CHAPTER II THEORITICAL FRAMEWORK. Language is a group of sentences and a sentence consists of words. Swan

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1 CHAPTER II THEORITICAL FRAMEWORK 2.1. Sentence Language is a group of sentences and a sentence consists of words. Swan (1995:396) states, Sentence is a group of words that expresses a statement, command, question, and usually has at least one subject and verb. Then George O. Curme says, A sentence is an expression of thought or feeling by means of a word or words used in such form and manner as to convey the meaning intended. From those quotations above, it can be said that a sentence is a group of words and at least has one subject and predicate. A sentence is grammatically built the largest units of phrases or clauses which can be used to express statements, questions that can convey thought and feeling Sentences Elements House and Susan (1950: 201) stated that the elements of a sentence at least consist of a subject, predicate, and object. The subject of sentences is the doer of the action, e.g Mary is listening to the radio, the doer of the action is Mary. So the subject of that sentence is Mary. The predicate of sentences is the action which is done, said, asserted by the subject. So the predicate of that sentence is listening to. The object of sentences is the receiver of the action or a noun which receives the act expressed in the verb. So the 8

2 object of that sentence is the radio. Then, we can find that there are two kinds of object, such as direct object and indirect object. Direct object is sentence element, which comes alone without the other kind of object in a sentence. Direct object is the special term usually applied to the meaning that undergoes the action. Examples: - Sinta called her brother. S V O (DO) - My mother bought a doll yesterday. S V O (DO) Adv Indirect object is the special term usually applied to the meaning, that to or for which an action is done or performed. Examples: - He gave me a bunch of flowers. S V IO DO O - Mrs. Luther will give John a new dictionary. S V IO DO O 9

3 The direct object and indirect object may put together in a sentence. If it is, so the position of the two objects can be as follows: a. The indirect object precedes the direct object. It means that indirect object comes first before the direct object. So grammatically the correct word order of the sentence structure we use, S + P (V) + IO + DO. Example: - The teacher gives the students some books. S V IO DO O - My father bought me a jacket. S V IO DO O b. The direct object precedes the indirect object or direct object comes first before the indirect object. And grammatically correct word order of the sentence structure is, S + P (V) + DO + IO. Example: - The teacher gives some books to the students. S V DO to IO - My father bought a jacket for me. S V DO for IO In the sentence, the two word order of structure or generally used. Though they are in different form, but they have the same meaning. 10

4 Classification of Sentences Classification of sentences based on its type Based on its type, sentences can be classified into declarative, interrogative, imperative and exclamatory sentences. Clearly each of them will be discussed as follow: 1. Declarative Sentences Declarative sentence is the sentence, which gives us some information. On the other word, they tell either positive or negative statement. The positive statements are called affirmative sentence (+), and the ones is negative sentence (-). Examples: - We are waiting for the bus.(+) - The new secretary in that office is Marta.(+) - Rini did not attend the meeting yesterday.(-) - I am not studying Germany.(-) 2. Interrogative Sentence Interrogative sentences are used for asking some questions. These sentences are ended by a questions mark (?) and formed from positive sentences. Normally, questions are made by the help of other common or modal auxiliaries, for instances do, can, will, shall, have, should, etc. But, they are frequently formed by to be. The questions which preceded by modal auxiliaries and tobe are called yes no questions. So the formula is: Aux/To be + S + P (V) + O +...? 11

5 Examples: - We are studying English (+) Are we studying English? - They will go to Jakarta tomorrow (+) Will they go to Jakarta tomorrow? The questions which preceded by WH-questions such as what, where, who, whom, when, and how. Generally WH-questions is used to ask the subject or the object. To ask the object, the formula is: WH-questions (Q.W) + aux/to be + S +V +...? Example: - They are watching television. (+) S to be V O What are they watching? QW to be S V - Tina reads a book. (+) S V O What does she read? QW aux S V In asking the subject the formula used is WH-questions (Q.W) + aux/tobe + P (V) + O +...?. On the other word, the subjects is omitted. Example: - They are watching television (+) S to be V O Who are watching television? QW to be V O 12

6 - Tina reads a book. (+) S V O Who does read a book? QW aux V O Note: A predicate of a sentence can consists of :verb or to be + verb. 3. Imperative Sentence Only the predicate is expressed. The simple form of the use, regardless the person or things. The sentences are ended by an exclamation mark in writing and a drop in pitch. Examples: - Shut the door! - Clean the blackboard! 4. Exclamatory Sentences They are begun with exclamatory phase consisting of what or how plus a part of predicate. The sentences is ended by an exclamation mark in writing and a stronger stress accompanied by a rise in pitch, expresses a surprised or emotion. Examples: - What a day! - How beautiful she is! - Don t you touch that!, etc. 13

7 Classification of sentences based on the use of verbs Azar (1987:282) states, A transitive verb is a verb that is followed by an object. Then, House and Susan (1950:94) stated that a transitive verb is an action or event involves another person or thing which the action affects or relates to. Example: - He killed a snake S V O - She ate rice S V O Whereas, Azar (1987: 282) states, An intransitive verb is a verb that is not followed by an object. Then, House and Susan (1950:94) stated that an intransitive verb is an action or event which does not involve anyone or anything others than the subjet. Intransitive verbs can not be used in the passive voice. Example: - An accident happened S V - All babies cried S V Based on the use of verbs, transitive verbs have two voice they are active voice and passive voice. Only transitive verbs can be used in the passive voice. Before discussing further about the active and passive voice, it is better to know what is meant voice, Martin and Wren (1986:8) defines, Voice is that form of a verb which is shows whether, what is denoted by the subject does something of has something done it. Then, House and Susan defines, Voice is the modification of a transitive verb which indicates 14

8 whether the subject is acting or being acted upon. From the two quotations above, it can be concluded that voice is the form of a verb, which can express the time of an occurance of the action. Thomson and Martinet (1975:176) stated that the passive of an active tense is formed by putting the verb to be into the same tense as the active verb and adding the past participle of the active verb. When the subject of the verb represents the actor (agent), the voice is said as active voice. Example: - The man kicked a ball. (Active) S V O And, when the subject receives or denotes the object to which the action is directed, the voice is said as passive voice. Example: - The man kicked a ball. (Active) S V O - A ball was kicked a ball. (Passive) O tobe V S Passive voice is the change of position of the sentence. It means that in the passive forming, there is a transformation process or shortly the passive voice is transformed from the active voice. Lado (1962:10) says: Transformational analysis begins with the assumption that the sentence of English or of any language are two basic types: Kernel and transformed sentences. The kernel or the grammar is a relatively small set of kernel or basic sentence is derived from any sentences or sentence types underlying them, they are the 15

9 foundation on which all else is built. All the rest of the language can be most economically described as a series of changes hung on the kernel sentences as transformations of them. Thus, for example, the sentence John saw Bill is a kernel sentence. The following are all transformation of it, 1. Did John see Bill 2. John did not see Bill 3. John saw Bill 4. Bill was seen by John 5. Bill was not seen by John, etc. From the quotation above it can be said that a sentence can be transformed to another sentences. The transformational process is derived from the basic or kernel sentence. So, in forming the passive voice, it also occurs a transformational process that is from active to passive. And also from the quotation above, the transformation (4) and (5) are the passive voice, which is signed by a word by in it. There are some steps in forming the passive voice, the steps are as follows: 1. Put object of the active in front of the passive voice. (Object of the active becomes the subject of the passive) 2. Object of the passive becomes pronoun (i.e. personal pronoun as object). 3. Add to be in passive which is suitable with it tense. 4. Put the main verb of the active after auxiliary (to be) in the verb past participle form (V3). 5. Put the agent by after the verb past participle. 16

10 Example: - They sent James to prison for two years (Active) - James was sent to prison (by) them for two years (Passive) From the example above, in a simple rule, the sentence in the active voice can be transformed to the passive voice in which the subject in the active becomes the object in the passive voice and object in active becomes subject in passive voice. The object of passive becomes personal pronoun as object that is them. The passive of an active tense is formed by putting the verb to be into the same tense as the active verb and adding the past participle of the active verb. The subject of the active verb becomes the agent of the passive verb. The agent is very often to be mentioned, when it is mentioned, it precedes by by and placed at the end of the sentence. So, generally the pattern or formula of the passive voice is as follows: 1. Positive Form O + to be + V3 + by + S (pronoun) Negative Form O + to be + not + V3 + by + S (pronoun) Interrogative Form To be + O + V3 + by + S (pronoun) +... To be + O + not + V3 + by + S (pronoun) Whereas there are direct and indirect objects in sentences as the example: He gave me a bunch of flowers. The direct object of that sentence is a bunch of flower 17

11 and indirect object is me. That sentence also can be made into passive voice. It becomes two passive forms, they are: A bunch of flowers was given to me by her, and I was given a bunch of flowers by her. So the general formula as follows: DO + to be + V3 + IO + by + S (pronoun) IO + to be + V3 + DO + by + S (pronoun) Table 2.1 The Passive Voice in Tense Auxiliary Tense Subject Singular Plural Past Participle Simple Present The car/cars is are designed. Present continuous The car/cars is being are being designed. Present perfect The car/cars has been have been designed. Simple Past The car/cars was were designed. Past continuous The car/cars was being were being designed. Past perfect The car/cars had been had been designed. Simple Future The car/cars will be will be designed. Future continuous The car/cars will being will being designed. Future perfect The car/cars will have been will have been designed. 18

12 2.2. Tense According to House and Susan (1950:116), Tense is the form of a verb takes to indicate the time of the action or the state of being; as present, past, and future. Stein Jess (1962:1463) defines, Tense as category of verbal inflection found in some languages that specifies the time, the length of occurance of the action or states expressed by a verb. From this definition, it can be stated that tenses are able to specify the time and expressed by the length of the occurance of the action. An occurance can be expressed by the verb. House and Susan (1950:116) stated that Modern English has nine tenses which is commonly used in the living language, three of which are simple (basic) tenses, three of which are compound (perfect) tenses, and three of which are expanded (progressive) tenses. The simple (basic) tenses are simple present, simple past, and simple future. The compound (perfect) tenses are present perfect, past perfect, and future perfect. The expanded (progressive) tenses are present continuous, past continuous, and future continuous. 19

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