Fauna- Culture- Palisade- Wigwam- Longhouse- Wattle and Daub- Dug out canoe- Red Leader- White Leader- Yemassee- Catawba- Cherokee-

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1 Name Chapter 2 Native Americans Eastern Woodland Indians of South Carolina Standard 8-1: The student will demonstrate an understanding of the settlement of South Carolina and the United States by Native Americans, Europeans, and Africans. Indicator 1 Summarize the collective and individual aspects of the Native American culture of the Eastern Woodlands tribal group, including the Catawba, Cherokee, and Yemassee. VOCABULARY Flora- Fauna- Culture- Palisade- Wigwam- Longhouse- Wattle and Daub- Dug out canoe- Red Leader- White Leader- Yemassee- Catawba- Cherokee- Page 1 of 10

2 The Culture of the Eastern Woodland Natives 1. What Native American group were the Indians of SC a part of? 2. What shaped the lives of the Native Americans? Native American nations of North America were divided into regional groups based on where people lived and the languages that they spoke. The Native Americans that inhabited the land that is now SC were the. They were named this because they lived on the Coast of the continent and were dwellers. Like all Indian tribes, they were affected by the of the region in which they lived. This helped to shape their, political systems and daily life. The Eastern Woodland region provided these tribes with abundant, (plants), and (animal life). 3. Other than drinking and as a food source, why were rivers important? 4. What did Native Americans use as resources? 5. Why did the early Native Americans not have metal? 6. How were dugout canoes made? Rivers were key to their culture for obvious reasons such as fishing and drinking water, but were also important because river was a much more efficient method of transportation than foot travel. All things they used had to come from the around them, so they had to be creative and use all available resources to create the necessities in life. They used,,, and to create tools and weapons. The earliest Native Americans in our area did not have any tools until the arrival of the in the 1500 s. Animal pelts were used for clothing, blankets and at times, shelter. Dugout canoes were built using tree that were hollowed out using fire and stone tools. Page 2 of 10

3 Farming and Hunting 7. The first Native Americans were nomads~ What brought them here? 8. When the large herds of animals disappeared, what developed to provide food? 9. How did farming change their way of life? 10. What 2 daily chores were women typically responsible for? 11. Name the crops they relied on. 12. What main daily task were men responsible for? 13. How did the Eastern Woodland Indians feel about land ownership? 14. What were the purposes of slashing and burning? The first Native Americans were who arrived in the area after following large herds of bison and wooly mammoth. As these herds either left the area or became extinct, the tribes had to develop different food sources. The land was fertile, with rolling hills and clay soil, which allowed the people of the Eastern Woodlands to develop. This is a simple concept to you, but it took them quite a while to make the connection between seed and plant. Once they learned to farm, they settled into more villages and were able to develop more complex which included art, dress, ceremony, song, stories, dance, traditions, food, etc. Women primarily were the in the tribes, but they also fruits and nuts from the forest. Their primary crops were corn, pole beans, and squash, (known as the ), pumpkins, and bottle gourds. They developed ways to plant these together using the corn stalks as poles for the beans. They also grew which would be sought after by the Europeans when they arrived. While the women were working in the fields, most of the tribe s men were. Using bows and arrows made of stone the men provided the meat for the people of the village. The nation worked the land together and did not have a sense of ownership of the land, believing instead that the land was held in trust by tribal groups and should be. They respected the land, but still used it to provide their needs. They cut trees and burned the brush to clear land for farmland, to kill insects, or to drive out animals to hunt more efficiently. This is called and Page 3 of 10

4 agriculture. 15. Be able to give example of how environment effected the Native Americans lives. 16. What language group were the Eastern Woodlands a part of? Tribes of the Eastern Woodlands There were many Eastern Woodlands tribes in South Carolina. Each had specific ways of living depending upon where they lived. Obviously a tribe along the coast would rely on more than a tribe that was 200 miles inland. All of the South Carolina tribes shared the language and preserved their history through the oral tradition of. These stories are one of the that help historians study these ancient people. There were hundreds of tribes in SC, but the three most important were the, the, and the. 17. Where in SC did the Yemassee settle? 18. Why do you think the Yemassee had two different home sites? 19. What was a wattle and daub home made from? Yemassee The Yemassee nation was originally from Spanish Florida but later moved to the coast of South Carolina near the mouth of the to escape the Spanish governor. During the the people lived on the in wigwams covered with palmetto leaves which were plentiful in the area. During the fall, winter, and spring they lived farther inland in and homes with a roof of palmetto leaves. and was a method in which branches were together to make a called the wattle. The was a mixture of and which would then be smeared onto the mat and attached to a wooden frame. Page 4 of 10

5 20. How did the ocean affect the culture of the Yemessee? 21. Why did the Yemessee have the earliest contact and conflict with the Europeans? 22. What was the end result of this contact? They relied on hunting and farming, but also had the to harvest from. and were a large part of their diet. Since they lived along the, the Yemassee were some of the Native Americans to have contact with the. This contact often resulted in conflict which most often involved issues and would end in a war called the War. After the Yemassee War, the tribe fled back to for safety. 23. How did women play a role in the conflict between Europeans and Native Americans? 24. Where did the Catawba people live? 25. What were their homes called? The Yemassee tribe was ruled by a tribal council that sometimes included. Along with many other reasons for conflict, the Native Americans respect for women would become a problem for the Europeans who held for women in their culture. Catawba The Catawba tribe, who called themselves the river people lived along the rivers of the region in the middle of the state. Their villages were surrounded by a. Their homes were wigwams made of sapling frames covered with bark or mats made of and reeds. The Catawba also had council houses in their villages where leaders made the rules for the people. 26. What area of culture were the Catawba tribe known for? 27. What is unique about the Catawba tribe today? The Catawba were great, using they found in the earth that they shaped into pots. The Catawba are the only tribe to actually have a in the state of SC today. Page 5 of 10

6 28. Where is SC did the Cherokee live? 29. Why did the arrival of the Europeans not affect the Cherokee until later in SC history? 30. The Cherokee were one of the and most nations. 31. What were their homes often made of? 32. What was the difference between the White leader and the Red leader? 33. What did the Europeans want from the Native Americans? 34. What did the Native Americans want from the Europeans? Cherokee The Cherokee nation lived in the foothills and of SC. At the time of the encounter with the Europeans, since they lived of miles, they had very early contact with the each other. It would not be until the 1700 s when the Cherokee would become a major concern to the Europeans. The Cherokee called themselves the real people and were a and nation. They lived in villages of up to six hundred people surrounded by a palisade for protection, but there were of Cherokee villages. Their summer homes were open to the air and their winter homes were round structures made with and. The men fished by the water with walnut bark. This the fish and made them rise in the water to be gathered. Leaders of the village, including women, met as a council to make rules for the nation. In times of peace, the village was led by a leader; in times of war, the leader took over. Each village also had a holy man or woman. European Arrival and the Native Americans When Europeans arrived, the people of the Eastern Woodlands traded and for tools,, and. Page 6 of 10

7 35. Why were metal tools so desirable? 36. How did guns make a permanent bond between the Europeans and Native Americans? 37. What was the biggest cause for the drop in the Native American population? 38. What other ways were Native Americans harmed by the Europeans? The metal tools were completely unfamiliar to the Natives and they became very desirable because they were and ~ much more than the stone tools they had been using. were also very desirable because they were powerful and more effective during the hunt and in warfare. The biggest downfall with guns was that once the Native Americans traded with the Europeans for guns, they still had to rely on them for the and. Once the Native Americans owned guns, the Europeans often the Native Americans when for the gunpowder and ammunition. As the European settlers became more prosperous and numerous, the Native tribes populations greatly. By far the most significant effect of European settlement was. The Europeans brought over diseases that the Native Americans had no to, like small pox. These diseases killed of Native Americans. Europeans also took over the native peoples, them in trade, and forced some of the natives into. All of these things led to hostilities between the settlers and the people of the Eastern Woodlands nations which resulted in fighting and the eventual decimation of the Native people. Page 7 of 10

8 Native American Culture and Nature Like we said in class, the Native Americans lived by the land and relied on it for everything. Today we can change our environment easily with modern technology, but they could not. Below are examples of how the environment determined the way they lived. Please complete the sentence so that it is logical and explains how a Native American in SC may have lived. If I were a Native American living in the forests in early South Carolina, I may have eaten. If I were a Native American living in early South Carolina in the mountains, I may have lived in a during the winter. If I were a Native American living in early South Carolina near the ocean, I may have worshipped. If I were a Native American living in early South Carolina, during the summer I may have worn. If I were a Native American living in early South Carolina, I would have wanted to live close to because. Page 8 of 10

9 What is Culture? Culture, according to the dictionary, is the entire way of life developed by a people. If you were to describe a culture, you need to look at all aspects of the way they live. You know the most about American culture, so what is it? What defines us as Americans? Also, based on our class discussion so far, what do you think Ancient Native American Culture was like. Give me examples in each category. Food Clothing Shelter Transportation Education Holidays Sports / Entertainment Modern American Culture Ancient Native American Culture Page 9 of 10

10 Native American Map Savannah River Atlantic Ocean 1. The Yemassee tribe lived along the Savannah River near the east coast along the Atlantic Ocean. Color the area in which they lived red. 2. The first European explorers and settlers arrived here from Europe using what type of transportation? 3. Explain to me why you think the Yemassee would have been the first to have contact with the Europeans when they arrived from Europe. 4. The Catawba lived along the rivers in the center of the state, color their territory green. 5. The Cherokee lived in the western part of the state in the foothills and mountain region, color their territory blue. 6. Even though the Cherokee were one of the largest and most powerful tribes, why do you think the Cherokee would not have been a major concern to the Europeans when they first arrived? Page 10 of 10

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