History Controlled Assessment Task. The Atomic Bomb

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1 General Certificate of Secondary Education History Controlled Assessment Task Unit 3: Investigative Study The Atomic Bomb [GHT31] VALID FROM SEPTEMBER 2016 MAY 2017 INSTRUCTIONS TO CANDIDATES Candidates must use all ten sources provided. Use sources A, B, C and D in your response to Question 1. You must analyse and evaluate Sources E, F, G, H, I and J in your response to Question 2. INFORMATION FOR CANDIDATES Controlled Assessment is marked out of 50. Question 1 is worth 15 marks and Question 2 is worth 35 marks. Quality of written communication will be assessed in both questions. You should aim to write approximately 2000 words in total. Candidates work to be submitted May 2017 Controlled Assessment Tasks must comply with the Regulations as detailed in the Subject Specifi cation. NB: Some Controlled Assessment Tasks instructions may constitute more than 1 page. Please check you have all the information you need to complete the task if printing from a computer. 1 [Turn over

2 1 Study Sources A, B, C and D. Controlled Assessment Task: The Atomic Bomb Using Sources A, B, C and D, and your own knowledge, explain why the USA declared war on Japan in December [15] Source A From War in the Pacific by Sean Sheehan, published in The background to the Pacific War lay with rivalry between the USA and Japan. Both countries, in their different ways, believed in their right to influence what happened in the Pacific. They were also alike in that they saw their military power as a means of establishing their influence in a region. Source B From BBC World News, commenting on Japanese atrocities in the Sino-Japanese War. In 1931, Japan invaded Chinese Manchuria and soon ended up in control of large areas of Chinese territory. Between December 1937 and March 1938 one of the worst massacres in modern times took place. Japanese troops captured the Chinese city of Nanjing and killed between 250,000 and 300,000 people, many of them women and children. Until this time, the Japanese army did not have a reputation for brutality but their actions in Nanjing caused an outcry in America and Britain. 2 [Turn over

3 Source C A photograph showing the signing of the Tripartite Pact between Japan, Nazi Germany and Fascist Italy, 27 September Source D From an article in The New York Times, 8 December Sudden and unexpected attacks by the Japanese on Pearl Harbour, Honolulu, and other United States possessions in the Pacific plunged the United States and Japan into active war. The initial attack in Hawaii caused widespread damage and death. It was quickly followed by others. There were unconfirmed reports that the Germans participated in the attacks. The news of these surprise attacks fell like a bombshell on Washington. President Roosevelt immediately told the country and the Army and the Navy to prepare for a declaration of war. 3 [Turn over

4 2 Study Sources E, F, G, H, I and J. Using Sources E, F, G, H, I and J, and your own knowledge, how far would you agree with the view in Source E that Truman used two atomic bombs against Japan in order to demonstrate American power to the Russians? [35] Total [50] Source E From an article in the History Review magazine, published in Truman s reasons for using the atomic bombs were more to do with rivalry with the USSR than with the military needs in the war against Japan. At the Potsdam Conference, he revealed news of the first successful atomic test, remarking, this sure gives us the hammer over those boys. Truman used two atomic bombs against Japan in order to demonstrate American power to the Russians. Source F From the memoirs of Soviet Marshal Georgy Zhukov, published in It is clear that the US government intended to use the atomic bomb for the purpose of achieving its selfish goals from a position of strength in the Cold War. This was confirmed on 6 and 7 August Without any military need whatsoever, the Americans dropped two atomic bombs on the peaceful and densely populated Japanese cities of Hiroshima and Nagasaki. Source G From the Potsdam Declaration, outlining the Allied ultimatum issued to the Japanese, 26 July We, the President of the United States, the President of the Republic of China, and the Prime Minister of Great Britain, representing the hundreds of millions of our countrymen, have agreed that Japan shall be given an opportunity to end this war. We call upon the government of Japan to unconditionally surrender. The alternative is prompt and utter destruction. Source H From a press release by President Truman after the dropping of an atomic bomb on Hiroshima, 6 August We have spent two billion dollars on the greatest scientific gamble in history and won. What has been done is the greatest achievement of science in history. Let there be no mistake: we shall completely destroy Japan s power to make war now or in the future. 4 [Turn over

5 Source I From The War in the Pacific by Peter Chrisp, published in Truman had fallen out with the Soviet leader, Joseph Stalin. Soviet armies occupied much of Eastern and Central Europe and the two leaders disagreed about the future governments of those occupied countries. Truman hoped to intimidate Stalin with the power of his terrible new bombs, and his willingness to use them. Stalin had already promised to join the USA in its war with Japan which worried Truman. He wanted to finish the war quickly, before the Soviets joined in the fighting. Source J From an article in The Guardian, 15 August Japan has surrendered unconditionally. Our thanks go out to all our splendid allies, above all the United States, without whose immense efforts this war in the Pacific would have many years to run. At this time we think of the prisoners in Japanese hands and we are glad that their sufferings will soon be at an end. Many countries will now be cleared of the Japanese invader. 5 [Turn over

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