These guides cover different elements of referencing and can be used together or separately depending on your prior knowledge or needs.

Size: px
Start display at page:

Download "These guides cover different elements of referencing and can be used together or separately depending on your prior knowledge or needs."

Transcription

1 REFERENCING OVERVIEW These guides cover different elements of referencing and can be used together or separately depending on your prior knowledge or needs. References and Bibliographies - an introduction to the concept of referencing. Referencing at UWS: an Introduction to the Harvard Style a summary of the considerations and principles for using Harvard style references in UWS. How Referencing Works in Practice demonstrates how the referencing principles discussed in References and Bibliographies and Referencing at UWS: an Introduction to the Harvard Style apply to a sample text and reference list Page 1 of 16

2 Contents REFERENCES AND BIBLIOGRAPHIES... 3 What is referencing?... 3 What is a list of references?... 4 Why do I have to reference?... 4 When should I include references in my writing?... 4 Which steps are involved in referencing?... 4 What is secondary referencing?... 5 Where should I place the reference list in my document?... 5 Who can help me with referencing?... 5 REFERENCING AT UWS: An introduction to the Harvard style... 6 Adding citations in the text... 7 Arranging your list of references... 8 Citing an item which has more than one author... 8 Several publications with the same name from the same year... 9 Inserting direct quotations and page numbers in your text... 9 When bibliographic details are missing from the source Using a secondary reference References Further Reading HOW REFERENCING WORKS IN PRACTICE Sample text References for sample text above Sample text with explanatory notes References with description Page 2 of 16

3 REFERENCES AND BIBLIOGRAPHIES This guide is intended to Provide consistent and clear guidance on how to add information about sources to assignments and how to compile reference lists and bibliographies while reflecting international standards and procedures for referencing. Apply to electronic and digital as well as printed sources of information. What is referencing? The term bibliographic referencing is widely used in both publishing and academia and applies when acknowledgement of another person s work is expected because someone EITHER OR quotes someone else directly paraphrases someone else s work into their own words. There are several acceptable methods of referencing and these are known as referencing systems. Each referencing system has its own rules but all show some form of citation within the text and a list of references at the end of the text. Referencing systems in common use include: Harvard. Author and date in the text e.g. According to Cottrell (2008) o Reference list at the end, in alphabetical order by author. Numeric. Number in text e.g. According to Cottrell 1 o Reference list at the end, in numerical order. APA Developed by the American Psychological Association. o (Multiple) author (or title) and date in the text. o Reference list at the end, in alphabetical order Page 3 of 16

4 What is a list of references? The reference list provides the publication details (reference) for each item used in the text. These details typically include the author(s), the date of publication (or creation), the title of the item as well as information reflecting the type of item and how it was published. This information enables the item to be traced by others. Why do I have to reference? To give credit to another author for their work and thus avoid plagiarism. It helps your reader trace your sources by providing the relevant details. It shows the development of your subject knowledge and evaluation skills. You can demonstrate evidence of the depth of your reading. You can demonstrate your ability to select and interpret resources effectively. When should I include references in my writing? Whenever you quote directly from another source. Whenever you paraphrase someone else s ideas into your own words. When you use someone else s work to support your ideas. Which steps are involved in referencing? Ensure you have the publication details of the items you are consulting. (Although referencing management software e.g. Endnote/ Refworks help with this, you may need to make changes to the formatting before submission). Find out which bibliographic referencing system you are expected to use. (UWS uses the Harvard system with some exceptions see below) Page 4 of 16

5 Read your assignment guidelines to see if you are expected to provide a reference list or a bibliography. (A reference list shows publication details for each item used in the text. A bibliography provides publication details for each item consulted). Compile your reference list, or bibliography, according to the preferred referencing system. Pay particular attention to punctuation. What is secondary referencing? Secondary referencing applies when the item to which you are referring is itself a reference. In this situation your in-text citation should reflect both the original work and the work you have consulted. Where should I place the reference list in my document? The reference list is usually, but not always, the last element of your assignment. Check your assignment guidelines. Who can help me with referencing? Your lecturers Your local subject librarian Your local Effective Learning Tutor Page 5 of 16

6 REFERENCING AT UWS: An introduction to the Harvard style In 2009 the Learning and Teaching Board adopted the Harvard style as the preferred referencing system for UWS student coursework. Psychology and law coursework is exempt from this expectation as subject specific referencing systems apply: Psychology students should follow the American Psychological Association s APA style as detailed in Law students should follow the OSCOLA (Oxford Standard for Citation of Legal Authorities) guidelines as detailed in All other students should use the Harvard style. Guidelines to assist you are outlined below and in the Collection of Referencing Examples (CoRE) in My UWS Library on Moodle. The system of referencing known as Harvard uses the name and date style. This means that whenever another work is either quoted or paraphrased, the name of the author (or other responsible person or organisation) and the date of publication appear in the text. This information, or citation, acts as a link to the list at the end of the work, or section, which provides the full reference for each item mentioned. There are small variations in how the Harvard system is applied. This guide and the Collection of Referencing Examples aim to provide a consistent interpretation for use within UWS Page 6 of 16

7 Adding citations in the text Depending on the type of the item being referred to (book, journal article, film, website etc.), the citation in the text should include: The surname of one or more authors OR editors OR creators OR producers OR directors. OR the name of an organisation. AND OR the title of the work, if none of the above apply. the year the item was first published OR OR the year the item was created, if this is more relevant. For ease, the term author will be used in this document to refer to the person or organisation deemed responsible for a work. There are two ways of introducing a citation into your text and your selection will depend entirely on the context. Make the author part of your sentence and show the year, in brackets, after the name e.g. Cameron (2009) states Add the name and date as supplementary information. Brackets appear around the name and year and this appears at an appropriate point in the text, e.g. Effective reading is a complicated skill (Cameron, 2009) Page 7 of 16

8 Arranging your list of references There should be one list at the end of the work. This is arranged in alphabetical order by author (or by title if the author isn t known) and has an entry for every item cited in the text. Each reference should allow the item to be found by others and include: o Author(s). o Date of publication or creation. o Full title of the work. o Additional information regarding publication (printed or physical items) or availability (online items). If an item has been attributed to an editor, creator, producer or director, rather than an author, add an explanatory suffix e.g. (dir.) after the name but before the date. The author of an item can be an organisation rather than an individual. Citing an item which has more than one author All authors must be acknowledged even when there are several. Acceptable formats are: No. of authors In the text Surname1 and Surname2 2 E.g. Durkin and Main Surname1, Surname2 and Surname3 3 E.g. Durrant, Rhodes and Young 4 or more Surname1 et al. E.g. Luckin et al. In the reference list Name1 and Name2 E.g. Durkin, K. and Main, A. Name1, Name2 and Name3 E.g. Durrant, A., Rhodes, G. and Young, D. Name1, Name2, Name3 and Name? E.g. Luckin, R., Clark, W., Graber, R., Logan, K., Mee, A. and Oliver, M Page 8 of 16

9 Several publications with the same name from the same year There may be times when you wish to refer to different items published in the same year either by an organisation or by individuals with the same surname. In such cases, use a, b, c to differentiate between the items. Add a to the in-text citation for the relevant item mentioned first in your text, e.g. (Biz/ed, a), b to the citation for the item mentioned second, e.g. (Biz/ed, b), c to the third and so on. Arrange your reference list so that the reference for the item marked a appears before the reference for the item marked b etc. Inserting direct quotations and page numbers in your text There may be times when you wish to include a quotation in your work. The recognised conventions for this are to: Use quotation marks at the beginning and end of the quotation. Add the quotation into the body of your text if it only consists of a few words OR indent a separate paragraph for longer phrases or passages. Use ellipsis... if you are omitting one or more words from the quotation. Add the relevant page number(s) for each direct quotation Page 9 of 16

10 When bibliographic details are missing from the source The details you require to create a reference are clearly apparent on most publications but there may be times when you wish to refer to items which do not include these. If you cannot find the required information anywhere on the item, there are conventions you may be able to use, for example: No author - refer to the item by its title. No date - use n.d. No location - use s.l. No publisher - use s.n. Using a secondary reference A secondary reference applies when you include a section of text or a graphic or a piece of music etc. that has not been written, produced or created by the authors of the work you are consulting. The in-text citation shows that you have not seen the original work and are using someone else s interpretation of it and takes the form original author, year of publication, cited in author of work consulted, year of publication e.g. learning skills can be developed (Gardner, 1993 cited in Cottrell, 2008). Your reference list should only include the work you have actually consulted Page 10 of 16

11 References Biz/ed ( a) Study Skills: Reading. [Online] Available: [Accessed: 9 December 2010]. Biz/ed ( b) Study Skills: Essay Writing. [Online] Available: [Accessed: 12 July 2010]. Cameron, S. (2009) The Business Student s Handbook: Skills for Study and Employment. 5 th ed. [Online] Harlow: Pearson Education. Available: Dawsonera. [Accessed: 20 September 2010]. Cottrell, S. (2008) The Study Skills Handbook. 3 rd ed. Basingstoke: Palgrave Macmillan. Durkin, K and Main, A. (2002) Discipline-based study skills support for first-year undergraduate students. Active Learning in Higher Education. [Online] Vol.3(1), pp Available: SAGE Journals Online. [Accessed: 21 September 2010]. Durrant, A., Rhodes, G. and Young, D. (eds.) (2009) Getting Started with University-level Work-based Learning. Hendon: Middlesex University Press. Luckin, R., Clark, W., Graber, R., Logan, K., Mee, A. and Oliver, M. (2009) Do Web 2.0 tools really open the door to learning? Practices, perceptions and profiles of year-old students. Learning, Media and Technology. [Online] Vol.34(2), pp Available: Taylor & Francis Journals (informaworld). [Accessed: 12 January 2011]. Further Reading Neville, C. (2010) The complete guide to referencing and avoiding plagiarism. 2 nd ed. Maidenhead: Open University Press. Leeds Metropolitan University Skills for Learning (2009) Quote Unquote: a Guide to Harvard Referencing. [Online] Available: skillsforlearning.leedsmet.ac.uk/quote_unquote.pdf [Accessed: 23 August 2010]. Pears, R. and Shields, G. (2010) Cite them right: the essential referencing guide. 8th ed. Basingstoke: Palgrave Macmillan Page 11 of 16

12 HOW REFERENCING WORKS IN PRACTICE This summary guide illustrates examples of selected item types referenced to UWS Referencing Guidelines. It includes Sample Text Sample References Sample Text and References with explanatory notes. More examples can be seen in the CoRE (Collection of Referencing Examples) available from My UWS Library on Moodle Page 12 of 16

13 Sample text Effective reading is one of the most sophisticated skills we possess according to Cameron (2009, p.80) and an important factor in academic success (Durrant, Rhodes and Young, 2009). The skill involves critical enquiry and analytical awareness as well as comprehension (Luckin et al., 2009). Note taking can help to organize your thoughts by separating the facts and examples from any personal opinions mentioned by an author or lecturer (Biz/ed, a). Academic writing as a whole, however, can be more problematic with many students experiencing difficulty and approaching new assignments with trepidation (Whitehead, 2002). Students often have difficulty in differentiating clearly between essay and report formats.and some appear to have had little practice in writing critical evaluations (Durkin and Main, 2002, p.25). Indeed, some students regard academic assignments purely as a tool to measure their grasp of a subject but it should be remembered that assignments are also a key method for markers to discriminate between candidates (Biz/ed, b). Although a traumatic process, the resulting feedback can be a useful tool for personal development (Lloyd-Jones and Masterson, 2010). Learning effectively may not come naturally, but is a skill that can be developed (Gardner, 1993 cited in Cottrell, 2008; Make the Most of Your Learning Style, n.d.). The time involved is worthwhile effort as communicating what has been learned in a clear and concise manner is crucial to academic success (Cameron, 2009) Page 13 of 16

14 References for sample text above Biz/ed ( a) Study Skills: Reading. [Online] Available: [Accessed: 9 December 2010]. Biz/ed ( b) Study Skills: Essay Writing. [Online] Available: [Accessed: 12 July 2010]. Cameron, S. (2009) The Business Student s Handbook: Skills for Study and Employment. 5 th ed. [Online] Available: Dawsonera. [Accessed: 20 September 2010]. Cottrell, S. (2008) The Study Skills Handbook. 3 rd ed. Basingstoke: Palgrave Macmillan. Durkin, K and Main, A. (2002) Discipline-based study skills support for first-year undergraduate students. Active Learning in Higher Education. [Online] Vol.3(1), pp Available: SAGE Journals Online. [Accessed: 21 September 2010]. Durrant, A., Rhodes, G. and Young, D. (eds.) (2009) Getting Started with University-level Work-based Learning. Hendon: Middlesex University Press. Lloyd-Jones, N. and Masterson, A. (2010) Writing skills and developing an argument. In: Maslin-Prothero, S. (ed.) Bailliere s Study Skills for Nurses and Midwives. 4 th ed. Edinburgh: Bailliere Tindall Elsevier, pp Luckin, R., Clark, W., Graber, R., Logan, K., Mee, A. and Oliver, M. (2009) Do Web 2.0 tools really open the door to learning? Practices, perceptions and profiles of year-old students. Learning, Media and Technology. [Online] Vol.34(2), pp Available: Taylor & Francis Journals (informaworld). [Accessed: 12 January 2011]. Make the Most of Your Learning Style. (n.d.) [Online] Available: [Accessed: 29 July 2010]. Whitehead, D. (2002) The academic writing experiences of a group of student nurses: a phenomenological study. Journal of Advanced Nursing. Vol.38(5), pp Page 14 of 16

15 Sample text with explanatory notes Page 15 of 16

16 References with description Reference Biz/ed ( a) Study Skills: Reading. [Online] Available: [Accessed: 9 December 2010]. Biz/ed ( b) Study Skills: Essay Writing. [Online] Available: [Accessed: 12 July 2010]. Cameron, S. (2009) The Business Student s Handbook: Skills for Study and Employment. 5 th ed. [Online] Available: Dawsonera. [Accessed: 20 September 2010]. Cottrell, S. (2008) The Study Skills Handbook. 3 rd ed. Basingstoke: Palgrave Macmillan. Durkin, K and Main, A. (2002) Discipline-based study skills support for firstyear undergraduate students. Active Learning in Higher Education. [Online] Vol.3(1), pp Available: SAGE Journals Online. [Accessed: 21 September 2010]. Durrant, A., Rhodes, G. and Young, D. (eds.) (2009) Getting Started with University-level Work-based Learning. Hendon: Middlesex University Press. Lloyd-Jones, N. and Masterson, A. (2010) Writing skills and developing an argument. In: Maslin-Prothero, S. (ed.) Bailliere s Study Skills for Nurses and Midwives. 4 th ed. Edinburgh: Bailliere Tindall Elsevier, pp Luckin, R., Clark, W., Graber, R., Logan, K., Mee, A. and Oliver, M. (2009) Do Web 2.0 tools really open the door to learning? Practices, perceptions and profiles of year-old students. Learning, Media and Technology. [Online] Vol.34(2), pp Available: Taylor & Francis Journals (informaworld). [Accessed: 12 January 2011]. Make the Most of Your Learning Style. (n.d.) [Online] Available: [Accessed: 29 July 2010]. Whitehead, D. (2002) The academic writing experiences of a group of student nurses: a phenomenological study. Journal of Advanced Nursing. Vol.38(5), pp Description Page from Internet author listed Item marked a listed before the item marked b as it appears earlier in the text Electronic Printed Book Online Journal Article Edited Book Chapter of edited book (authors of chapter known) Page numbers of chapter included in reference. Multiple authors all authors listed Website no author listed Print Journal Article Page 16 of 16

The Harvard style. Reference with confidence. (2012 Edition)

The Harvard style. Reference with confidence. (2012 Edition) Reference with confidence: The Harvard style 1 Reference with confidence The Harvard style (2012 Edition) As used in: Archaeology Biochemistry (as well as Vancouver) Biology (as well as Vancouver) Economics

More information

The Harvard style. Reference with confidence

The Harvard style. Reference with confidence Reference with confidence: The Harvard style 1 Reference with confidence The Harvard style As used in: Archaeology Biochemistry (as well as Vancouver) Biology (as well as Vancouver) Economics Environment

More information

Introduction to Harvard Referencing

Introduction to Harvard Referencing Introduction to Harvard Referencing Hints & Tips Learning and Research Support Team Library & Information Services We aim to: Give you confidence to reference sources you use in your assignments Help you

More information

A brief guide to the Harvard System

A brief guide to the Harvard System A brief guide to the Harvard System The University of Greenwich, as with all universities, requires that students give credit to the authors of the evidence they use to support the arguments within their

More information

What is referencing? you must reference them. Why is it important? Which system should I use? What is plagiarism? How to avoid plagiarism

What is referencing? you must reference them. Why is it important? Which system should I use? What is plagiarism? How to avoid plagiarism What is referencing? When you are writing a piece of work and use someone else's words or ideas you must reference them. This means that you need to include detailed information on all sources consulted,

More information

GOOD REFERENCING GUIDE A guide to standard Harvard Referencing for the School of Nursing & Midwifery

GOOD REFERENCING GUIDE A guide to standard Harvard Referencing for the School of Nursing & Midwifery GOOD REFERENCING GUIDE A guide to standard Harvard Referencing for the School of Nursing & Midwifery Contents What is referencing? 3 The Harvard Style of Referencing 4 Citations 5 Citation Examples 6 References

More information

TABLE OF CONTENTS WHAT IS MEANT BY REFERENCING AND CITING?...3 WHY IS REFERENCING IMPORTANT?...3 PLAGIARISM..3 HOW TO AVOID PLAGIARISM...

TABLE OF CONTENTS WHAT IS MEANT BY REFERENCING AND CITING?...3 WHY IS REFERENCING IMPORTANT?...3 PLAGIARISM..3 HOW TO AVOID PLAGIARISM... Updated 10/07/08 TABLE OF CONTENTS WHAT IS MEANT BY REFERENCING AND CITING?...3 WHY IS REFERENCING IMPORTANT?...3 PLAGIARISM..3 HOW TO AVOID PLAGIARISM...4 THE HARVARD SYSTEM...5 IN-TEXT CITATION 5 COMPILING

More information

Writing essays. What is an essay?

Writing essays. What is an essay? Writing essays What is an essay? Why write an essay? How to research, plan and write an essay Language and style Presentation of your work An essay-writing checklist For further information and the full

More information

APA Style and Formatting Explained

APA Style and Formatting Explained APA Style and Formatting Explained January 31, 2012 1 Table of Contents Overview... 2 In-text Citations... 3 Citing a Paraphrase Examples... 4 Citing Quotations Examples... 5 The Reference List General

More information

APA In-text Citations

APA In-text Citations APA In-text Citations This handout was compiled using the Publication Manual of the American Psychological Association, Sixth Edition and http://www.apastyle.org/ Examples were adapted from Penn State

More information

Focus on Essay Writing

Focus on Essay Writing Focus on Essay Writing Essay writing is a process and a product. You need to focus on the process in order to achieve a high quality product. What is an essay? The word essay originally meant to test or

More information

Referencing, Plagiarism & Managing Sources. Avoiding Plagiarism. Activity Workbook

Referencing, Plagiarism & Managing Sources. Avoiding Plagiarism. Activity Workbook Referencing, Plagiarism & Managing Sources Avoiding Plagiarism Activity Workbook 1 Referencing Exercise 1: Is a reference needed? When is a reference necessary in an assignment? Decide if a reference to

More information

Academic integrity, plagiarism and referencing

Academic integrity, plagiarism and referencing Academic integrity, plagiarism and referencing As a Chancellor State College student, it is an expectation that you use integrity in writing when creating your own work. This means you need to use academic

More information

Learning 2 Learn. Citation and Referencing

Learning 2 Learn. Citation and Referencing Learning 2 Learn Citation and Referencing What we are going to do understand why acknowledgement is important recognise the details that are needed to make up a citation/reference correctly cite a reference

More information

HOW TO REFERENCE A GUIDE FOR STUDENTS. Mandy Shaw (2004) Division of Criminology Nottingham Trent University

HOW TO REFERENCE A GUIDE FOR STUDENTS. Mandy Shaw (2004) Division of Criminology Nottingham Trent University HOW TO REFERENCE A GUIDE FOR STUDENTS Mandy Shaw (2004) Division of Criminology Nottingham Trent University www.internetjournalofcriminology.com CONTENTS PAGE What is referencing? 3 Why is it important

More information

Learning Development Unit. A Little Guide to REPORT WRITING

Learning Development Unit. A Little Guide to REPORT WRITING Learning Development Unit A Little Guide to REPORT WRITING 2009 What is a report? Reports originate from the business environment. They are formal documents used to convey an idea, message or analysis

More information

Academic Assignment Guide for Students. Cohort 5, 2014

Academic Assignment Guide for Students. Cohort 5, 2014 Academic Assignment Guide for Students Cohort 5, 2014 Contents 03 04 05 06 06 07 07 08 11 15 15 16 Welcome Letter 1. The Academic Assignment 2. Assessment of the Academic Assignment 3. The Academic Assignment

More information

How to do your Referencing: Numeric Style

How to do your Referencing: Numeric Style How to do your Referencing: Numeric Style HS 28 This help sheet aims to give you basic guidance on referencing using Numeric style. For other styles like Harvard system, please refer to Library Helpsheet

More information

In the case of two authors, both are listed: (Wilson & Thomas, 2009).

In the case of two authors, both are listed: (Wilson & Thomas, 2009). Referencing Academic writing requires that you read and cite the work of others. Any material that is not your own must be sourced to the original author. Every book, article, thesis and all electronic

More information

Referencing Guidelines for Students ( excluding law students who should follow OSCOLA guidelines )

Referencing Guidelines for Students ( excluding law students who should follow OSCOLA guidelines ) The Business School Referencing Guidelines Referencing Guidelines for Students ( excluding law students who should follow OSCOLA guidelines ) Referencing all the materials which you have used when producing

More information

Plagiarism & References. Student Learning Advisory Service

Plagiarism & References. Student Learning Advisory Service Plagiarism & References Student Learning Advisory Service Workshop Agenda What is plagiarism? How & what do I have to reference? Quiz True or False? True or False? 1. Submitting the same work, or section,

More information

St Patrick s College Maynooth. Faculty of Theology. Essay Writing Guidelines for Students in BD, BATh, BTh, and Higher Diploma in Theological Studies

St Patrick s College Maynooth. Faculty of Theology. Essay Writing Guidelines for Students in BD, BATh, BTh, and Higher Diploma in Theological Studies St Patrick s College Maynooth Faculty of Theology Essay Writing Guidelines for Students in BD, BATh, BTh, and Higher Diploma in Theological Studies Academic Year 2014-15 Introduction This brief essay is

More information

IRISH INSTITUTE OF TRAINING & DEVELOPMENT WRITTEN ASSESSMENTS - GUIDELINES. Irish Institute of Training and Development 2013 Version 2

IRISH INSTITUTE OF TRAINING & DEVELOPMENT WRITTEN ASSESSMENTS - GUIDELINES. Irish Institute of Training and Development 2013 Version 2 IRISH INSTITUTE OF TRAINING & DEVELOPMENT WRITTEN ASSESSMENTS - GUIDELINES Irish Institute of Training and Development 2013 Version 2 WRITING GUIDELINES TABLE OF CONTENTS 1.0 Introduction... 3 2.0 The

More information

APA REFERENCING GUIDE. BSc (Hons) Psychology

APA REFERENCING GUIDE. BSc (Hons) Psychology APA REFERENCING GUIDE BSc (Hons) Psychology 1 CONTENTS 1. INTRODUCTION p. 3 2. WHAT IS APA REFERENCING? p. 3 2a. Referencing and assessment p. 3 3. REFERENCING: academic and non academic work p. 4 3a.

More information

No author. When there is no author listed use the title or Anon. Check your School guide as subjects differ in the use of Anon.

No author. When there is no author listed use the title or Anon. Check your School guide as subjects differ in the use of Anon. Referencing Harvard Method Before reading this guide you must refer to the specific guidelines provided by your School / module leader. Links to School guides: http://www2.napier.ac.uk/ed/plagiarism/students.htm

More information

Plagiarism is the act of presenting the work or ideas of another as your own.

Plagiarism is the act of presenting the work or ideas of another as your own. 4 Plagiarism Contents What is plagiarism?... 1 Unintentional Plagiarism... 2 Penalties for plagiarism... 2 How is plagiarism detected?... 3 How do I avoid plagiarism?... 3 Why is referencing style so important?...

More information

THE LITTLE BOOK OF PLAGIARISM What it is and how to avoid it

THE LITTLE BOOK OF PLAGIARISM What it is and how to avoid it THE LITTLE BOOK OF PLAGIARISM What it is and how to avoid it This short booklet is designed to help students to understand more fully what plagiarism is, and suggests strategies for avoiding it. It is

More information

The IEEE system of referencing

The IEEE system of referencing The IEEE system of referencing Contents 1. Introduction.................................................................... 2 Plagiarism.......................................................................

More information

Writing Academic Essays at University. Philip Seaton, Hokkaido University

Writing Academic Essays at University. Philip Seaton, Hokkaido University Writing Academic Essays at University Philip Seaton, Hokkaido University Writing Academic Essays at University Page 2/ What is Research? Video 1 In this video series, I will be introducing you to the basics

More information

How to write an Academic Business Report

How to write an Academic Business Report How to write an Academic Business Report Tessa Owens Writing an Academic Business Report Writing a report may be divided into six broad areas: 1. identification and acquisition of relevant sources 2. preliminary

More information

Running head: SAMPLE APA PAPER FOR STUDENTS 1

Running head: SAMPLE APA PAPER FOR STUDENTS 1 Running head: SAMPLE APA PAPER FOR STUDENTS 1 RUNNING HEAD: Yes, it will say, Running head:...., but only on the first page. Use an abbreviated form of the title (not exceeding 50 characters, which will

More information

University of Manchester. School of Law

University of Manchester. School of Law University of Manchester School of Law Writing An Essay 2004-2005 for LL.B (Law; English Law and French Law) BA (Accounting and Law; Law with Politics) BSocSc (Criminology and Social Policy) & Visiting

More information

Avoiding Plagiarism. Information you need to know. Student Academic Learning Services SSB 204

Avoiding Plagiarism. Information you need to know. Student Academic Learning Services SSB 204 Avoiding Plagiarism Information you need to know Objectives Learn what plagiarism is Learn why some students plagiarize Learn how plagiarism is detected Learn why plagiarism is a serious issue Understand

More information

REFERENCING. In other words, plagiarism is an act of fraud. It involves both stealing someone else's work and lying about it afterward.

REFERENCING. In other words, plagiarism is an act of fraud. It involves both stealing someone else's work and lying about it afterward. Page 1 of 6 REFERENCING 1. Plagiarism and referencing 1.1 What is plagiarism? Many people think of plagiarism as copying another's work, or borrowing someone else's original ideas. But terms like "copying"

More information

Plagiarism and Citation and Referencing

Plagiarism and Citation and Referencing Plagiarism Taking someone else s words or ideas and presenting them as your own. To Plagiarize transitive verb : to steal and pass off (the ideas or words of another) as one's own : use (another's production)

More information

Writing in Social Work

Writing in Social Work WRITING ACROSS THE CURRICULUM Writing in Social Work The Hunter College social work curriculum is divided into four major methods: Casework, Group Work, Community Organizing and Planning, and Administration.

More information

Contents. CHAPTER 1 Writing from Research 1. CHAPTER 2 Finding a Topic 10. CHAPTER 3 Finding and Filtering Internet Sources 32

Contents. CHAPTER 1 Writing from Research 1. CHAPTER 2 Finding a Topic 10. CHAPTER 3 Finding and Filtering Internet Sources 32 Preface to the Instructor xii Preface to the Student xvi CHAPTER 1 Writing from Research 1 1a Why Do Research? 2 1b Learning Format Variations 3 1c Understanding a Research Assignment 3 Understanding the

More information

A Guide to Referencing Using APA Style

A Guide to Referencing Using APA Style 1 A Guide to Referencing Using APA Style Based on the 6 th Edition of the Publication Manual of the American Psychological Association Updated September 2012 2 Contents Section 1: Aspects of referencing

More information

Running head: WRITING RESEARCH PAPERS 1. A Guide for Writing APA Style Research Papers. Susan B. Smith. Capital Community College

Running head: WRITING RESEARCH PAPERS 1. A Guide for Writing APA Style Research Papers. Susan B. Smith. Capital Community College PROVIDE A RUNNING HEAD OR SHORT TITLE OF YOUR PAPER IN ALL CAPS FOR EACH PAGE OF THE PAPER Based on the Sixth Ed. of the Publication Manual of the American Psychological Association. Updated September

More information

The Vancouver style. Reference with confidence. (2012 Edition)

The Vancouver style. Reference with confidence. (2012 Edition) Reference with confidence: The Vancouver style 1 Reference with confidence The Vancouver style (2012 Edition) As used in: Biochemistry (as well as Harvard) Biology (as well as Harvard) Chemistry Hull York

More information

Authenticity and Academic Integrity: A Guide

Authenticity and Academic Integrity: A Guide GUIDE DOCUMENT Authenticity and Academic Integrity: A Guide Developed by the Tasmanian Qualifications Authority (now the Office of Tasmanian Assessment, Standards and Certification) in conjunction with

More information

APA General Format: Research Papers. Title Page

APA General Format: Research Papers. Title Page APA General Format: Research Papers General format for papers written in APA style is covered in the first chapter of the Publication Manual (Call number here at Morrisville College Library: REF BF 76.7.P83

More information

WRITING EFFECTIVE REPORTS AND ESSAYS

WRITING EFFECTIVE REPORTS AND ESSAYS WRITING EFFECTIVE REPORTS AND ESSAYS A. What are Reports? Writing Effective Reports Reports are documents which both give a reader information and ask the reader to do something with that information.

More information

Project Report Writing: SPSC 4091

Project Report Writing: SPSC 4091 Project Report Writing: SPSC 4091 Objectives of the Report All projects are different, BUT there are conventions for reports. Your supervisor will give advice on issues specific to your project report

More information

Documenting Electronic Sources: APA Style

Documenting Electronic Sources: APA Style Library Documenting Electronic Sources: APA Style You must document your sources anytime that you use information that is not your own. (See the Library brochure on plagiarism for more information.) We

More information

Author-date system examples: Fire is favourable to the dreamer if he does not get burned (Miller 1995).

Author-date system examples: Fire is favourable to the dreamer if he does not get burned (Miller 1995). f: Harvard style guide 1 CITATION STYLE: Harvard Referencing System HARVARD STYLE Acknowledge your source Plagiarism refers to the use of another s ideas, expressions or opinions without acknowledging

More information

How to Cite Information From This System

How to Cite Information From This System How to Cite Information From This System How you cite material from this system will depend on the style you have been asked to use. This document covers three styles: Chicago style Modern Language Association

More information

Plagiarism and How to Avoid It. Success Center

Plagiarism and How to Avoid It. Success Center Plagiarism and How to Avoid It Success Center What is Plagiarism? According to Aaron (2007) in The Little, Brown Compact Handbook, the word plagiarism derives from a Latin word meaning to kidnap or abduct.

More information

Dissertation and project writing. Academic skills guide 2

Dissertation and project writing. Academic skills guide 2 Dissertation and project writing Academic skills guide 2 Produced by Dyslexia Support Enabling Services View at www.soton.ac.uk/edusupport/dyslexia Contents Dissertations and project reports... 3 What

More information

Setting out your references

Setting out your references Harvard Referencing Guide 2 Setting out your references Also available on Wolsey > Study Skills learningdevelopment@ucs.ac.uk September 2011 At the end of your assignment or essay, you list all your sources

More information

UTT LIBRARIES APA STYLE FORMATTING. A Brief Guide

UTT LIBRARIES APA STYLE FORMATTING. A Brief Guide UTT LIBRARIES APA STYLE FORMATTING A Brief Guide Revised October 2010 UTT LIBRARIES 2 BRIEF GUIDE TO FORMATTING A RESEARCH PAPER USING THE APA STYLE As part of the course requirements at tertiary level,

More information

Office of Research and Graduate Studies

Office of Research and Graduate Studies Office of Research and Graduate Studies Duncan Hayse, MA, MFA Coordinator Theses, Doctoral Projects, and Dissertations CONTACT: http://www.uiw.edu/orgs/writing/index.html hayse@uiwtx.edu APA review for

More information

Guidelines for History Research Essays

Guidelines for History Research Essays Guidelines for History Research Essays These guidelines are intended to aid students in the preparation of the final draft of an essay and, as such, they are not a complete manual on style. For more detailed

More information

BSN GUIDE 1 BSN GUIDE FOR SCHOLARLY PAPERS

BSN GUIDE 1 BSN GUIDE FOR SCHOLARLY PAPERS BSN GUIDE 1 BSN GUIDE FOR SCHOLARLY PAPERS This guide is to assist the BSN student in utilizing the American Psychological Association (APA) format and writing in a professional style. The focus of this

More information

The title of your paper is centered and positioned in the upper half of the page. It should be no longer than 12 words.

The title of your paper is centered and positioned in the upper half of the page. It should be no longer than 12 words. Running head: WRITING RESEARCH PAPERS 1 PROVIDE A Running head OR SHORT TITLE OF YOUR PAPER IN ALL CAPS FOR EACH PAGE OF THE PAPER *The first page is formatted differently than the rest of the paper Each

More information

Essay Writing BJECTIVES ONTENTS. By the end of this section you should be able to; Interpret essay questions successfully. Plan personal objectives

Essay Writing BJECTIVES ONTENTS. By the end of this section you should be able to; Interpret essay questions successfully. Plan personal objectives Essay Writing By the end of this section you should be able to; Interpret essay questions successfully O BJECTIVES Plan personal objectives Actively search for information Construct a logical essay plan

More information

Steps in the essay writing process

Steps in the essay writing process WRITING AN ESSAY Writing an essay is an opportunity for you to develop new ideas and apply concepts and theories from your course. You ll develop a thesis (or position) and use reasoning and evidence to

More information

Course outline. Code: TPP101 Title: Academic Skills for Success

Course outline. Code: TPP101 Title: Academic Skills for Success Course outline Code: TPP101 Title: Academic Skills for Success Faculty of: Science, Health, Education and Engineering Teaching Session: Session 8 Year: 2016 Course Coordinator: Guy Rushton Tel: 5456 5758

More information

MODULE SPECIFICATION WORD TEMPLATE POSTGRADUATE PROGRAMMES

MODULE SPECIFICATION WORD TEMPLATE POSTGRADUATE PROGRAMMES MODULE SPECIFICATION WORD TEMPLATE POSTGRADUATE PROGRAMMES KEY FACTS Module name Module code School Department or equivalent UK credits 15 ECTS 7.5 Level 7 Delivery location (partnership programmes only)

More information

Academic Integrity. Writing the Research Paper

Academic Integrity. Writing the Research Paper Academic Integrity Writing the Research Paper A C A D E M I C I N T E G R I T Y W R I T I N G T H E R E S E A R C H P A P E R Academic Integrity is an impressive-sounding phrase. What does it mean? While

More information

REFERENCING. In other words, plagiarism is an act of fraud. It involves both stealing someone else's work and lying about it afterward.

REFERENCING. In other words, plagiarism is an act of fraud. It involves both stealing someone else's work and lying about it afterward. Page 1 of 6 REFERENCING 1. Plagiarism and referencing 1.1 What is plagiarism? Many people think of plagiarism as copying another's work, or borrowing someone else's original ideas. But terms like "copying"

More information

Documentary-note (Oxford)

Documentary-note (Oxford) Documentary-note (Oxford) The documentary-note (Oxford) referencing style This resource explains some of the more common applications of the documentary-note (Oxford) style of referencing. It is based

More information

How to write a history essay

How to write a history essay How to write a history essay How to write a history essay 2 How to write a history essay This guide was produced on the basis of the History QAA Benchmark, and while consulting in particular helpful guidelines

More information

Planning and Writing Essays

Planning and Writing Essays Planning and Writing Essays Many of your coursework assignments will take the form of an essay. This leaflet will give you an overview of the basic stages of planning and writing an academic essay but

More information

Section 1 Where to find information

Section 1 Where to find information Section 1 Where to find information OSCOLA website: http://www.law.ox.ac.uk/publications/oscol a.php Tutorial from Cardiff: https://ilrb.cf.ac.uk/citingreferences/oscola /tutorial/ Section 2 The basics

More information

The essay writing process

The essay writing process The essay writing process Seven suggested steps to the essay/assignment writing process Plan 1. Plan 2. Analyse question 3. Find information 4. Read and make notes 5. Draft an outline 6. Write 7. Edit

More information

SOME GUIDELINES FOR WRITING A PAPER / THESIS

SOME GUIDELINES FOR WRITING A PAPER / THESIS SOME GUIDELINES FOR WRITING A PAPER / THESIS 1. Introduction Previous experience has shown that many law students have little experience in writing academic papers. It is essential, also for their subsequent

More information

Harvard Style Referencing Guide for Social Work. A library guide to using the Harvard referencing style for Social Work students.

Harvard Style Referencing Guide for Social Work. A library guide to using the Harvard referencing style for Social Work students. Harvard Style Referencing Guide for Social Work A library guide to using the Harvard referencing style for Social Work students. September 2011 COPYRIGHTS "The University of Bradford retains copyright

More information

Making Knowledge Work THE CENTRE FOR PSYCHOLOGY STUDIES. Student guide to the Harvard referencing system.

Making Knowledge Work THE CENTRE FOR PSYCHOLOGY STUDIES. Student guide to the Harvard referencing system. Making Knowledge Work THE CENTRE FOR PSYCHOLOGY STUDIES Student guide to the Harvard referencing system. 2008 Introduction This document is structured into three sections. The first section introduces

More information

Q: What rights do students have to ensure the ethical integrity of their own work?

Q: What rights do students have to ensure the ethical integrity of their own work? HSC: All My Own Work Scholarship Principles and Practices Q: What are the key principles of ethical scholarship? The key principles of ethical scholarship include: being honest about the source of information

More information

Academic Integrity and Plagiarism Information The University has adopted policies relating to academic integrity which can be found in the annual

Academic Integrity and Plagiarism Information The University has adopted policies relating to academic integrity which can be found in the annual Academic Integrity and Plagiarism Information The University has adopted policies relating to academic integrity which can be found in the annual publication Student Related Policies & Procedures Manual

More information

APA STYLE: AN INTRODUCTION. Presented by the ULM Library Reference Department

APA STYLE: AN INTRODUCTION. Presented by the ULM Library Reference Department APA STYLE: AN INTRODUCTION Presented by the ULM Library Reference Department Session Overview What is APA style? General Guidelines The Basics Parts of a Paper Citations Footnotes + Endnotes Resources

More information

HOW TO USE SOURCES IN YOUR PAPER. A Tutorial

HOW TO USE SOURCES IN YOUR PAPER. A Tutorial HOW TO USE SOURCES IN YOUR PAPER A Tutorial Using outside research sources I m lost!! Most writers who are asked to use outside research sources in their academic papers have problems at one time or another

More information

It may include some of all of these, but it will, ultimately, offer a unique perspective or a new contribution to the topic under discussion.

It may include some of all of these, but it will, ultimately, offer a unique perspective or a new contribution to the topic under discussion. Writing a Research Paper? Don t Panic! At some point, every student has to write a research paper. This may result in a lot of anxiety and confusion, but you can handle it! All it takes is persistence,

More information

RESEARCH ESSAYS. The Writing Centre Department of English

RESEARCH ESSAYS. The Writing Centre Department of English A research essay is a piece of writing that provides information about a particular topic that you have researched; it is about a topic you are not familiar with. You can learn about the topic by reading

More information

Running head: UWC Sample APA Format Paper 1

Running head: UWC Sample APA Format Paper 1 Running head: UWC Sample APA Format Paper 1 UWC Sample APA Format Paper Yourfirstname Lastname East Carolina University UWC Sample APA Format Paper 2 Abstract This is your abstract page for your APA paper.

More information

Using American Psychological Association (APA) Citation

Using American Psychological Association (APA) Citation CLRC Writing Center Using American Psychological Association (APA) Citation How to use this guide to build your works cited entries: 1. Determine what types of sources you have (book by one author, work

More information

Basic APA Format. Features of the Main Body

Basic APA Format. Features of the Main Body Basic APA Format Depending on which field or academic discipline you choose, you will use a different format for your papers. The American Psychological Association (APA) format is generally used for behavioral

More information

APA Documentation. A recent study of mice habitat proved interesting (Smith & Jones, 1982).

APA Documentation. A recent study of mice habitat proved interesting (Smith & Jones, 1982). 1 APA Documentation The APA documentation style is a specific documentation style developed by the American Psychological Association. It differs from other documentation styles (such as the MLA style)

More information

Understanding Turnitin Originality Reports

Understanding Turnitin Originality Reports Understanding Turnitin Originality Reports An explanation for students and staff in the School of Allied Health Sciences, De Montfort University. Dr Vivien Rolfe BSc, PhD, FHEA, MIBMS. Updated September

More information

King s College London - FILM STUDIES 6AAQS400 INDEPENDENT STUDY GUIDELINES 2013-14 for final year students

King s College London - FILM STUDIES 6AAQS400 INDEPENDENT STUDY GUIDELINES 2013-14 for final year students King s College London - FILM STUDIES 6AAQS400 INDEPENDENT STUDY GUIDELINES 2013-14 for final year students Convenors: Mark Betz (through summer 2013, then from 1 January 2014) Belén Vidal (1 September

More information

Formatting a Document in Word using MLA style

Formatting a Document in Word using MLA style Formatting a Document in Word using MLA style 1. Using MS Word - various versions 2. Using MLA Handbook for Writers of Research Papers 7 th ed. (2009) 3. The 7 th ed. is also in Term Paper Assistance section

More information

APA Style: Citing References in Text

APA Style: Citing References in Text APA Style: Citing References in Text APA citation style is an author-date system of referencing other people s words and ideas within the text of a paper. Sources are briefly identified within the text

More information

MLA Documentation Part 1

MLA Documentation Part 1 MLA Documentation Part 1 1 This presentation will help you Understand the process of documenting your research. Learn to construct an in-text citation. Understand the basics of creating a Works Cited page.

More information

Unraveling APA: The Keys to Success. Leslie Foutch Peabody Library

Unraveling APA: The Keys to Success. Leslie Foutch Peabody Library Unraveling APA: The Keys to Success Leslie Foutch Peabody Library What is APA? APA citation style was designed to advance scholarship by developing rigorous standards for scientific communication. The

More information

The Writing Process Packet

The Writing Process Packet Name: Period: Ms. Kawalek, English 11 The Writing Process Packet Keep this packet for the rest of the school year. PLEASE DO NOT LOSE IT! You must complete all prewriting and editing steps prior to submitting

More information

HOW SHOULD YOU PRESENT AND STRUCTURE AN ESSAY? DISCUSS. Rupert Gethin

HOW SHOULD YOU PRESENT AND STRUCTURE AN ESSAY? DISCUSS. Rupert Gethin HOW SHOULD YOU PRESENT AND STRUCTURE AN ESSAY? DISCUSS. Rupert Gethin [Introduction] What follows is an essay on how to present and structure essays. The essay falls into two main parts: the first focuses

More information

Essay Writing. Learning Development Service 22 nd of October Leonie Maria Tanczer, MSc.

Essay Writing. Learning Development Service 22 nd of October Leonie Maria Tanczer, MSc. Essay Writing Learning 22 nd of October 2015 Leonie Maria Tanczer, MSc. LDS Workshop Series Week 2 8 th October 2015 Independent Study & Time Management Week 3 15 th October 2015 Literature Search Week

More information

Library, Teaching and Learning. Writing Essays. and other assignments. 2013 Lincoln University

Library, Teaching and Learning. Writing Essays. and other assignments. 2013 Lincoln University Library, Teaching and Learning Writing Essays and other assignments 2013 Lincoln University Writing at University During your degree at Lincoln University you will complete essays, reports, and other kinds

More information

Oxford University Computing Laboratory. A guide to citing and referencing for students

Oxford University Computing Laboratory. A guide to citing and referencing for students 1 Oxford University Computing Laboratory A guide to citing and referencing for students 2 A guide to citing and referencing for students This guide is divided into two sections. The first explains what

More information

Shannon College of Hotel Management A Recognised College of the National University of Ireland. Student Guide Harvard Referencing Style

Shannon College of Hotel Management A Recognised College of the National University of Ireland. Student Guide Harvard Referencing Style Shannon College of Hotel Management A Recognised College of the National University of Ireland Student Guide Harvard Referencing Style CONTENTS What is Referencing? 4 What is the Harvard Style of Referencing?

More information

American Psychological Association (APA) Style

American Psychological Association (APA) Style American Psychological Association (APA) Style American Psychological Association Style (APA) is one of the top three citation styles used by editors, professors, and publishers as an aid to preparing

More information

The Importance of Citation

The Importance of Citation By Judy Hunter Grinnell College A citation is both a signpost and an acknowledgement. As a signpost, it signals the location of your source. As an acknowledgement, it reveals that you are indebted to that

More information

Improving your study, assignment and exam skills

Improving your study, assignment and exam skills LIBRARY Research Guide 5 Improving your study, assignment and exam skills This guide gives details of online resources and books in Oxford Brookes University Libraries which are relevant to improving your

More information

APA STYLE TIPS AND EXAMPLES

APA STYLE TIPS AND EXAMPLES APA STYLE TIPS AND EXAMPLES For the most current information on APA style, see their Website: http://www.apastyle.org/. Everyone should watch the basic tutorial (http://www.apastyle.org/learn/tutorials/basicstutorial.aspx)

More information

INTRODUCTION TO APA STYLE

INTRODUCTION TO APA STYLE University of North Alabama INTRODUCTION TO APA STYLE Center for WRITING EXCELLENCE Cayla Buttram David MacMillan III Dr. Robert T. Koch Jr. January 2013 INTRODUCTION TO APA STYLE 2 Contents Elements of

More information

Academic Style Guides

Academic Style Guides Academic Style Guides Academic Styles Guides are tools evolved from printers and editors style sheets which codify a standard usage for the mechanics of writing, the format of a research paper, and the

More information

Neil Murray University of South Australia April 2011

Neil Murray University of South Australia April 2011 Introduction When it comes to writing, academic disciplines particularly those within the humanities and social sciences have a good deal in common and, for the most part, they share very similar expectations

More information

A Very Correct APA Style Paper: Getting the Details Right. Jordan A. Student. Brenau University. Running head: A VERY CORRECT APA STYLE PAPER 1

A Very Correct APA Style Paper: Getting the Details Right. Jordan A. Student. Brenau University. Running head: A VERY CORRECT APA STYLE PAPER 1 Running head: A VERY CORRECT APA STYLE PAPER 1 Comment [MSOffice1]: The running head is a short title for the paper placed at the left margin. Each letter of the running head is capitalized. The number

More information

What is Expository Writing? It is a piece of informational text, that explains something to the reader.

What is Expository Writing? It is a piece of informational text, that explains something to the reader. ELEMENTS OF What is Expository Writing? It is a piece of informational text, that explains something to the reader. The PURPOSE of Expository? We use expository writing to explain provide information define

More information