Worms and Mollusks. What Is a Flatworm? (page 683) Form and Function in Flatworms (pages ) Chapter 27. Name Class Date

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1 Chapter 27 Worms and Mollusks Section 27 1 Flatworms (pages ) This section describes the defining features of flatworms It also describes the characteristics of the three groups of flatworms What Is a Flatworm? (page 683) 1 Flatworms make up the phylum 2 What are the defining features of flatworms? 3 A fluid-filled body cavity that is lined with mesoderm is called a(an) 4 Why are flatworms known as acoelomates? 5 Is the following sentence true or false? Flatworms are the simplest animals to have three germ layers Form and Function in Flatworms (pages ) 6 Circle the letter of each sentence that is true about flatworms a Parasitic species are typically simpler in structure than freeliving species b Free-living flatworms have organ systems for digestion, excretion, response, and reproduction c Free-living species probably evolved from parasitic ancestors d All flatworms rely on diffusion for some essential functions 7 What do free-living flatworms feed on? 8 A muscular tube near the mouth at the end of the gastrovascular cavity is called a(an) 9 What do flatworms use a pharynx to do? 10 What are flame cells, and what are their function? Guided Reading and Study Workbook/Chapter

2 Chapter 27, Worms and Mollusks (continued) 11 What are ganglia, and what do they do in flatworms? 12 A group of cells that can detect changes in the amount of light in a flatworm s environment is called a(an) 13 How do cilia and muscle cells help flatworms move in two ways? 14 What is a hermaphrodite? 15 What occurs during fission? 16 Is the following sentence true or false? Free-living flatworms often have complex life cycles that involve both sexual and asexual reproduction Groups of Flatworms (pages ) 17 Complete the table about the main groups of flatworms Common Name Class Description Turbellaria GROUPS OF FLATWORMS Parasitic flatworms that infect hosts internal organs or outside parts Cestoda 18 Circle the letter of each sentence that is true of turbellarians a Most live in marine or fresh water b Most are the same color, form, and size c Most are bottom dwellers d The most familiar are the planarians 19 How does the blood fluke Schistosoma mansoni infect humans? 20 In which host do blood flukes reproduce sexually, and in which do they reproduce asexually? 234 Guided Reading and Study Workbook/Chapter 27

3 21 On the illustration of the blood fluke s life cycle, label the primary host and the intermediate host 22 In what areas is schistosomiasis particularly widespread? 23 The head of an adult tapeworm is called a(an) 24 What does a tapeworm use its scolex for? 25 What are proglottids? 26 Sperm are produced by male reproductive organs, called 27 Is the following sentence true or false? Sperm produced by a tapeworm s testes can fertilize the eggs of the same individual Section 27 2 Roundworms (pages ) This section describes the defining features of roundworms It also identifies which roundworms are important in human disease What Is a Roundworm? (page 689) 1 Circle the letter of each sentence that is true about roundworms a Parasitic roundworms live in plants and in animals b All roundworms are parasitic c Some roundworms are a meter in length d All roundworms develop from three germ layers Guided Reading and Study Workbook/Chapter

4 Chapter 27, Worms and Mollusks (continued) 2 A body cavity that is lined only partially with mesoderm tissue is called a(an) 3 How is a roundworm s digestive tract like a tube-within-a-tube? 4 The posterior opening of the digestive tract is called the 5 Circle the letter of each feature that a roundworm has a pseudocoelom b mouth c anus d coelom Form and Function in Roundworms (page 690) 6 Which have more complex body systems, free-living or parasitic roundworms? 7 Is the following sentence true or false? Many free-living roundworms are carnivores 8 Roundworms exchange gases and excrete metabolic wastes through their 9 What can roundworms sense organs detect? 10 Do roundworms reproduce sexually or asexually? Roundworms and Human Disease (pages ) 11 Complete the table about roundworms and human disease DISEASE-CAUSING ROUNDWORMS Roundworm Disease or Condition Caused How Disease Is Spread Trichinella Elephantiasis Ascarid worms Weakness and poor growth 12 How do Trichinella roundworms cause pain in their hosts? 236 Guided Reading and Study Workbook/Chapter 27

5 13 What is elephantiasis? 14 Circle the letter of each sentence that is true about the life cycle of Ascaris a Larvae in the lungs are coughed up and swallowed b The eggs develop into larvae in the lungs c Fertilized eggs leave the host s body in feces d The host ingests Ascaris eggs in contaminated food or water 15 How are ascarid worms commonly spread? 16 Where do hookworm eggs hatch and develop? Research on C elegans (page 693) 17 Circle the letter of each sentence that is true about C elegans a It is a free-living roundworm b Its DNA was the first of any multicellular animal s to be sequenced completely c It feeds on rotting vegetation d Its DNA has 30 times the number of base pairs that human DNA has Section 27 3 Annelids (pages ) This section describes the defining features of annelids It also describes the characteristics of the three classes of annelids Introduction (page 694) 1 What phylum are earthworms a member of? 2 What evidence is there that annelids are more closely related to clams and octopi than to flatworms or roundworms? What Is an Annelid? (page 694) 3 What is a septum? 4 Attached to each annelid segment are bristles called 5 Annelids are among the simplest animals to have a true Guided Reading and Study Workbook/Chapter

6 Chapter 27, Worms and Mollusks (continued) Form and Function in Annelids (pages ) 6 How is the pharynx used differently in carnivorous species than in annelids that feed on decaying vegetation? 7 What is a closed circulatory system? 8 What is a gill? 9 How do aquatic annelids respire differently than land-dwelling annelids? 10 How do annelids keep their skins moist? 11 What are the two major groups of annelid body muscles called? a b 12 Marine annelids have paddlelike appendages called 13 What is a clitellum, and what is its function? 14 Write labels on the illustration of the annelid for each of the features pointed to 238 Guided Reading and Study Workbook/Chapter 27

7 Groups of Annelids (pages ) 15 Complete the table about common types of oligochaetes OLIGOCHAETES Type of Oligochaete Description Habitat Long, pinkish-brown worms with few setae Red, threadlike worms with few setae 16 Circle the letter of each sentence that is true about leeches a They suck blood and body fluids from their hosts b Most live in moist, tropical habitats c They are typically external parasites d All are carnivores that feed on snails 17 What annelids do polychaetes include? 18 Circle the letter of each sentence that is true about polychaetes a They typically have only a few setae b They have paired, paddlelike appendages tipped with setae c They suck the blood of their host d They are marine annelids Ecology of Annelids (page 699) 19 How do the tunnels of earthworms affect other organisms? 20 Circle the letter of each sentence that is true about annelids a Earthworms are important to the diet of birds b Annelids bring minerals from deep soil layers to the surface c Marine annelids spend their lives burrowing through soil d Annelid larvae form part of the animal plankton Reading Skill Practice A flowchart can help you remember the order in which a process or series of events occurs On a separate sheet of paper, make a flowchart for the process in earthworms of feeding and digestion, described on page 695 For more information about flowcharts, see Organizing Information in Appendix A of your textbook Guided Reading and Study Workbook/Chapter

8 Chapter 27, Worms and Mollusks (continued) Section 27 4 Mollusks (pages ) This section describes the defining features of mollusks It also describes the basic mollusk body plan and the characteristics of the three main classes of mollusks What Is a Mollusk? (page 701) 1 Mollusks are members of the phylum 2 Circle the letter of each sentence that is true about mollusks a They share similar developmental stages b They usually have an internal or external shell c They are the ancestors of annelids d They are soft-bodied animals 3 What is a trochophore? Form and Function in Mollusks (pages ) 4 What are the four parts of the body plan of most mollusks? a c b d 5 What forms do the muscular mollusk foot take? 6 The thin layer of tissue that covers most of the mollusk s body is called the 7 How is the mollusk shell made? 8 Snails and slugs feed using a tongue-shaped structure known as a(an) 9 What is a siphon? 10 Why do land snails and slugs typically live only in moist places? 11 How does an open circulatory system carry blood to all parts of a mollusk s body? 12 A large saclike space in the body is called a(an) 240 Guided Reading and Study Workbook/Chapter 27

9 13 Ammonia is removed from the blood and released out of the body by tube-shaped 14 Circle the letter of each sentence that is true about mollusk response a Clams have a simple nervous system b Octopi and their relatives have the most highly developed nervous system of all invertebrates c Clams have well-developed brains d Vertebrates are more intelligent than octopi 15 Where does fertilization take place in tentacled mollusks and certain snails? Groups of Mollusks (pages ) 16 Complete the table about groups of mollusks GROUPS OF MOLLUSKS Class Common Name Description of Shell Examples Gastropods Bivalves Cephalopods 17 How do gastropods move? 18 Circle the letter of each sentence that is true about bivalves a Mussels use sticky threads to attach themselves to rocks b Some bivalves feed on material deposited in sand or mud c Clams move by flapping their shells rapidly when threatened d Scallops sting predators with recycled cnidarian nematocysts 19 The cephalopod head is attached to a single 20 What is a cephalopod s foot divided into? 21 What allows squids to locate a wide variety of prey? 22 The only present-day cephalopods with external shells are Guided Reading and Study Workbook/Chapter

10 Chapter 27, Worms and Mollusks (continued) Ecology of Mollusks (page 708) 23 What allows mollusks to inhabit the extreme environment around deep-sea volcanic vents? 24 Why can careful checks of bivalves warn public health officials of possible health problems to come? WordWise The block of letters below contains eight vocabulary terms from Chapter 27 Use the clues to identify the words you need to find Then find the words across, down, or on the diagonal Circle each word in the hidden-word puzzle Clues The head of an adult tapeworm Where food is stored in an earthworm A fluid-filled body cavity that is lined with mesoderm A group of nerve cells A bristle attached to an annelid segment A filamentous organ specialized for the exchange of gases underwater A muscular tube near the mouth Asexual reproduction in which an animal splits in two Vocabulary Terms f x y m h a c r o p i n o q t m h r c h s i t e l m g n p a s a s b v o i x n r i o c c o e l o m y o p g a n g l i o n n u e i s c o l e x 242 Guided Reading and Study Workbook/Chapter 27

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