SHRIMP U-Pb ZIRCON CHRONOLOGY OF THE POLISH WESTERN OUTER CARPATHIANS SOURCE AREAS

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1 Annales Societatis Geologorum Poloniae (2011), vol. 81: SHRIMP U-Pb ZIRCON CHRONOLOGY OF THE POLISH WESTERN OUTER CARPATHIANS SOURCE AREAS Bartosz BUDZYÑ 1, Dan iel J. DUNKLEY 2, Monika A. KU SIAK 3, Pawe³ PO PRAWA 4, Tomasz MA LATA 5, Mi cha³ SKIBA 6 & Mari usz PASZ KOWSKI 1 1 In sti tute of Geo logi cal Sci ences, Pol ish Acad emy of Sci ences, Re search Cen tre in Kraków, Senacka 1, Kraków, Po land, e- mail: kr.edu.pl, kr.edu.pl 2 Na tional In sti tute of Po lar Re search, 3-10 Midori- cho, Ta chi kawa To kyo, Ja pan; e- mail: dan 3 In sti tute of Geo logi cal Sci ences, Pol ish Acad emy of Sci ences, Twarda 51/55, Warszawa, Po land, e- mail: mku Present address: Centre for Microscopy Characterisation and Analysis, The University of Western Australia, (M010) 35 Stirlig Hwy Crawley WA 6009, Australia 4 Pol ish Geo logi cal In sti tute, De part ment of Re gional and Pe tro leum Ge ol ogy, Ra kow iecka 4, Warszawa, Po land, e- mail: pawel.po 5 Pol ish Geo logi cal In sti tute, Car pa thian Branch, Skrzatów 1, Kraków, Po land, 6 In sti tute of Geo logi cal Sci ences, Jagiel lo nian Uni ver sity, Ole an dry 2a, Kraków, Po land, mi Budzyñ, B., Dunkley, D. J., Ku siak, M. A., Po prawa, P., Ma lata, T., Skiba, M. & Pasz kowski, M., SHRIMP U-Pb zir con chro nol ogy of the Pol ish West ern Outer Car pa thi ans source ar eas. Annales Societatis Geologorum Po lo niae, 81: Abstract. The West ern Outer Car pa thi ans flysch of Po land com prises clasts of crys tal line rocks rep re sent ing source ar eas that sup plied sedi men tary ba sins with clas tic ma te rial. Zir con from quartz sy en ite and gran ite cob bles rep re sent ing the Sile sian Ridge, the cur rently un ex posed source area lo cated at the south ern mar gin of the Sile sian Ba sin, yielded uni form U-Pb dates of 604±6 Ma and 599±6 Ma. These are in ter preted as the age of ig ne ous crys tal li za tion. Simi larly, zir con from a gneiss cob ble de rived from the north ern source ter rain gave 610±6 Ma date, which is in ter preted as the age of crys tal li za tion of the gran itic pro to lith to the gneiss. The Neo pro tero zoic mag ma tism is in ter preted to have oc curred at the Gon dwana ac tive mar gin. Key words: zir con, U-Pb geo chro nol ogy, ion microprobe, provenance, Carpathians. Manu script re ceived 15 March 2011, ac cepted 2 June 2011 INTRODUCTION The study of ac ces sory min er als pro vides a broad range of con straints on the ig ne ous, meta mor phic and sedi men tary pro cesses. In the lat ter, par ticu larly in the field of prove - nance stud ies, in for ma tion on mul ti ple ig ne ous and/or meta - mor phic pro cesses re lated to sources of min eral de tri tus can be ob tained (Weltje & von Ey nat ten, 2004, and ref er ences therein). The ap pli ca tion of geo chro nol ogy to ques tions of prove nance re quires se lect ing radioisotope- bearing min er - als re sis tant to al tera tion and weath er ing, such as zir con (e.g., Ho skin & Ire land, 2000; Belou sova et al., 2002; Fedo et al., 2003; An der sen, 2005). Zir con pre serves both iso - topic signatures and internal textures characteristic of growth in ig ne ous or meta mor phic rocks (Corfu et al., 2003), so that sub- grain zir con geo chro nol ogy usu ally en - ables us to link sedi ments with rec og nised and dated crus tal sources. The West ern Outer Carpathians (WOC) flysch of Po land in cludes clasts of crys tal line and sed i men tary rocks that pro - vide links to source ar eas which sup plied Carpathian bas ins with sediments (e.g., Wieser, 1949, 1985; Ksi¹ kiewicz, 1965; Oszczypko, 1975; Sikora, 1976). Ig ne ous and metamorphic events re corded in clasts of crys tal line rocks have been tem po rally con strained us ing K-Ar dat ing of micas (Poprawa et al., 2004, 2005), LA-ICP-MS U-Pb dat ing of zir con (Michalik et al., 2006), and to tal Th-U-Pb dat ing of monazite (e.g., Poprawa et al., 2004, 2005; Budzyñ et al., 2008). This study presents extension of geochronological constraints on the prov e nance of the WOC flysch. Zir con U-Pb dat ing by sen si tive high res o lu tion ion microprobe (SHRIMP) of three crys tal line clasts from sed i ments de rived from the Silesian Ridge and the north ern source re veals new in for ma tion about the relationships between these two prov e nances. GEOLOGICAL BACKGROUND The 1,300 km long Carpathian moun tain chain stretches from the Vi enna For est in Aus tria to the Iron Gate on the

2 162 B. BUDZYÑ ET AL. Fig. 1. Sketch of the Pol ish part of the West ern Carpathians (mod i fied from ytko et al., 1989) with sam pling lo ca tions Dan ube in Ro ma nia. In Po land (Fig. 1), it com prises the In - ner (south) and Outer (north) Carpathians, sep a rated by the Pieniny Klippen Belt (e.g., Oszczypko 2004, 2006, and ref - er ences therein). The WOC com prise folded and up-thrust flysch rocks de pos ited be tween the Late Ju ras sic and the Neo gene, and cur rently ex posed in sev eral tec tonic units representing sedimentary basins identified from lithostratigraphic se quences. These in clude, from the south to the north, the Magura, Silesian, and Skole Bas ins (e.g., Ksi¹ - kiewicz, 1972, 1977). Clasts of crys tal line and sed i men tary rocks were sup plied to Carpathian sed i men tary bas ins from in ter nal sources (ridges) sep a rat ing subbasins (e.g., Wieser, 1949; Ksi¹ kiewicz, 1965; Unrug, 1968; Sikora, 1976; Wieser, 1985; Wójcik-Tabol & Œl¹czka, 2009 and references therein), and from the ex ter nal source, the north ern mar - gin re lated to the Ma³opolska Terrane and/or Brno Up per Silesia Terrane (Kotas, 1982, 1995) alias Brunovistulicum (e.g., Pha raoh, 1999; Winchester, 2002). In ter nal de tri tal sources in clude the Silesian Ridge and the Magura Ridge that were up lifted, eroded, cov ered by up thrust rocks and, con se quently, are not ex posed in the mod ern land-sur face (e.g., Ksi¹ kiewicz, 1931; Wieser, 1949, 1985). There fore, investigation of clastic material provides insights into the re - con struc tion of the evo lu tion of the base ment of source ar eas. The Sile sian Ridge is in ter preted as a thick- skinned fold- and- thrust belt rap idly ele vated and eroded dur ing the Late Cretaceous and Palaeocene syn-collisional compres - sion, which proxi mally sup plied the Car pa thian sedi men - tary ba sins with clas tic ma te rial (Po prawa & Ma lata, 2006). The wide spec trum of Neoar chaic to Meso pro tero zoic ( Ma) and Neo pro tero zoic to Early Cam brian ( Ma) U-Pb ages of ig ne ous zir cons from gneiss clasts from Gródek at the Ro nów Lake were ob tained using LA- ICP- MS (Mi chalik et al., 2006). The mona zite to - tal Th- U- Pb age of 592±11 Ma from the same gneiss clasts popu la tion was also in ter preted as re lated to the ig ne ous protolith (Budzyñ et al., 2008). Mona zite in a simi lar gneiss clast from the same flysch ho ri zon in Krzes³awice yielded a to tal Th- U- Pb ig ne ous age of 628±6 Ma (Budzyñ et al., 2006). Mona zite ages of ca Ma were in ter preted as re lated to the pro to lith of the gneiss from Blizne (Po - prawa et al., 2005). Tim ing of meta mor phism is con strained to ca Ma by to tal Th- U- Pb mona zite chro nol ogy (Po prawa et al., 2005; Budzyñ et al., 2008), while K-Ar dat - ing of mi cas in di cates ca Ma ages (Po prawa et al., 2005) proba bly re lated to the cool ing dur ing ini tial up lift. Moreo ver, Hanžl et al. (2000) docu mented ca Ma mona zite ages for gran itic clasts from the Mo ravian part of the Car pa thian flysch belt. The geo chrono logi cal data con cern ing the north ern source are more lim ited com pared to those from the Sile sian Ridge. The K-Ar dat ing of mus co vite and bio tite from sev - eral clasts of meta mor phic and mag matic rocks yielded ca Ma cool ing ages in ter preted as post dat ing meta - mor phism or mag ma tism in the crys tal line base ment of the north ern source (Œl¹czka, 1998; Po prawa et al., 2004, 2005). The mona zite to tal Th- U- Pb geo chro nol ogy from three clasts in di cates in di vid ual grain ages in a broad range of ca Ma, with sub or di nate younger ages (ca Ma) in ter preted as re lated to dia ge netic over prints (Po prawa et al., 2005). The north ern source ter rain has been con sid ered as an up lifted mas sif at the south ern mar gin of the Euro pean Plat form and re lated to the Ma³opol ska and Bru no vis tulian ter ranes, which are recognised north of the Outer Carpathians and beneath the Carpathian accretionary prism (e.g., Oszc zypko 2006; Po prawa & Ma lata, 2006). ANALYTICAL METHODS Ob ser va tion and iden ti fi ca tion of min er als in pol ished thin sec tions was per formed us ing an op ti cal mi cro scope and a HITACHI S-4700 field-emis sion scan ning elec tron mi cro scope, equipped with a NORAN Van tage en ergy dispersive spectrometer. Additionally, identification and quan ti fi ca tion of min er als in the sam ples was per formed us - ing X-ray diffractometry (XRD). The sam ples for XRD anal y sis were pre pared ac cord ing to the pro ce dure given by Œrodoñ et al. (2001). The XRD pat terns were re corded us - ing Philips X Pert diffractometer with ver ti cal goniometer (PW3020) from 2 to Quantitative Rietveld XRD anal y ses were per formed us ing AUTOQUAN/BGMN (GE In spec tion Tech nol o gies) pro gram. Sam ples of ig ne ous rocks were classified according to IUGS classification of

3 SHRIMP U-Pb ZIR CON CHRO NOL OGY, CARPATHIANS 163 Ta ble 1 Modal mineral composition calculated using quantitative XRD analysis Quartz syenite from Kobylec sample KB2 Granite from Orzechówka sample O1 Gneiss from Lusina sample LS3 % [±] % [±] % [±] Plagioclase Albite Quartz Quartz Plagioclase Oligoclase An Plagioclase Albite Plagioclase Oligoclase An Microcline Plagioclase Oligoclase An Plagioclase Albite Quartz Plagioclase Oligoclase An Biotite 1M Chlorite IIb Microcline Microcline Muscovite 2M Muscovite 1M Muscovite 2M Plagioclase Andesine An Chlorite IIb Muscovite 1M Anatase Sanidine Chlorite IIb other minerals Muscovite 2M Calcite Total Plagioclase Andesine An other minerals Pyrite Total Calcite other minerals Total fel sic, phaneritic ig ne ous rocks con tain ing >10% of (quartz + feld spar + feldspathoids) us ing the re sults of quan ti ta tive XRD analyses (Table 1). The rock sam ples for U-Pb dat ing were crushed, sieved, and rinsed in the wa ter to ob tain schlich fol lowed by hand pick ing of zir cons un der a bin oc u lar mi cro scope. Zir con grains were mounted in ep oxy along with ref er ence zir con FC1 (1099 Ma; Paces & Miller, 1993), pol ished to ex pose the grain centres, cleaned to elim i nate sur face con tam i na - tion by com mon lead, and coated with 100 of high-pu rity gold. Grains were im aged by cathodoluminescence (CL) and elec tron back scat ter ing (BSE) with a JEOL JSM 5900 LV scan ning elec tron mi cro scope equipped with a Gatan MiniCL de tec tor, at the Na tional In sti tute of Po lar Re search (NIPR), To kyo. Spots were ana lysed by SHRIMP-II at NIPR, us ing a pri mary O 2 ion beam with a cur rent of 6nA on the sam ple sur face to pro duce a 30 µm long, flat-floored oval pit. Sec ond ary ion is ation was mea sured on a sin gle elec tron mul ti plier on mass sta tions 196 (Zr 2 O) through to 254 (UO), with a mass res o lu tion of >5000 for 238 U 16 O and 206 a sensitivity on Pb of 18cps per ppm per na of pri mary cur rent. Mass sta tions were mea sured through 7 cy cles, in - clud ing count times of 10s per cy cle for 204 Pb, back ground (at amu) and 206 Pb, and 20s for 207 Pb. Re duc tion of raw data for stan dards and sam ples was per formed us ing the SQUID v.1.12a (Lud wig, 2001), and Isoplot v.3.6 (Lud wig, 2003) add-ins for Microsoft Ex cel Abun dance of U was cal i brated against zir con stan dard SL13 (238 ppm), pro vided by the Aus tra lian Na tional Uni ver sity. U-Th-Pb isotopic ratios were calibrated against 16 measurements of FC1. Cor rec tions for com mon Pb on U/Pb val ues and ages were done with com mon Pb es ti mated from 204 Pb counts and the Stacey and Kramers (1975) com mon Pb model for the ap prox i mate U-Pb age for each anal y sis. How ever, it was found that in all sam ples the im pre ci sion of 204 Pb mea - surements increased scatter in age estimates. Accordingly, data are also pre sented and plot ted on Tera-Wasserburg con cordia di a grams that were ob tained us ing the 208 Pb cor - rec tion method, which as sumes con cor dance be tween 206 Pb/ 238 U and 208 Pb/ 232 Th ages. Spot-to-spot er rors on the stan dard were added in quad ra ture to er rors on pooled con - cordia ages, which take into ac count both equiv a lence of data and dis cor dance of mean 206 Pb/ 238 U and 207 Pb/ 206 Pb ages (Lud wig, 2003). In di vid ual ra tios and ages are quoted and plot ted at one sigma, whereas pooled con cordia ages are quoted at 95% con fi dence. RESULTS Sample description Three sam ples of crys tal line rocks col lected from the Carpathian flysch were se lected for U-Pb zir con dat ing. The quartz syenite cob ble from Kobylec (KB2) and the gran ite cob ble from Orzechówka (O1) (Fig. 1) were col lected from con glom er ates oc cur ring within the Up per Istebna beds of Palaeo cene age (cf. Unrug, 1963), rep re sent ing the Silesian tec tonic unit (Fig. 2). The sam ples are con sid ered to have been de rived from the Silesian Ridge (Fig. 3). The gneiss cob ble from Lusina (LS3) was col lected from the Lhota beds of Albian age. The palaeotransport di rec tions in di cate that the source area for this sam ple most prob a bly was lo - cated on the north ern mar gin of the West ern Outer Carpathian sed i men tary ba sin (Fig. 3). Sam ple KB2 from Kobylec is a fine- to me dium-grained quartz syenite, con tain ing al bite (Ab An <1 Kfs <3 ), mi crocline, quartz, bi o tite and mus co vite (Ta ble 1). Al bite grains are up to 4 mm across and com monly sericitized. Some grains are de formed, with cracks filled with cal cite and K-feld spar. Microcline oc curs as subhedral to anhedral crys - tals, <6 mm across, with subhedral in clu sions of al bite. Bi o - tite is strongly al tered, and most of the flakes are com pletely re placed by chlorite with in clu sions of ana tase. Mus co vite is intergrown with chlorite. The ac ces sory min er als in clude ap -

4 164 B. BUDZYÑ ET AL. Fig. 2. Lithostratigraphic scheme of the Silesian and Subsilesian ba sin sed i men tary fill with po si tion of prov e nance ar eas (sim pli fied from Koszarski, 1985; Leszczyñski & Malik, 1996, Poprawa & Malata, 2006) and strati graphic po si tion of ana lysed cob bles. Fig ure not to scale

5 SHRIMP U-Pb ZIR CON CHRO NOL OGY, CARPATHIANS 165 Fig. 3. Car toon il lus trat ing re la tion of the West ern Outer Carpathian source ar eas to sed i men tary bas ins and base ment do mains (mod i - fied from Poprawa & Malata, 2006). Fig ure not to scale a tite, zir con, ana tase and not iden ti fied iron ox ides. Ap a tite oc curs as subhedral elon gated grains, up to 120 µm long; larger are com monly cracked, and smaller grains are mostly enclosed in chlorite. The gran ite from Orzechówka (sam ple O1) is me dium grained with main min eral as sem blage of quartz, plagioclase (Ab An Kfs 1 2 ), K-feld spar and bi o tite. The subhedral plagioclase (<7 mm across) shows well de vel oped concentric oscillatory zoning with some zones sericitized. Some plagioclase grains form in clu sions in the K-feld spar. Bi o tite flakes, up to 4 mm in size, are com monly chloritized and contain pyrite inclusions intercalating along the cleavage. The accessory minerals include apatite, and zircon. Apa - tite forms subhedral grains up to ca µm. The gneiss from Lusina (sam ple LS3) is mostly composed of fine-grained quartz, plagioclase (Ab An Kfs <1 ), bi o tite, and mus co vite. Plagioclase (< 800 µm across) forms po lyg o nal ag gre gates with quartz (< 700 µm across), and com monly is sericitized. Some bi o tite flakes are chloritized. Quartz rib bons and dis crete flakes or ag gre gates of bi o tite (< 900 µm in length) de fine the fo li a tion. None of the min er als forms porphyroclasts or porphyroblasts. Ac ces sory min er als in clude ga lena, sphalerite and py rite, the lat ter oc cur ring as anhedral grains, up to 60 µm across. Grains of sphalerite, up to 100 µm across, con tain rare 6 µm wide in clu sions of ga lena. There is no spe cific ev i dence to de ter mine the protolith of the gneiss. How ever, for the pur pose of age in ter pre ta tion, zir con is as sumed to be ig ne ous due to their in ter nal tex tures re flect - ing os cil la tory zon ing (Fig. 4e, f; vide Corfu et al., 2003). Zir con U-Pb geo chron ol ogy Zir con in the quartz syenite from Kobylec (sam ple KB2) oc curs as euhedral grains. Strong os cil la tory zon ing with dis tinc tive small cores are vis i ble in CL im ages (Fig. 4a, b). A to tal of 11 spots on 9 zir con grains were analysed, with U and Th con tents of ppm and ppm, re spec tively (Ta ble 2). Mul ti ple spots on grains no. 3 and 6 have no sig nif i cant vari a tion in age. Ex clud ing youn ger anal y sis no. 10.1, which may have lost Pb through al ter ation 208 or weath er ing, ten Pb-cor rected data de fine a con cordia age of 603.8±6.0 Ma (MSWD of equiv a lence = 1.2, prob a - bil ity of con cor dance = 0.23; Fig. 5). The age is in ter preted as the time of crystallization of the quartz syenite. Zir con grains in the gran ite from Orzechówka (sam ple O1) are euhedral to subhedral and show fine os cil la tory zon ing typ i cal of ig ne ous growth (Fig. 4c, d). Twelve an a - lyt i cal spots in 8 zir con grains were analysed, with U con - tents be tween 125 and 237 ppm, and Th con tents of ppm (Ta ble 2). To gether, all 208 Pb-cor rected data de fine a con cordia age of 598.6±5.7 Ma (MSWD of equiv a lence = 0.86, prob a bil ity of con cor dance = 0.16; Fig. 5). The age is in ter preted as that of granite crystallization. The gneiss from Lusina (sam ple LS3) con tains euhedral zir con grains ex hib it ing ei ther sec tor (Fig. 4e) or os cil la tory (Fig. 4f) zon ing. A to tal of 14 spots were ana lysed on 12 grains. There are no sig nif i cant dif fer ences in age or com po - si tion be tween sec tor and os cil la tory-zoned zir con spots, which have U and Th con tents of ppm and ppm, re spec tively (Ta ble 2). Two anal y ses yielded youn ger age es ti mates, but also have el e vated com mon Pb, and thus prob a bly rep re sent con tam i nated and/or al tered zir con. The re main ing 12 data from 10 grains de fine a con cordia age of 609.7±6.3 Ma (MSWD of equiv a lence = 1.0, prob a bil ity of con cor dance = 0.45; Fig. 5). From the con sis tency of ages and com po si tions be tween sec tor and os cil la tory-zoned zir - con, the con cordia age is in ter preted as that of the magmatic crystallization of the granitic protolith to the gneiss. DISCUSSION AND CONCLUSIONS The pre vi ous knowl edge of the geo log i cal set ting of the un ex posed Silesian Ridge re lied on geo chron ol ogi cal data from sed i men tary cover, in clud ing lim ited data from clasts

6 166 B. BUDZYÑ ET AL. Spot % 206 Pb c ppm U ppm Th 232 Th/ 238 U ppm 206 Pb* Iso to pic data for zir con grains in quartz syenite clast from Kobylec (sam ple KB2) (1) 206 Pb/ 238 U (2) 206 Pb/ 238 U Quartz syenite KB2 (3) 206 Pb/ 238 U (1) 207 Pb/ 206 Pb (3) 207 Pb/ 206 Pb (1) 208 Pb/ 232 Th Granite O Gneiss LS Er rors are 1-sigma (); Pb c and Pb* in di cate the com mon and ra dio genic por tions, re spec tively. Er ror in Stan dard cal i bra tion was 0.32% (not in cluded in above er rors but re quired when com par ing data from dif fer ent mounts). (1) Com mon Pb es ti mated and cor rected for us ing mea sured 204 Pb. (2) Com mon Pb es ti mated and cor rected for by as sum ing 206 Pb/ 238 U- 207 Pb/ 235 U age-con cor dance (3) Com mon Pb es ti mated and cor rected for by as sum ing 206 Pb/ 238 U- 208 Pb/ 232 Th age-con cor dance of crys tal line rocks (Poprawa et al., 2005). The monazite and mica geo chron ol ogy in di cates three main age pat terns re corded in clasts of granitoids, gneiss es and granu lites. The Cadomian monazite dates were in ter preted as re lated to the magmatism (Michalik et al., 2006; Budzyñ et al., 2008), while youn ger dates rep re sented a mag matic and/or meta - mor phic event at ca. 380 Ma, fol lowed by Variscan meta - mor phic over print at ca. 330 Ma (Poprawa et al., 2004, 2005; Budzyñ et al., 2008). The quartz syenite and gran ite sam ples se lected in this study are not af fected by meta mor - phism, ex cept some signs of hy dro ther mal al ter ations in ter - preted as re lated to post-mag matic pro cesses. It was ex - pected, there fore, to ob tain Variscan zir con ages. How ever, the U-Pb dat ing yielded only Cadomian ages (599±6 Ma and 604±6 Ma), which are within er ror of a pre vi ously re - ported monazite to tal Th-U-Pb age for the ig ne ous protolith of gneiss clast (592±11 Ma; Budzyñ et al., 2008). The pre - vi ous ages ob tained from U-Pb dat ing of zir con in gneiss clasts with ig ne ous protoliths range from ca Ma to 1250, along with youn ger ages con cen trated at Ma (LA-ICP-MS; Michalik et al., 2006). In con trast, there are no data in our study in di cat ing the Ar chaic or Mesoprotero-

7 SHRIMP U-Pb ZIR CON CHRO NOL OGY, CARPATHIANS 167 gran ite clast from Orzechówka (sam ple O1) and gneiss clast from Lusina (sam ple LS3) (1) % Discordant (3) %Discordant Total 238 U/ 206 Pb Total 207 Pb/ 206 Pb (1) 238 U/ 206 Pb* Quartz syenite KB2 (1) 207 Pb*/ 206 Pb* (3) 238 U/ 206 Pb* Ta ble (3) 207 Pb*/ 206 Pb* Granite O Gneiss LS zoic events re corded by zir con. The new ages for clasts re - veal that the Silesian Ridge in cluded Cadomian gran ites not affected by later significant deformation or thermal events, as well as gran ites meta mor phosed into gneiss es dur ing the Variscan orog eny (cf. Michalik et al., 2006; Budzyñ et al., 2008). The pre vi ous data on the north ern source in cluded to tal Th-U-Pb dat ing of monazite in a gran ite clast from Lusina that yielded var i ous ap par ent (sin gle anal y sis) dates of ca. 300 Ma, 360 Ma, Ma, and 640 Ma (Poprawa et al., 2005). These are dif fi cult to com pare with our zir con re - sults. Al though these dates are geo log i cally mean ing ful, sev eral fac tors can be con sid ered as a cause of such scat - tered re sults, in clud ing meth od olog i cal er rors (cf. Jercinovic & Wil liams, 2005) or the ef fect of flu ids (cf. Harlov & Hether ing ton, 2010; Budzyñ et al., 2011; Wil liams et al., 2011). Fur ther more, a 530±20 Ma K-Ar mus co vite age for a gran ite clast from the same lo cal ity (Poprawa et al., 2004) sug gests that sig nif i cant meta mor phism prob a bly did not oc cur af ter this time, as sum ing that both gra nitic clasts were de rived from the same source. Cur rently, com par ing our re - sults with the pre vi ous ones is strongly lim ited, and con tin u - a tion of the geo chron ol ogi cal works is re quired to ex pand and ver ify pre vi ous data, pos si bly ap ply ing sev eral meth - ods, such as Sm-Nd and Lu-Hf dating of garnet, Th-U-Pb monazite dating, U-Pb zircon dating, and Ar-Ar dating of mica. The Cadomian age (610±6 Ma) of ig ne ous zir con in the gneiss clast from Lusina pro vides a date for magmatism in the north ern source of clastic ma te rial sup plied to the Carpa-

8 168 B. BUDZYÑ ET AL. Fig. 4. Cathodoluminescence im ages of se lected ana lysed zir con grains from (A, B) the quartz syenite clast from Kobylec (sam ple KB2); (C, D) the gran ite clast from Orzechówka (sam ple O1); and (E, F) the gneiss clast from Lusina (sam ple LS3). An a lyt i cal spot la bels cor re spond with the la bels in Ta ble 2 thian sed i men tary bas ins. The Cadomian base ment is doc u - mented in the Brunovistulian and Ma³opolska ter ranes in the south ern part of the Eu ro pean plat form, over which the WOC were thrust (Dudek, 1980; elaÿniewicz, 1998; elaÿniewicz et al., 2009; Kalvoda & Bábek, 2010). Zir con ages of Brunovistulian granitoids range from ca. 600 to 580 Ma (van Breemen et al., 1982; Friedl et al., 1998), and are equiv a lent to Ar-Ar ages (van Breemen et al., 1982; Fin ger et al., 2000a, b). Sim i larly, ca. 600 and 570 Ma SHRIMP zir con ages were re corded in gneiss es from the Strzelin Mas sif in the east ern part of the Fore-Sudetic Block (NE mar gin of the Bo he mian Mas sif) (Oberc-Dziedzic et al., 2003, 2005; Klimas et al., 2009). Re cent chro nol ogy of de - tri tal zir con grains in the flysch se ries from Ma³opolska terrane yielded Ma ages ( elaÿniewicz et al., 2009). Fur ther more, gneissic granitoid clasts are known

9 SHRIMP U-Pb ZIR CON CHRO NOL OGY, CARPATHIANS 169 from a Car bon if er ous olistostrome on the west ern mar gin of the Ma³opolska terrane (Unrug et al., 1999). Con se quently, the zir con age from this study is con sis tent with pre vi ous geo chron ol ogi cal re sults re ported for the south ern part of the Eu ro pean plat form re gions be lieved as linked to the northern source supplying Carpathian basins with clastic material. The tec tonic prov e nance can be con cluded by cor re la - tion with pre vi ous stud ies dis cuss ing Neoproterozoic pat - terns in the Carpathians and ad ja cent re gions (e.g., Winchester, 2002; Munteanu & Tatu, 2003; Murphy et al., 2004; Carrigan et al., 2006; Rino et al., 2008; Balintoni et al., 2009, 2010, 2011; Meinhold et al., 2009; Kalvoda & Bábek, 2010). The clos est re la tion of our re sults can be com pared to the vol ca nic arc granitoids of ca. 594 Ma age that were a protolith of the gneiss es rep re sent ing the Silesian Ridge (Budzyñ et al., 2008, 2010). In the Cen - tral-west Carpathian base ment, the ca. 607 Ma age of zir - con from orthogneisses was in ter preted as a re cord of Cadomian frag ments from the Gond wana ac tive con ti nen tal mar gin (Putiš et al., 2008). To the south, zir con ages of Ma re lated to the ex ten sive granitoid plutonism were re ported within the Lainici-Paiuº terrane (South Carpathians, Ro ma nia) and in ter preted as a re cord of the ac - tive mar gin of peri-gondwanan con ti nen tal frag ment (Balintoni et al., 2011). This leads to a con clu sion that the pre sented zir con ages of ca Ma pro vide a re cord on the em place ment of the granitoids within the Gondwana active margin. Acknowledgements Ryszard Kryza and Jarek Majka are ac knowl edged for their con struc tive re views. Jerzy aba is ac knowl edged for editorial han dling of the manu script. This study was par tially sup ported by the Jagiellonian Uni ver sity re search funds (DS811 and BW) to B. Budzyñ. M.A. Kusiak is a fel low of the Foun da tion for Pol ish Sci - ence (Hom ing Fel low ship) and GO8 Fellow. REFERENCES Andersen, T., De tri tal zir cons as trac ers of sed i men tary prov e nance: lim it ing con di tions from sta tis tics and numerical sim u la tion. Chem i cal Ge ol ogy, 216: Balintoni, I., Balica, C., Ducea, M. N., Chen, F., Hann, H. P. & abliovschi, V., Late Cam brian Early Or do vi cian Gondwanan ter ranes in the Ro ma nian Carpathians: A zir con U Pb prov e nance study. Gond wana Re search, 16: Balintoni, I., Balica, C., Ducea, M. N., Hann, H. P. & abliovschi, V., The anat omy of a Gondwanan terrane: The Neoproterozoic Or do vi cian base ment of the pre-al pine Sebeº Lotru com pos ite terrane (South Carpathians, Ro ma nia). Gondwana Re search, 17: Balintoni, I., Balica, C., Ducea, M. N. & Strem an, C., Peri-Am a zo nian, Avalonian-type and Ganderian-type ter - ranes in the South Carpathians, Ro ma nia: The Danubian do - main base ment. Gond wana Re search, 19: Belousova, E. A., Griffen, W. L., O Reilly, S. Y. & Fisher, N. I., Ig ne ous zir con: trace el e ment com po si tion as an indica - tor of source rock type. Con tri bu tions to Min er al ogy and Pe - Fig. 5. Tera-Wasserburg concordia diagrams showing 208 Pbcor rected SHRIMP data from zir cons of the fol low ing sam ples: the quartz syenite clast from Kobylec (sam ple KB2), the gran ite clast from Orzechówka (sam ple O1), and the gneiss clast from Lusina (sam ple LS3)

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