Instrument Performance of SCUBA-2

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1 Instrument Performance of SCUBA-2

2 Focus on SCUBA-2 q SCUBA-2 is a 10,000 pixel bolometer camera on the JCMT, operational since October q Two focal planes, each with four 32 by 40 MoCu TES sub-arrays with inline 2-D TD SQUID MUX. q Observes simultaneously at 850µm and 450µm with a 43 sq-arcmin field of view. q A survey instrument: - a square degree of sky can be mapped to 6mJy/beam at 850µm in less than 7 hours. q It s working great.

3 SCUBA-2 Innovation } Tons on innovation (3.4 Tons to be exact) Ø (Almost) cryogen free Ø Worlds first dry dilution fridge Ø (At the time) Largest low temperature detector arrays Ø Novel thermal isolation Ø Novel interconnects at 50mK Ø Superconducting wiring harness Ø MCE warm electronics Ø Data reduction pipeline

4 Detector arrays Assembling the focal plane SCUBA-2 detector design

5 Observing modes Constant Velocity daisy scans for point or compact sources less than 3 arcmin across Rotating curvy pong patterns for large-scale mapping

6 On sky calibration Made over 500 individual observations of primary calibrator sources (Mars, Uranus) and secondary sources (CRL618, CRL2688, plus 7 others). Measured the SCUBA-2 beam shape and focal plane distortion to enable accurate aperture photometry. Here showing maps of Uranus and the beam and diffraction patterns.

7 On sky calibration 2 Dempsey 2013 Calculate a Flux Conversion Factor (FCF) from detector units (pw) to astronomical units (Jy). Each night, many calibrators are observed. The error on the relative flux calibration is less than 5% at 850µm and ~ 10% at 450µm. A factor of 2 improvement over SCUBA. Mostly due to the use of a line of sight water vapour meter. SCUBA-2: on-sky calibration using submillimetre standard sourcesmnras (2013) Vol

8 On sky sensitivity Measured NEFD for each waveband as a function of fractional sky transmission Holland 2013 Measured RMS noise in 3 arcmin DAISY image vs integration time SCUBA-2: the pixel bolometer camera on the James Clerk Maxwell TelescopeMNRAS (April 21, 2013) Vol

9 Original Scientific Case } The original scientific aims for SCUBA-2 spoke of: } } extending capabilities to large-scale projects covering up to tens of degrees of sky, and deep and high fidelity imaging of selected areas. With an estimated mapping speed improvement 100 times that of SCUBA for an 8-arcmin diameter field-of-view the scientific productivity of the telescope should increase many fold. New kinds of targets and surveys that are currently infeasible with SCUBA will become easily observable with the introduction of SCUBA-2. SCUBA-2 has achieved these goals. } In good weather, a 3-arcmin diameter field can be mapped by SCUBA-2 to a RMS noise level (in the map) of 1mJy at 850μm in 3 hours. For a one-degree diameter field, the RMS noise in the map is below 6mJy in 7 hours. Shallower onedegree maps to 30mJy at 850μm take just 15 minutes.

10 6 JCMT Legacy Surveys SONS (nearby stars) Images of debris discs around nearby stars Images SONS team

11 JCMT Legacy Surveys CLS (cosmology) A sq-degree sized 850µm map in the UKIDSS Ultra Deep Survey field. SCUBA-2 detects hundreds of sources; far-infrared galaxies and active galactic nuclei out to z~5 or above. The insert is a Spitzer image which identifies counterparts to the brighter and low redshift examples. Images CLS team

12 Other survey team images M66 at 850µm (NGS (galaxy) team). Abell 1689 a massive lensing galaxy cluster (GT team) and 850µm map of Orien s integral shaped filament (GBS (Gould Belt) team)

13 Flexible in operation: Day and Night SCUBA-2 was the only ground based instrument to image comet C/2012 S1 (ISON) through perihelion November 28 th µm images of C/ 2012 S1

14 Impact of SCUBA-2 The SCUBA-2 beam size and field of view compared to ALMA (500µm) and SPIRE. SCUBA in its lifetime observed 41 square degrees In the first 3-years, SCUBA-2 surveyed 1778 square degrees

15 4.5 years of science operations SCUBA-2 is an excellent facility instrument } Cryogenics: } Major overhall in 2012 since then cold continuously for up to 16 months at a time many GHS pump failures along the way. } Array performance: } Consistent and reliable after warm-ups (to 4K) or months of continuous use. } Data reduction: } Continues to evolve one of the main issues is recovering extended emission. } Clump finding and making source catalogues. } Cost of operation } Cryogenics : $230K (PTC and cold trap) per year ($630 day) equivalent to 10L He a day

16 SCUBA-2 array properties and measured performance Sub- array Target/Measured G (nw/k) Target/Measured Tc (mk) Phonon limited NEP (W/Hz 0.5 ) Total Power (pw) Weighted Mean Dark NEP (W/ Hz 0.5 ) 850a (1.5) 4.3 (120) (60) b (1.5) 2.8 (120) (60) c (1.5) 3.7 (120) (60) d (1.5) 5.7 (120) (60) a (5.5) 4.9 (190) (230) b (5.5) 6.1 (190) (230) c (5.5) 8.5 (190) (230) d (5.5) 6.1 (190) (230)

17 SCUBA-2 detector properties Tc for 850µm focal plane 10mK variation with radial pattern. Similar for 450µm focal plane. Measured G is higher than target values. However we have higher total power handling which turns out to be useful..

18 SCUBA-2 optimisation TES bias and heater setting Early on in the commissioning we did a large search of the bias and heater phase space, measuring the dark NEP at each point for all sub-arrays. From such plots, we selected the optimum settings for TES bias and the heater. Each sub-array has a single heater and TES bias setting

19 Dark Noise Performance Dark NEP histograms for each sub-array; (right) 850 focal plane (left) 450 focal plane. These comprise all the dark noise observations from Feb 2012 to June 2012: 6,500 NEP measurements in total. The measured dark NEP is higher than the expected phonon noise limited NEP.

20 SCUBA-2 single pixel measurements Raw data single pixel IV curves Measured Dark NEP at each point of IV curve Initially on best sub-array (8a) - measured NEP of individual TES at each point on IV curves, for a range of heater values. At lower TES bias than we bias the whole sub-array, the measured NEP is achieving the expected phonon noise limited value.

21 Explore fitting multiple TES bias or heater lines 450a sub-array optimal TES bias

22 Fewer but better? } 450 focal plane responsivity Regular array setup New lower TES bias setup

23 Excess power with shutter open? Based on detector heater calibration, there is an excess power loading on the 850um focal plane of ~20pW when the shutter is open Typical powers measured from heater tracking from shutter closed to sky in good grade 1 (tau < 0.04) 850 ~34pW 450 ~104pW (assuming an effective heater resistance 2Ω )

24 Measured spectral Response 450 Spectral response The theoretical atmospheric transmission above Mauna Kea for 0.5 mm water vapor. The thick bars represent the approximate FWHM of the 850 and 450 µm SCUBA-2 filter bands. 850 Spectral response

25 On-sky sensitivity The measured NEFD as a function of normalized sky transmission at 450um (left) and 850um (right). The blue and red lines are the original target goals for SCUBA-2 Factor of 3 at 450 and Factor of 2 at 850

26 Steps in the detector signal This is a 30 minute observation. Each colored pixel is a bolometer step (or multiple steps) in a 30s sub-scan

27 Cryogenic Issues } There is a large (~mk in the mixing chamber and up to 10mK at the still) natural temperature oscillation within the dilution fridge. } The residual temperature oscillation of the focal planes, ~30 mk (after temperature control) represents a large (common-mode, but scaled per pixel) signal for the detectors. } To keep the dilution fridge operating we have added an external 4K cold trap costing ~ $70,000 per year

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