Olericulture Hort 320 Lesson 3, Domestication, Classification

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1 Olericulture Hort 320 Lesson 3, Domestication, Classification Jeremy S. Cowan WSU Spokane County Extension 222 N. Havana St. Spokane, WA Phone: Fax:

2

3 Origin, Evolution Nikolai Ivanovich Vavilov Most of the varietal wealth in our crop plants was concentrated in eight great centers of diversity: China, Hindustan, Central Asia, Asia Minor, the Mediterranean region, Abyssinia, Central America, west-central S. America

4 Fig. 2.1 Centers of Origin

5 Origin, Evolution Nikolai Ivanovich Vavilov Centers of origin of species coincide with the areas where the greatest diversity exists in the species. Video time:

6 Origin, Evolution Nikolai Ivanovich Vavilov Secondary centers of origin (centers of diversity) may be found far removed from the primary center of origin. These may be associated with domestication and human movement

7 Centers of Origin Determination of centers: 1. Botanical evidence 2. Archeological evidence 3. Historical evidence 4. Linguistic evidence (Items 2-4 most likely to determine center of domestication (secondary centers of origin)

8 Centers of Origin Features: Geographical location of species origin Site of maximum adaptation Site of maximum diversity Presence of related species Usually associated with site of domestication

9 Centers of Origin

10 Centers of Origin

11 Centers of Origin cabbage carrot celery lettuce corn, bean pumpkin, tomato pepper potato beet cantaloupe onion lettuce, turnip cucumber watermelon eggplant okra manioc sweet potato Vavilov s Centers of Diversity (origin)

12

13 Centers of Origin Major Crops Lettuce Europe and Asia Cabbage Europe Beet Europe Carrot Europe and Asia Onion Asia Potato South America Sweet Potato South America Bean South America

14 Centers of Origin Major Crops Pea Europe and Asia Tomato Central America Pepper Central and South America Cucumber Asia and Africa Cantaloupe Asia Watermelon Africa Squash Central and North America Sweet Corn Mexico

15 Edible species 20,000 Species used for food 3,000 Species cultivated 200 Major crop species - 25

16 Crop Species Domestication Process Began 8-10,000 years ago Foraging and unintentional selection Early cultivation Domestication Intensified and large scale production

17 Foraging Impact of foraging and plant management Selection of best food types seed distribution Selection of best adapted types in habitat region Unintentional altering of habitat to promote growth of certain plants (i.e. burning)

18 Early Cultivation Began as man approached food production systematically Started as unintentional habitat alteration to favor desired species Led to more intense cultivation; form depended on geographical constraints

19 Early Cultivation Favored in tropical regions: Vegetatively propagated plants: Re-growth from remnants No dormancy Discarded propagules in refuse piles

20 Early Cultivation Favored in mountainous or temperate regions: Seed propagated plants: Collected seeds may fall, germinate (after rain) around settlements Eventually seed were actively stored and systematically planted

21 Early Cultivation Impact of early cultivation on crop species Deliberate care of preferred plants Preferential survival of edible crop plants Distribution to new areas of habitat Increased population of humans and thus populations of crop species

22 Domestication

23 Domestication

24 Domestication Video Time: https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=6odevt-yhxe

25 Domestication Characteristics of wild species: Edible parts small, fibrous, bitter Numerous seeds, rapidly dispersed Poor or non-uniform seed emergence Often contain toxic compounds

26 Domestication Changes in maize

27 Domestication North American marsh elder

28 Domestication Changes in plants as a result of selection: Gigantism - often a result of changes in PLOIDY Where PLOIDY reflects the number of chromosomes in a SOMATIC cell (somatic versus gametic)

29 Domestication Terms of Ploidy: Monoploid has only a single complement of a basic chromosome set of the species also referred to as the haploid state (gamete cells)

30 Domestication Terms of Ploidy: Diploid has two complete sets of the basic chromosome number of the species

31 Domestication Terms of Ploidy: Diploid has two complete sets of the basic chromosome number of the species Triploid Tetrapoid Pentaploid Hexaploid

32 Domestication Examples of Ploidy: Diploid corn, onion, lettuce, tomato Triploid taro, watermelon (seedless) Tetraploid cassava, potato, Pentaploid sweet potato, potato Hexaploid yams, sweet potato

33 Domestication Changes in seed as a result of selection: Size Uniformity of germination # of seeds per plant Shattering Dormancy Hardness of seed coat

34 Domestication Other morphological and physiological changes resulting from selection: Loss of survival traits Loss of photoperiod response (potato) Emergence of mutant types (brassica) Absence of toxic substances (tomato)

35 Domestication Bean Example Trait Wild Domesticated Seed dispersal Present Absent Pod wall fibers Present Absent Seed dormancy 70% germination 90% germination Growth habit Indeterminate Determinate Number of pods Pod length 5.7 cm 9.3 cm Seed weight (100) 3.5 g 19.5 g Days to flower Harvest index Flower delay (16 hr) >60 days 0 days

36 Domestication Squash Example of selected diversity in squash

37 Domestication Tomato Example of selected diversity in tomato

38 Domestication Cowpea Example of selected diversity in cowpea

39 Domestication Impact of Domestication on crop species Selection of useful traits within crop species Elimination of survival traits resulting in dependence on human culture Wider distribution and adaptation

40

41 Cultivation Defined as controlled crop production: Includes: Tillage Planting and transplanting Weed and pest control Harvest and sometimes storage

42 Bolivian crop terraces

43

44 Cultivation Result of intensified cultivation Selection for traits resulting in economic benefit to the producer directed breeding Ease of management Storability Transportability Market specific quality traits

45 Cultivation Age-old question: Why can t I buy a good tomato any more? Is the complaint valid that produce has lost quality as we concentrate on economic production factors?

46 Cultivation

47 Classification Process of lumping numerous crop species into useful categories

48 Classification Classified by: Adaptation and hardiness

49 Classification Classified by environmental adaptation: Warm-season (very tender) Cucumber Eggplant Lima bean Muskmelon Okra Pepper Pumpkin Squash Sweet potato Watermelon

50 Classification Classified by environmental adaptation: Warm-season (tender) Cowpea Sweet corn Tomato Snap bean Soy bean

51 Classification Classified by environmental adaptation: Cool-season (semi-hardy) Beet Carrot Cauliflower Celery Swiss chard Lettuce Parsnip Potato

52 Classification Classified by environmental adaptation: Cool-season (hardy) Cabbage Brussels sprouts Onions Pea Garlic Broccoli Cauliflower Leeks Radish Asparagus

53 Classification Classified by: Adaptation and hardiness Life Cycle

54 Classification Classified by life cycle: Annual Cucumber, tomato, spinach, sweet corn Biennial Beet, broccoli, carrot, onion, parsley Perennial Asparagus, rhubarb, sweet potato

55 Classification Classified by: Adaptation and hardiness Life Cycle Parts used for food

56 Classification Classified by edible portion: Root Bulb Stem Flower Tuber beet, carrot, turnip leek, onion, garlic asparagus, kohlrabi cauliflower, broccoli potato

57 Classification Classified by edible portion: Fruit cucumber, tomato, squash Leaf cabbage, lettuce, spinach Petiole celery Seed beans, pumpkin seed

58 Classification Classified by: Adaptation and hardiness Life Cycle Parts used for food Taxonomic grouping (for Monday)

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