleles separate and do not have an effect on another allele.

c. Law of Independent Assortment: Alleles separate and do not have an effect on another allele. Level Genetics Review KEY Describe the 3 laws that Gregor Mendel established after working with pea plants. a. Law of Dominance: states that the effect of a recessive allele is not observed when a dominant

More information

Probability and the Idea of Chance

Probability and the Idea of Chance Probability and the Idea of Chance Instructions Activity 1. The Idea of Chance Consider a simple demonstration of the operation of chance (i.e., probability) in the tossing of coins. It is usually impossible

More information

Heredity - Patterns of Inheritance

Heredity - Patterns of Inheritance Heredity - Patterns of Inheritance Genes and Alleles A. Genes 1. A sequence of nucleotides that codes for a special functional product a. Transfer RNA b. Enzyme c. Structural protein d. Pigments 2. Genes

More information

Genetic Problems (I) SINGLE GENE INHERITANCE

Genetic Problems (I) SINGLE GENE INHERITANCE Genetic Problems (I) SINGLE GENE INHERITANCE 1. What are the expected phenotypic and genotypic ratios in the F1 generation? a. P= Pure bred black mated with white b. P= Hybrid black mated with white c.

More information

What is evolution? - Helena Curtis and N. Sue Barnes, Biology, 5th ed. 1989 Worth Publishers, p.974

What is evolution? - Helena Curtis and N. Sue Barnes, Biology, 5th ed. 1989 Worth Publishers, p.974 Chapter 16 What is evolution? Evolution is a process that results in heritable changes in a population spread over many generations. Evolution can be precisely defined as any change in the frequency of

More information

Genetics Worksheet. Name

Genetics Worksheet. Name Genetics Worksheet Name Section A: Vocabulary 1. Identify if the alleles are homozygous (Ho) or heterozygous (He). a. DD c. Yy e. Ee b. Tt d. hh f. KK 2. For each genotype below, determine the phenotype.

More information

Population Genetics. Outline. Key Concepts: How does a population evolve?

Population Genetics. Outline. Key Concepts: How does a population evolve? Population Genetics How does a population evolve? Outline 1. Key Concepts 2. Individuals Don t evolve, Populations Do 3. The Hardy-Weinberg Theorem 4. The Microevolution and Natural Selection 5. Genetic

More information

Genetics Practice. 1. The diagram below shows the chromosomes from a cell after they were photographed under a microscope.

Genetics Practice. 1. The diagram below shows the chromosomes from a cell after they were photographed under a microscope. Name: Date: 1. The diagram below shows the chromosomes from a cell after they were photographed under a microscope. Which of the following questions may best be answered by studying an organism s chromosomes?.

More information

Ch. 13 How Populations Evolve Period. 4. Describe Lamarck s proposed theory of evolution, The Theory of Acquired Traits.

Ch. 13 How Populations Evolve Period. 4. Describe Lamarck s proposed theory of evolution, The Theory of Acquired Traits. Ch. 13 How Populations Evolve Name Period California State Standards covered by this chapter: Evolution 7. The frequency of an allele in a gene pool of a population depends on many factors and may be stable

More information

Biology Chapter 7 Beyond Mendel Notes

Biology Chapter 7 Beyond Mendel Notes Biology Chapter 7 Beyond Mendel Notes Phenotype: Genotype: What is Mendelian inheritance controlled by? Incomplete Dominance:. Example of Incomplete Dominance: Example Number 2 When green betta fish (B

More information

11.1 The Work of Gregor Mendel

11.1 The Work of Gregor Mendel 11.1 The Work of Gregor Mendel Lesson Objectives Describe Mendel s studies and conclusions about inheritance. Describe what happens during segregation. Lesson Summary The Experiments of Gregor Mendel The

More information

Complex Inheritance. Mendel observed monogenic traits and no linked genes It s not usually that simple.

Complex Inheritance. Mendel observed monogenic traits and no linked genes It s not usually that simple. Complex Inheritance Mendel observed monogenic traits and no linked genes It s not usually that simple. Other Types of Inheritance Incomplete Dominance The phenotype of the heterozygote is intermediate

More information

Mendelian Genetics. Lab Exercise 13. Contents. Objectives. Introduction

Mendelian Genetics. Lab Exercise 13. Contents. Objectives. Introduction Lab Exercise Mendelian Genetics Contents Objectives 1 Introduction 1 Activity.1 Forming Gametes 2 Activity.2 Monohybrid Cross 3 Activity.3 Dihybrid Cross 4 Activity.4 Gene Linkage 5 Resutls Section 8 Objectives

More information

Heredity. Sarah crosses a homozygous white flower and a homozygous purple flower. The cross results in all purple flowers.

Heredity. Sarah crosses a homozygous white flower and a homozygous purple flower. The cross results in all purple flowers. Heredity 1. Sarah is doing an experiment on pea plants. She is studying the color of the pea plants. Sarah has noticed that many pea plants have purple flowers and many have white flowers. Sarah crosses

More information

4. In a molecule of DNA, if there is 21% adenine (A), how much thymine (T) is present? How much cytosine (C) is present?

4. In a molecule of DNA, if there is 21% adenine (A), how much thymine (T) is present? How much cytosine (C) is present? Name Biology I Test Review DNA, Protein Synthesis and Genetics This review should only be used as a supplement to your notes, activities, and previous quizzes. For additional review and questions it may

More information

Allele Frequencies and Hardy Weinberg Equilibrium

Allele Frequencies and Hardy Weinberg Equilibrium Allele Frequencies and Hardy Weinberg Equilibrium Summer Institute in Statistical Genetics 013 Module 8 Topic Allele Frequencies and Genotype Frequencies How do allele frequencies relate to genotype frequencies

More information

Lab. 9 Deviation of Mendel s first law Monohybrid part 2

Lab. 9 Deviation of Mendel s first law Monohybrid part 2 Main topics: Lab. 9 Deviation of Mendel s first law Monohybrid part 2 Deviation of Mutation a. ABO type b. Fur color of rabbits Deviation of Sex a. Sex limited b. Sex influence c. Sex linkage Deviation

More information

Answers to Mendelian genetics questions BI164 Spring, 2007

Answers to Mendelian genetics questions BI164 Spring, 2007 Answers to Mendelian genetics questions BI164 Spring, 2007 1. The father has normal vision and must therefore be hemizygous for the normal vision allele. The mother must be a carrier and hence the source

More information

BABY LAB. Let E = the dominant form of the gene / unattached earlobes Let e = the recessive form of the gene / attached earlobes E E

BABY LAB. Let E = the dominant form of the gene / unattached earlobes Let e = the recessive form of the gene / attached earlobes E E Baby Face 1 NAME BABY LAB BACKGROUND INFORMATION: Heredity is the passing of traits from parents to children. Hair color, eye color, eye shape, blood type and some diseases are all examples of traits that

More information

Assessment Schedule 2013 Biology: Demonstrate understanding of genetic variation and change (91157)

Assessment Schedule 2013 Biology: Demonstrate understanding of genetic variation and change (91157) NCEA Level 2 Biology (91157) 2013 page 1 of 5 Assessment Schedule 2013 Biology: Demonstrate understanding of genetic variation and change (91157) Assessment Criteria with with Excellence Demonstrate understanding

More information

Multiple Choice Review Mendelian Genetics & Inheritance Patterns

Multiple Choice Review Mendelian Genetics & Inheritance Patterns Multiple Choice Review Mendelian Genetics & 1. Jean-Baptiste Lamarck introduced a theory about inheritance in the early 1800s. Which of the following accurately describes his Theory of Acquired Characteristics?

More information

Mendel suggested that flower colour was controlled by inherited factors. Draw a ring around the correct answer to complete the following sentences.

Mendel suggested that flower colour was controlled by inherited factors. Draw a ring around the correct answer to complete the following sentences. Q. The diagrams show one of Mendel s experiments. He bred pea plants. Mendel suggested that flower colour was controlled by inherited factors. Draw a ring around the correct answer to complete the following

More information

A HARDY-WEINBERG EXCELL SPREADSHEET FOR GENE FREQUENCY CHANGES DUE TO SELECTION

A HARDY-WEINBERG EXCELL SPREADSHEET FOR GENE FREQUENCY CHANGES DUE TO SELECTION A HARDY-WEINBERG EXCELL SPREADSHEET FOR GENE FREQUENCY CHANGES DUE TO SELECTION John C. Bloom. Department of Computer Science, Miami University, Oxford, OH 45056 Thomas G. Gregg, Department of Zoology,

More information

Genetics Packet ~ Punnett Square Practice KEY

Genetics Packet ~ Punnett Square Practice KEY Basics Name: Date: Block: Genetics Packet ~ Punnett Square Practice KEY 1. The following pairs of letters represent alleles of different genotypes. Indicate which pairs are Heterozygous and which are Homozygous.

More information

Mendel s Laws. Patterns of Gene Inheritance. Gregor Mendel. What We Know Now. Gene locus. The Inheritance of a Single Trait.

Mendel s Laws. Patterns of Gene Inheritance. Gregor Mendel. What We Know Now. Gene locus. The Inheritance of a Single Trait. Mendel s Laws Patterns of Gene Inheritance Gregor Mendel - Austrian monk Developed laws of heredity Worked with pea plants Investigated genetics at organism level Gregor Mendel What Mendel Said: 1. Characteristics

More information

Chapter 4 Pedigree Analysis in Human Genetics. Chapter 4 Human Heredity by Michael Cummings 2006 Brooks/Cole-Thomson Learning

Chapter 4 Pedigree Analysis in Human Genetics. Chapter 4 Human Heredity by Michael Cummings 2006 Brooks/Cole-Thomson Learning Chapter 4 Pedigree Analysis in Human Genetics Mendelian Inheritance in Humans Pigmentation Gene and Albinism Fig. 3.14 Two Genes Fig. 3.15 The Inheritance of Human Traits Difficulties Long generation time

More information

Non-Mendelian Genetics. Chapter Five

Non-Mendelian Genetics. Chapter Five Non-Mendelian Genetics Chapter Five Mendel s Laws 1. Principle of Segregation Two alleles segregate randomly during formation of gametes 2. Independent Assortment Two genes will assort independently and

More information

POPULATION GENETICS BIOL 101- SPRING 2013

POPULATION GENETICS BIOL 101- SPRING 2013 POPULATION GENETICS BIOL 101- SPRING 2013 Text Reading: Chapter 11: The Forces of Evolutionary Change Pay particular attention to section 11.2, Natural Selection Molds Evolution, section 11.3, Evolution

More information