Basic Film Terminology. Shot Designations

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1 Basic Film Terminology Shot Designations

2 Apparent camera-subject distance Camera appears far away

3 Apparent camera-subject distance Camera appears far away = LONG SHOT

4 Apparent camera-subject distance Subject seen from head to toe

5 Apparent camera-subject distance Subject seen from head to toe = FULL SHOT

6 Apparent camera-subject distance Subject seen from waist up

7 Apparent camera-subject distance Subject seen from waist up = MEDIUM SHOT

8 Apparent camera-subject distance Subject seen from waist up = MEDIUM SHOT Alternate term = WAIST SHOT

9 Apparent camera-subject distance Only head & shoulders are seen

10 Apparent camera-subject distance Only head & shoulders are seen = MEDIUM CLOSE SHOT

11 Apparent camera-subject distance Only head & shoulders are seen = MEDIUM CLOSE SHOT or SHOULDER SHOT

12 Apparent camera-subject distance Subject s face fills the frame

13 Apparent camera-subject distance Subject s face fills the frame = CLOSE SHOT or CLOSE-UP

14 Apparent camera-subject distance A portion of the subject s face fills the frame

15 Apparent camera-subject distance A portion of the subject s face fills the frame = EXTREME CLOSE SHOT

16 Apparent camera-subject distance Camera too far away to identify subject

17 Apparent camera-subject distance Camera too far away to identify subject = EXTREME LONG SHOT

18 Apparent camera-subject distance Closer when facial expression is important

19 Apparent camera-subject distance Farther away when environment is important

20 Angle of camera s viewpoint From below looking up at subject

21 Angle of camera s viewpoint From below looking up at subject = LOW ANGLE SHOT

22 Angle of camera s viewpoint From above looking down at subject

23 Angle of camera s viewpoint From above looking down at subject = HIGH ANGLE SHOT

24 Angle of camera s viewpoint EXTREME LOW ANGLE

25 Angle of camera s viewpoint EXTREME HIGH ANGLE

26 Angle of camera s viewpoint Low angle shot used for dramatic emphasis

27 Angle of camera s viewpoint Camera tilted on the horizontal

28 Angle of camera s viewpoint Camera tilted on the horizontal = OBLIQUE ANGLE (aka CANTED ANGLE)

29 Angle of camera s viewpoint OBLIQUE ANGLE is sometimes referred to as a DUTCH ANGLE

30 Angle of camera s viewpoint OVER THE SHOULDER SHOT

31 Angle of camera s viewpoint OVER THE SHOULDER SHOT

32 Functional Description ESTABLISHING SHOT

33 Number of subjects in frame TWO SHOT

34 Number of subjects in frame THREE SHOT

35 Number of subjects in frame FOUR SHOT

36 Number of subjects in frame FIVE SHOT

37 Number of subjects in frame GROUP SHOT

38 Aspect Ratio Academy Ratio = 3 units high x 4 units wide 1:1.33

39 Aspect Ratio Flat Widescreen 1:1.85

40 Aspect Ratio European Flat Widescreen 1:1.66

41 Aspect Ratio Anamorphic Widescreen (CinemaScope, Panavision, etc.) 1:2.25

42 Aspect Ratio Anamorphic Lens

43 Aspect Ratio Anamorphic Lens

44 Aspect Ratio Anamorphic Lens

45 Pan & Scan Widescreen on standard TV

46 Pan & Scan Widescreen on standard TV

47 Pan & Scan Widescreen on standard TV

48 Letterbox Widescreen on standard TV

49 Aspect Ratio Widescreen TV (16 x 9) 1:1.77

50 Aspect Ratio 1.66 Widescreen TV (16 x 9) 1: x 9

51 Focus description

52 Focus description

53 Focus description

54 Focus description Selective Focus

55 Focus description Selective Focus

56 Focus description Selective Focus

57 Focus description Deep Focus

58 Focus description Deep Focus

59 Focus description Soft Focus

60 Focus description Soft Focus

61 Focus description Soft Focus

62 Entire scene well lit Lighting Description

63 Lighting Description Entire scene well lit = HIGH KEY LIGHTING

64 Lighting Description Isolated pools of light intended to simulate darkness

65 Lighting Description Isolated pools of light intended to simulate darkness = LOW KEY LIGHTING

66 Lighting Principles Standard lighting is designed to create the illusion of depth.

67 Lighting Principles Standard lighting is designed to create the illusion of depth.

68 Lighting Principles Variations: No fill

69 Lighting Principles Variations: No fill

70 Lighting Principles Variations: No eye light

71 Lighting Principles Variations: Dominant back light

72 Lighting Principles Variations: Dominant back light

73 Lighting Principles Variations: Light from below subject

74 Lighting Variables Not enough light through the lens

75 Lighting Variables Not enough light through the lens = UNDEREXPOSURE

76 Lighting Variables Too much light through the lens

77 Lighting Variables Too much light through the lens = OVEREXPOSURE

78 Lighting Variables Overexposure used for dramatic emphasis

79 Use of shadows Lighting Variables

80 Use of shadows Lighting Variables

81 Use of shadows Lighting Variables

82 Use of shadows Lighting Variables

83 Lighting Variables Lighting the background but not the subject

84 Lighting Variables Lighting the background but not the subject = SILHOUETTE

85 Lighting Variables Lighting the background but not the subject = SILHOUETTE

86 Lighting Variables Lighting the background but not the subject = SILHOUETTE

87 Lighting Variables Lighting the subject but not the background

88 Lighting Variables Lighting the subject but not the background = LIMBO LIGHTING

89 Lighting Variables Luminescent subject: subject gives off light rather than reflecting light.

90 Lens Variables Depth perspective

91 Lens Variables Depth perspective

92 Lens Variables Linear distortion: Fish eye lens

93 Lens Variables Linear distortion: Fish eye lens

94 Lens Variables Linear distortion

95 Lens Variables Linear distortion

96 Lens Variables Linear distortion

97 Color Variables Hand Coloring

98 Color Variables Hand Coloring

99 Color Variables Tinting

100 Color Variables Tinting

101 Color Variables Tinting

102 Color Variables Two-Tone Technicolor

103 Color Variables Two-Tone Technicolor

104 Color Variables Two-Tone Technicolor

105 Color Variables Three-Tone Technicolor

106 Color Variables Saturation: High

107 Color Variables Saturation: Low

108 Color Variables Palette: Broad

109 Color Variables Palette: Narrow

110 Color Variables Dominant Color

111 Color Variables Dominant Color

112 Color Variables Dominant Color

113 Contrast Variables Low Contrast

114 Contrast Variables High Contrast

115 Image Texture Variables Grain

116 Image Texture Variables Grain

117 Image Texture Variables Grain

118 Image Texture Variables Interposed materials

119 Image Texture Variables Interposed materials

120 Image Texture Variables Interposed materials

121 Compositional Variables Horizontals and Verticals

122 Compositional Variables Diagonals

123 Compositional Variables Diagonals

124 Compositional Variables Diagonals

125 Compositional Variables Symmetry

126 Compositional Variables Symmetry

127 Compositional Variables Asymmetry

128 Compositional Variables Balance

129 Compositional Variables Balance

130 Compositional Variables Balance

131 Compositional Variables Balance

132 Compositional Variables Density

133 Compositional Variables Density

134 Compositional Variables Depth

135 Compositional Variables Depth

136 Compositional Variables Depth

137 Compositional Variables Depth

138 Compositional Variables Framing

139 Compositional Variables Framing

140 Compositional Variables Framing

141 Compositional Variables Framing

142 Compositional Variables Framing

143 Compositional Variables Masking

144 Compositional Variables Masking - IRIS

145 Compositional Variables Masking - IRIS

146 Compositional Variables Masking

147 Compositional Variables Masking

148 Compositional Variables Natural Masking

149 Compositional Variables Natural Masking

150 Compositional Variables Natural Masking

151 Cinematic Metaphors

152 Cinematic Metaphors

153 Cinematic Metaphors

154 Cinematic Metaphors

155 Cinematic Metaphors

156 Cinematic Allusion

157 Cinematic Allusion

158 Cinematic Allusion

159 Cinematic Allusion

160 Camera Movements Horizontal movement on a fixed axis

161 Camera Movements Horizontal movement on a fixed axis = PAN

162 Camera Movements Vertical movement on a fixed axis

163 Camera Movements Vertical movement on a fixed axis = TILT

164 Camera Movements Movement of entire camera forward or back

165 Camera Movements Movement of entire camera forward or back = DOLLY

166 A Brief Digression: The camera movement that isn t. Adjustment of the lens focal length while the camera is running

167 A Brief Digression: The camera movement that isn t. Adjustment of the lens focal length while the camera is running = ZOOM

168 Camera Movements Movement of entire camera horizontally

169 Camera Movements Movement of entire camera horizontally = TRACKING (or TRUCKING)

170 Camera Movements Movement of entire camera up or down

171 Camera Movements Movement of entire camera up or down = BOOM

172 Transitions Instantaneous transition

173 Transitions Instantaneous transition = CUT

174 Transitions Gradual transition from a completely dark screen to a fully illuminated screen or from a fully illuminated screen to a completely dark screen

175 Transitions Gradual transition from a completely dark screen to a fully illuminated screen (FADE IN) or from a fully illuminated screen to a completely dark screen (FADE OUT) = FADE

176 Transitions A fade out superimposed on a fade in

177 Transitions A fade out superimposed on a fade in = DISSOLVE

178 Transitions A line moves across the screen; behind the line is the incoming shot and ahead of the line is the outgoing shot

179 Transitions A line moves across the screen; behind the line is the incoming shot and ahead of the line is the outgoing shot = WIPE

180 Transitions A line moves across the screen; behind the line is the incoming shot and ahead of the line is the outgoing shot = WIPE

181 Transitions A line (or a graphic shape) moves across the screen; behind the line is the incoming shot and ahead of the line is the outgoing shot = WIPE

182 Transitions NATURAL WIPE

183 Editing Concepts Similar shots made from opposing directions

184 Editing Concepts Similar shots made from opposing directions =REVERSE ANGLES

185 Editing Concepts A transition in which the conceptual content is greater than the conceptual content of the two shots when viewed separately

186 Editing Concepts A transition in which the conceptual content is greater than the conceptual content of the two shots when viewed separately = THEMATIC (CONCEPTUAL) EDITING

187 Editing Concepts Conveying a large amount of narrative time in a minimal amount of screen time through intensive use of time compression

188 Editing Concepts Conveying a large amount of narrative time in a minimal amount of screen time through intensive use of time compression = MONTAGE

189 Editing Concepts Parallel editing which cuts back and forth between two different settings to establish a dramatic connection between the two

190 Editing Concepts Parallel editing which cuts back and forth between two different settings to establish a dramatic connection between the two = CROSS CUTTING

191 Editing Concepts Parallel editing which cuts back and forth between two different settings to establish a dramatic connection between the two = CROSS CUTTING

192 Editing Concepts Editing does not necessarily entail cutting, although the words are frequently used interchangeably.

193 Editing Concepts Editing to create content

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