Weight Management Basic Information

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1 Weight Management Basic Information Information is licensed to Glen Tobias, MS, RD, CSSD owner and founder of the e3 Weight Management System and registered Dietitian/Nutritionist. Tobias, presently the Team Nutritionist for the New York Jets, has practiced nutrition in many forms during the past several years. He has worked as a Nutritionist with The Spinal Care Institute at the Hospital for Special Surgery and the Atlantic Health System. He s been a Sports Performance Nutritionist for Yale University Athletics Department, professional MMA fighters, and the NFL. He also currently operates a private practice service in New York, New Jersey, and Connecticut where he utilizes the e3 program. He provides services to individual clients of all ages and skill sets as well as operating workshops and seminars. Macronutrients There are three macronutrients we consume in order to provide our body with energy and nutrients, they are proteins, carbohydrates, and fats. Every macronutrient should be present in every meal. All macronutrients being processed together in the body is better than just one or two. Each of the three macronutrients are necessary for bodily functions and should be present and balanced in every meal. Proteins Proteins are the second most plentiful substance in our body (water is the first). Our bodies use proteins for multiple reasons including: development of new cells, maintenance of tissues, and assist in basic bodily functions by producing enzymes. Proteins are made up of building blocks called amino acids. There are 22 amino acids which are broken into two categories essential and nonessential. Essential amino acids are those not produced by our body and need to be consumed through outside food sources. Sources of protein include animal foods and plant proteins. Proteins found in animal meat are considered to be more complete because they provide more amino acids. However, plant proteins are considered to be healthier because of their lower fat content. All foods except pure fats and pure sugars have some amount of protein. A food that provides all essential amino acids is considered a high quality protein. Because different vegetables provide different amino acids, with the right combination, vegetables can provide all the essential amino acids. Excessive protein can tax the kidneys and contribute to diseases and obesity. So it is important to have protein in the correct moderation and with both carbs and fats at every meal. Protein helps with many functions such as cell, tissue, enzyme, and hormone production. It also helps create antibodies and regulate fluid intake so you never want to cut protein out of your meal. Carbohydrates Carbohydrates are the body s main energy source. Our muscles, brain, and nervous system all depend on the energy provided by carbohydrates. Carbohydrates are found naturally in fruits, vegetables, beans, dairy products, and foods made from grain. Sweeteners such as sugar, honey, molasses, and corn syrup

2 also contain carbohydrates. Carbohydrates are converted by our body into glucose which we use for energy. Excess glucose is stored as fat. There are three types of carbohydrates simple, complex, and indigestible. Simple Simple carbohydrates are sugars that are easy to break down (1-2 units). Consuming simple carbs creates an extreme spike in blood sugar which increases insulin. Complex Complex carbs take a longer time to breakdown because they are made up of more units. This means they are digested more slowly causing a moderate rise in blood sugar and a steadier release of insulin. Complex carbohydrates also contain more vitamins, minerals, and fibers than simple carbs. Indigestible Carbohydrates Indigestible carbs are also known as fiber. Fiber is not digested or broken down meaning that it is not used as an energy source for our body. Fiber does have many health benefits however, and should be included as part of your daily meals. Low Carb Diets Low carb diets are extremely devastating to an individual s health. This is because without carbs your body is not provided with its main source of energy and instead decides to burn protein. This takes protein away from its other functions. Lack of carbohydrates also causes your body to become less efficient in burning fat. Typically carbohydrates combine with fat particles to be used for energy. When carbohydrates are unavailable the fat particles are not broken down completely leading to terrible sideeffects. Because of this, body composition has little change because now the fats are not being broken down correctly. Instead the body will burn muscle fibers as a new source of energy causing a loss in body tone. Finally, low carb diets can cause dehydration and much of the weight loss is primarily from water weight. Carbohydrates help hold water, without them the body is unable to keep itself hydrated properly. Fats There are four main types of fats monounsaturated, polyunsaturated, saturated, and trans-fats. Unsaturated Fats Unsaturated fats are found mostly in products derived from plants, such as vegetable oils, nuts and seeds. These fats are considered good because they can improve blood cholesterol levels. The healthiest, monounsaturated fats raise good cholesterol and lower bad cholesterol. Polyunsaturated fats lower both good and bad cholesterol. Polyunsaturated fats also provide essential fatty amino acids (omega-3 and omega-6). Unsaturated fats are found in olive oil, peanut oil, olives, most nuts, avocados, fish, corn, soybean, safflower oil, and sunflower oil. Saturated Fats Saturated fats are mainly found in animal fats such as in, seafood, whole milk, dairy, poultry skin, egg

3 yolks, coconut oil, palm oil, and palm kernel oil. Saturated fats raise both good and bad cholesterol levels. Trans-Fats Initially created to be healthier than saturated fats, trans-fats were actually found to be less healthy because they raise bad cholesterol and lower good cholesterol. Trans-fats are fats that are put through a process called hydrogenation in order to increase shelf life. Tran-fats have many negative side effects on your body and health. Proportions of Macronutrients As stated it is important to have a proper balance of all macronutrients. Carbs should make up about 60% of your caloric intake. Protein should consist of about 20-25% of your caloric intake. Fats should make up about 15-20% of your caloric intake. Water Water is the most plentiful substance in our body. Water makes up approximately 60% of an adult s body weight. It is considered an essential nutrient because it must be obtained from sources outside our body. It is necessary for nutrient digestion, transportation, absorption, and metabolism. Water aids in reducing fat and weight. It acts as appetite suppressant and helps metabolize stored fat. Lack of water decreases the performance in the kidneys and therefore the liver whose job it is to metabolize fat stores. Additionally, when there is a lack of water your body perceives it as a threat and starts to store as much water as possible. The recommended amount of water is liters (10-12 cups) per day for an adult. This number changes based on your activity level, outside temperature and weight. It can be obtained by beverages (that are >90% water by volume) or by fruits and vegetables (which are high in water content). Increase water intake slowly to achieve the desired amount. Also be aware that caffeine (such as in coffee, soda, and tea) dehydrates you. For every caffeinated beverage you should add an extra cup of water. Meal Timing Metabolism plays a large factor in weight/fat reduction and energy usage. The faster your metabolism works the more calories you will burn leading to more fat loss. Timing your meals appropriately will ensure your metabolism is working at its full capacity. The more often you provide your body with food (ideally every 3-4 hours) the more stimulated your metabolism. This allows your body to burn calories over a more spread out/longer period of time. If you limit yourself to three meals or less per day your metabolism cannot burn all the calories you are taking in at one meal. What your body cannot burn is stored as fat. When you wait too long between meals your body goes into starvation mode causing it to conserve calories taken in instead of burning them. Also when you eat smaller, more frequent meals your body can use protein more efficiently building up lean muscle mass.

4 Also it is important to slow your speed of eating. A meal should ideally take 15 minutes to complete. This is because it takes about 15 minutes for receptors to reach your brain telling you your stomach is full. If you eat over a shorter period of time there is a chance you can over eat because your brain has not received the information that you are full. Sleep If you don t get enough sleep it will negatively affect the following: motor skills/coordination, concentration, memory, handling of complex tasks, ability to think logically, decision-making skills, creativity, energy, overall health, mood, coping skills, and strength. Your body views lack of sleep as a stress on the body and causes the body to increase appetite, decrease immune functions, breakdown muscle, and it is more difficult to feel satiated during meals. To optimize energy output you must follow these rules: sleep a minimum of 8 hours a day, establish a regular sleep schedule (even on weekends), get continuous sleep, make up for lost sleep, reduce/eliminate caffeine, avoid alcohol near bed time (it disrupts deep sleep). Useful Tips 1. Keep a journal. It is useful to keep track of your food in a daily journal. It allows you to view your own eating patterns and record useful information as well (mood, exercise for the day, portion sizes, and hydration). It also allows you to take responsibility for your food choices, tells you when and why you eat, monitor the foods and portions to determine calorie count, allows you to adjust your schedule, choices, and portions if needed, you can see how you eat is influenced by others, helps you determine if you need to adjust your eating or exercise if you hit a plateau. It also allows you to monitor the effectiveness of your efforts. 2. Watch your portion sizes. Maintain the balance of 60% carbs, 25% proteins, and 15% fats. Ensure you are eating sensible portions at each meal. Try using measuring cups to get a more exact measurement of your food intake. 3. Prepare ahead of time. It is easier to make poor food choices when you do not have a meal pre-planned. Preparing both meals and snacks in advance can make a huge difference in your caloric intake and meal timing. 4. Don t get hungry. When hungry it is easier to be influenced by outside food sources and desires. You always want to be able to make the best food choice possible. This is made harder when hungry. 5. Increase your water intake. If you wait to drink until you are thirsty than your body has already lost about 3% of its water. This means that your coordination, reasoning and other skills are already being negatively impacted. 6. Get enough sleep. It is always better to fall asleep in the nighttime. Waiting until midnight or later to go to bed counts as going to sleep in the morning. It is best to avoid this when possible.

5 7. Consult a specialist. It is easier to maintain weight loss and healthy lifestyle if you have someone to consult and follow-up with. They can help you plan your meals, track your progress, and discuss finer details of what works and what doesn t and most importantly they can explain why. They can also provide reliable tracking of your body composition. 8. Focus on losing fat not weight. It is important to not focus on the scale too much. Scales report overall weight and tell you nothing about body composition. If you are losing body fat but gaining lean muscle mass your weight may stay the same. This is a good thing because it means your body is becoming more toned and healthier. 9. There are no bad food choices just degrees of better. 10. The goal is to be healthy and optimize your energy.

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