THE CHANGING MARKETING ENVIRONMENT

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1 C H A P T E R T H R E E THE CHANGING MARKETING ENVIRONMENT 3-1

2 AFTER READING THIS CHAPTER YOU SHOULD BE ABLE TO: Understand how environmental scanning provides information about social, economic, technological, competitive, and regulatory forces. Explain how social forces such as demographics and culture and economic forces such as macroeconomic conditions and consumer income affect marketing. 3-2

3 AFTER READING THIS CHAPTER YOU SHOULD BE ABLE TO: Describe how technological changes can affect marketing. Understand the forms of competition that exist in a market, key components of competition, and the impact of competition on corporate structures. Explain the major legislation that ensures competition and regulates the elements of the marketing mix. 3-3

4 The Digital Revolution The Digital Revolution: one of the biggest changes in the world of marketing. Changes in technology are transforming the ways we: communicate, buy, sell, learn, and work. 3-4

5 The Net Generation Millions of people under the age of 22 who have grown up with the new technologies, are becoming authorities in their use. As the Internet has become the focus of the digital age, the Net Generation has become the first group to use it consistently for: - entertainment - communication - education - shopping 3-5

6 PP3-1 Environmental forces affecting the organization, as well as its suppliers and customers Suppliers Organization Marketing department Other departments Employees Customers Environmental forces Social Economic Technological Competitive Regulatory Demographic shifts Cultural changes Macroeconimic conditions Consumer income Changing technology Technology s impact on customer value Alternative forms of competition Components of competition Laws protecting competition and consumers Self-regulation Consumerism 3-6

7 3-7 PP3-2a An Environmental Scan of Canada shows the following Social Trends move toward natural and healthful products and lifestyles growing number and importance of older Canadians population concentration in census metropolitan areas greater desire for product simplicity and honesty in advertising greater value placed on education, travel, and leisure

8 PP3-2b An Environmental Scan of the Canadian Economic Trends dramatic growth of electronic commerce Canadian firms adjust to crises in international markets public debt levels, high unemployment, and a heavy tax burden persist 3-8

9 PP3-2c An Environmental Scan of the Canadian Technological Trends increased use of information and communication technology growing focus on the Internet as consumers and businesses go online expanded computer power and growth of smart products growing use of electronic money or e-cash 3-9

10 PP3-2d An Environmental Scan of the Canadian Competitive Trends new flexible employment agreements and growth of telecommuting the emergence of fast, responsive network corporations mergers reduce costs through economies of scale more international competition from emerging countries 3-10

11 PP3-2e An Environmental Scan of the Canadian Regulatory Trends increasing emphasis on free trade and deregulation greater concern for pollution and global warming new legislation related to information collection and privacy 3-11

12 Definition of Demographics Demographics is.... describing the population according to selected characteristics such as their age, sex, ethnicity, income, and occupation. 3-12

13 The Population Trends 1999 Canadian population is 31 million expected to be over 35 million by 2011 number of people ages has declined and the number over 65 has increased mature households (age 50+) represent the fastest growing age segment and control much of the accumulated wealth in this country 3-13

14 PP3-3 The Forecasted Age Distribution of the Canadian Population for the year

15 Major Population Segments Baby Boomers: generation of children born between 1946 and 1964, accounts for the majority of the purchases in most consumer product and service categories. Generation X: 15 % of the Canadian population born between 1965 and Consumers who are not prone to extravagance and likely to prefer lifestyles, products, and services that are very different from baby boomers. Baby Boomlet: Canadians born after 1976; also described as Generation Y or the Net Generation. 3-15

16 Changes in the Canadian Family 30 years ago 33% of all households consisted of married couples with children; this number has declined to 15%. 61% of all husband-wife families are dual-income families 50% of all first marriages end in divorce; majority of these remarry, creating a blended family some do not remarry, and single-parent families represent close to 15% of all Canadian family units 3-16

17 Population Shifts in Canada Since the mid-1970s there has been major shift from from rural to urban areas. 80% of Canadians are urban dwellers Most Canadians live in census metropolitan areas (CMAs), geographic labour market areas of 100,000 persons ore more 62% of all Canadians live in two provinces, Ontario and Quebec 3-17

18 Racial and Ethnic Diversity French and English Canadians are still the majority (70%); most others are of European descent 70% of all immigrants to Canada are classified as visible minorities primarily people from China, Southeast Asia, Africa, and India by 2001 visible minorities will represent close to 18% of the Canadian population 3-18

19 PP3-4 Income Distribution of Canadian Households 3-19

20 Definition of Regional Marketing Regional marketing is.... focuses not only on the shifting of of consumers geographically but also on the differences in in their product preferences based on where they live. Regional marketing involves developing marketing plans to to reflect specific area differences in in taste preferences, perceived needs, or interests. 3-20

21 Definition of Culture Culture is.... incorporates the set of values, ideas, and attitudes of a homogenous group of people that are transmitted from one generation to the next. 3-21

22 The Changing Role of Women Nationally more than 65% of women work outside the home the number of tasks to do is expanding while the time to do them is shrinking 3-22

23 Definition of Value Consciousness Value consciousness is.... is the concern for obtaining the best quality, features and performance of a product or service for a given price. 3-23

24 Concept Check 1. What is environmental scanning? 2. What is a census metropolitan area? 3. What are the marketing implications of blended families? 3-24

25 Definition of the Economy The economy.... pertains to the income, expenditures, and resources that affect the cost of running a business and household. 3-25

26 Consumer Expectations Consumer expectations of an inflationary or recessionary Canadian economy is an important element of environmental scanning. Consumer spending, which accounts for two-thirds of Canadian economic activity, is affected by 3-26 expectations of the future.

27 Consumer Income A consumer s ability to buy is related to income, which consists of: gross income: the total amount of money made in one year by a person, household, or family unit; disposable income: the money a consumer has left after paying taxes, to use for food, shelter and clothing; discretionary income: the money that remains after paying for taxes and necessities. 3-27

28 Technological Forces Technology is a major environmental force and refers to inventions or innovations from applied science or engineering research. Some of the most dramatic technological changes occurring now are: the declining cost and size, and increasing power, of microprocessors; the convergence of television, personal computer, and telephone technologies; the pervasive trend toward connectedness through the World Wide Web; the emergence of biotechnology. 3-28

29 Information Technology One of the most important developments for marketers may be related to information technology via improved methods of collecting, storing, analyzing, and distributing information, with the ultimate goal of better understanding and serving customers. 3-29

30 Continuum of Competition Many Number of sellers One BASIS OF COMPARISON PURE COMPETITION MONOPOLISTIC COMPETITION OLIGOPOLY MONOPOLY Number of sellers Large number of sellers Large number of sellers A few large competitors Single producer Product differences Similar products Unique but substitutable Similar products Unique and unsubstitutable Importance of market mix Distribution is important Pricing is important Promotion is key to achieve perceived product differences Unimportant 3-30

31 Components of Competition Entry (barriers) Power of Buyers and Suppliers Existing Competitors and Substitutes 3-31

32 Competing on the Internet The Internet is changing customers expectations about convenience, price, quality, and service. As a result a new model--the network organization or e-corporation --is evolving as a new form of competition. These firms combine computer, the Web, and software to change everything about they way they operate. 3-32

33 Concept Check 1. What is the difference between a consumer s disposable and discretionary income? 2. In pure competition there are number of sellers. 3. What is a network organization? 3-33

34 Legislation Protecting Competition Major legislation has been passed to encourage competition, which is deemed desirable because it permits the consumer to determine which competitors will succeed or fail. The key legislation designed to protect competition and consumers in Canada is the Competition Act. 3-34

35 PP3-5 Major federal legislation designed to protect competition and consumers Bank Cost Borrowing Act Fish Inspection Act Bankruptcy Act Food and Drug Acts Bills of Exchange Act Hazardous Products Act Board of Trade Act Income Tax Act Broadcasting Act Industrial Design Act Canada Agricultural Products Maple Products Industry Act Standards Act Motor Vehicle Safety Act Canada Cooperative Association Act Official Languages Act Canada Corporations Act Patent Act Canada Dairy Products Act Precious Metals Marketing Act Canadian Human Rights Act Small Loans Act Competition Act Standards Council of Canada Act Consumer Packaging and Labelling Act Textile Labelling Act Copyright Act The Interest Act Criminal Code Timber Marketing Act Department of Consumer and Trade Marks Act Corporate Affairs Act True Labelling Act Electricity Inspection Act and Gas Weighs and Measures Act Inspection Act Winding-up Act 3-35

36 Concept Check 1. The Act is the most important legislation designed to protect competition and consumers in Canada. 2. An alternative to legislation protecting competition and consumers is self-. 3. What is consumerism? 3-36

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