History (Specification B)

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1 General Certificate of Secondary Education June 2014 History (Specification B) Unit 1: International Relations: Conflict and Peace in the 20th Century Friday 16 May am to am For this paper you must have: an AQA 12-page answer booklet. Time allowed 1 hour 45 minutes Instructions Use black ink or black ball-point pen. Write the information required on the front of your answer booklet. The Examining Body for this paper is AQA. The paper reference is Choose three topics. Answer all questions on the three topics you have chosen. Do all rough work in your answer booklet. Cross through any work you do not want to be marked. Information The topics are on the following pages: Topic 1 The Origins of the First World War page 2 Topic 2 Peacemaking, and the League of Nations page 3 Topic 3 Hitler s foreign policy and the origins of the Second World War page 4 Topic 4 The Origins of the Cold War, page 5 Topic 5 Crises of the Cold War, page 6 Topic 6 Failure of Détente and the collapse of communism, page 7 The marks for questions are shown in brackets. The maximum mark for this paper is 60. The sources in this question paper have been simplified to make them easier to understand. You are reminded of the need for good English and clear presentation in your answers. All questions should be answered in continuous prose. Quality of Written Communication will be assessed in all answers. Advice You are advised to spend about 35 minutes on each topic. IB/M/Jun14/E

2 2 Choose three topics. Answer all questions on the three topics you have chosen. Topic 1: The Origins of the First World War Answer questions and In August 1914 Germany declared war on Russia. Describe the Schlieffen Plan which Germany used at the start of the First World War. 0 2 Study Source A. Source A A British cartoon about the Entente Cordiale published in Let Germany be careful now Source A gives the impression that the Entente Cordiale was directed against Germany. Do you agree that this was the main reason why Britain and France made the Entente Cordiale? 0 3 Which of the following reasons was more responsible for the outbreak of the First World War in 1914: Kaiser Wilhelm s foreign policy the assassination of Franz Ferdinand? You must refer to both reasons when explaining your answer.

3 Topic 2: Peacemaking, and the League of Nations Answer questions and Clemenceau represented France at the Paris Peace Conference which led to the Treaty of Versailles. Describe his main aims at this conference. 0 5 Study Source B. Source B Part of a speech about the Paris Peace Conference made during the 1918 General Election by the British politician Sir Eric Geddes. Germany is going to pay. We will get everything you can squeeze out of a lemon and a bit more. They are going to be squeezed until you can hear the pips squeak. The Germans should hand over everything they have. Source B suggests that Britain intended to punish Germany harshly at the Paris Peace Conference. Do you agree that this was Britain s main aim? 0 6 Which of the following reasons was more responsible for the failure of the League of Nations: the organisation of the League the League s response to the Manchurian Crisis? You must refer to both reasons when explaining your answer. Turn over

4 Topic 3: Hitler s foreign policy and the origins of the Second World War Answer questions and Hitler became Chancellor of Germany in Describe what Hitler did in his foreign policy before Germany remilitarised the Rhineland in Study Source C. Source C A photograph published in a German newspaper on 15 March The Führer s welcome into Vienna Source C suggests that the Anschluss of 1938 was supported by the Austrian people. Do you agree that this was the main reason for the success of the Anschluss? 0 9 Which of the following was more important as a reason for the Second World War: Appeasement Hitler s occupation of Czechoslovakia, March 1939? You must refer to both reasons when explaining your answer.

5 5 Topic 4: The Origins of the Cold War, Answer questions and In 1945 the USA dropped the first atom bomb on Hiroshima in Japan. Describe the effects of the dropping of this bomb. 1 1 Study Source D. Source D From Stalin s reply to Churchill s Iron Curtain Speech, The German invasion of the USSR cost the lives of seven million Soviet people many times more than Britain and the USA combined. This invasion came through Poland, Czechoslovakia and Hungary. Is it so surprising that for her protection the Soviet Union wants to see friendly governments in these countries? Source D suggests that Soviet expansion into Eastern Europe was to protect their own borders. Do you agree that this was the main reason for Soviet expansion in Eastern Europe, ? 1 2 Which was the more important cause of the development of the Cold War after 1945: the Berlin Blockade and Airlift, the formation of NATO (1949) and the Warsaw Pact (1955)? You must refer to both causes when explaining your answer. Turn over

6 6 Topic 5: Crises of the Cold War, Answer questions and During the Cold War the Americans used U2 aircraft to spy on the Soviet Union. Describe what happened when the U2 aircraft, piloted by Gary Powers, was shot down in Study Source E. Source E A British cartoon published on 28 October I was only looking I m Charlie. Source E suggests that the building of the Berlin Wall caused a lot of tension between the USSR and the USA. Do you agree that the building of the Berlin Wall was a danger to peace between the superpowers in 1961? 1 5 Which leader did more to prevent the Cuban Missile Crisis from developing into nuclear war: President Kennedy of the USA General Secretary Khrushchev of the Soviet Union? You must refer to both leaders when explaining your answer.

7 Topic 6: Failure of Détente and the collapse of communism, Answer questions and In January 1981 Ronald Reagan became President of the USA. Describe how he developed America s weapons in the years 1981 to Study Source F. Source F From a speech by President Brezhnev at a meeting of leading Soviet politicians in June We were asked by our neighbour Afghanistan to help them against bandits who were supported by foreigners. The bandits were trying to prevent the people living free lives. Source F suggests that the USSR invaded Afghanistan to make sure that the people remained free. Do you agree that this was the main reason for the Soviet invasion? 1 8 Which was the more important reason for the collapse of Communism in Eastern Europe: the success of Solidarity in Poland the collapse of East Germany and the end of the Berlin Wall? You must refer to both reasons when explaining your answer. END OF QUESTIONS Turn over

8 8 There are no questions printed on this page Acknowledgement of copyright-holders and publishers Permission to reproduce all copyright material has been applied for. In some cases, efforts to contact copyright-holders have been unsuccessful and AQA will be happy to rectify any omissions of acknowledgements in future papers if notified. Source C Bundesarchiv, Bild Source E Daily Mail/British Cartoon Archive Copyright 2014 AQA and its licensors. All rights reserved.

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