Unit 5 Chemical Quantities & The Mole


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1 Unit 5 Chemical Quantities & The Mole
2 Molar mass is the mass of one mole of a substance. Molar Mass Other names for molar mass include *formula mass *gram formula mass *molecular weight
3 Molar Mass One of mole any element will have a mass in grams corresponding to the value of its. atomic mass o1 mol carbon = g/mol o1 mol calcium = g/mol o(its atomic mass from the periodic table = 1 mole)
4
5 Diatomic Elements never exist alone in nature!!! *Trick for remembering the 7 diatomics *
6 Molar Mass of Compounds mol One of any molecule/compound will have a mass in grams corresponding to the value of its molar mass (the sum of the masses of the elements that compose it).
7 Example: Water, H 2 O Element Molar Mass # of Atoms Total H X g O X g g/mol This is the mass of 1 mol of water!
8 Ex. Ca(NO 3 ) 2 Ca: x 1 = N: x 2 = O: x 6 = g/mole
9 Sample Problems K Potassium carbonate 2 CO 3 # of K atoms: x = # of C atoms: x = # of O atoms: x = g K 2 CO 3
10 Sample Problems (NH Ammonium sulfate 4 ) 2 SO 4 # of N atoms: x = # of H atoms: x = # of S atoms: x = # of O atoms: x = g (NH 4 ) 2 SO 4
11 Practice 1. What is the atomic mass of sodium? 2. Calculate the molar mass of Al 2 (SO 4 ) 3 3. Calculate the molar mass of nitrogen (hint: diatomic!?!?).
12 Mole Highway NOTES: To convert between units, follow the highway. Notice, there is no shortcut from grams to liters or between any of the three units surrounding the mole. This means you have to convert to moles before converting to another unit!
13 Draw the Mole Road Map!!
14 Molar mass: called gram atomic mass when single element is used. called gram formula unit when ionic compound is used. called gram molecular unit when molecular compound or diatomic molecules used. Diatomic molecules are atoms that bond with themselves. There are SEVEN of these that you need to remember: Br 2 I 2 N 2 Cl 2 H 2 O 2 F 2 (Remember this by the name BRINClHOF )
15 Determine the number of moles in. 25 g sodium 25 g 1 mol = 1.1 mol g Molar mass of Sodium = Na = 1 x = g
16 Determine the number of moles in. 85 g H 2 SO 4 85 g 1 mol = 0.87 mol g Mass in grams of H 2 SO 4 = H = 2 x = S = 1 x = O = 4 x = Add to get molar mass of g
17 Determine the number of grams in. 2.5 moles of sodium 2.5 mol g = 57 g I mol Molar mass of Sodium = Na = 1 x = g
18 Determine the number of grams in moles of H 2 SO mol g = 49 g I mol Mass in grams of H 2 SO 4 = H = 2 x = S = 1 x = O = 4 x = Add to get molar mass of g
19 How many moles are there in 27 g of ethanol (C 2 H 5 OH)? 27 g 1 mol = 0.59 mol g Mass of C 2 H 5 OH: C = 2 x = H = 6 x 1.008= O = 1 x = Add these all up for mass in grams = g
20 Homework page 7 Show all work and units to receive full credit.
21 Representative Particles Moles
22 It s a quantity, and it s a BIG one. Avogadro s Number = 6.02 x and is also called a. Mole Like a pair or dozen, a mole represents a set number of things; in chemistry, those things are particles. For example: 1 dozen = 12 items 3 dozen = 36 cookies.5 dozen = 6 doughnuts
23 It s a quantity, and it s a BIG one. So, a dozen is a counting unit equal to 12 of any object. Likewise, a Mole is a counting unit equal to 6.02 x of an object, even really small ones like, atoms, molecules or. formula units
24 What s so special about 6.02 x 10 23? Why do scientists use that number? oa conversion factor. oallows us to manipulate many small particles, as if they were one whole part. o For elements on the periodic table, there is a 1 to 1 relationship between the mass of a single atom (in amu) and the mass of 1 Mole of the same species of atom (in grams). o Remember, Mole is a quantity 6.02 x particles.
25 What s so special about 6.02 x 10 23? Atomic Number (number of protons) Atomic Mass (average number of protons and neutrons) Ar Using the periodic table, we ve learned that an Argon atom has a mass of amu. Unfortunately, manipulating a single atom of any element isn t reasonable, so taking its individual mass isn t possible. However, we do have the Mole So, a g sample of Argon contains 6.02 x atoms that s Avogadro s Number, the MOLE! It s a 1 to 1 relationship between a single atom in amu and a Mole of atoms 1 Atom of Argon in grams. 1 Mole of Argon
26 Representative Particles A representative particle is the smallest unit of a substance.
27 Types of Particles Monatomic elements = Diatomic elements = Ionic compounds = Covalent compounds = atoms Ions = molecules Acids = atoms molecules formula units molecules
28 Avogadro s number, which is, 6.02 x represents the number of chemical units in one mole of any substance. For the monatomic elements, the chemical unit is an. atom 1 mol of any chemical = 6.02 x particles.
29 Examples 1 mol CaCl 2 = 1 mol Ca 2+ = 6.02 x formula units 6.02 x atoms 1 mol HCl (aq) = 6.02 x molecules 1 mol P 2 O 5 = 1 mol Ca = 6.02 x molecules 6.02 x atoms 1 mol Cl 2 = 6.02 x molecules
30
31 Sample problems 1. How many moles are in 4.50 x 10 5 atoms of manganese? atoms 1 mol atoms = 74.8 moles
32
33 Sample problems 2. How many atoms are found in 3.27 mol of magnesium? 3.27 mol atoms 1 mol = atoms
34
35 Sample problems 3. Chalk is composed primarily of calcium carbonate. How many particles are in 3.4 moles of calcium carbonate? 3.4 mol formula units 1 mol = formula units
36 Moles of Chalk Lab
37 Homework page 10 Show all work and units to receive full credit.
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